Human Development Across
the Life Span
(plus a little comparative)
Outline
• Normal Development
– Chronological
– Piagetian Stages
– Attachment
– Approaches to studying development
• Abnorm...
Prenatal Development
• 3 phases
– germinal stage
– embryonic stage
– fetal stage
• Human development vastly differs from
o...
Changes through Infancy and
Early Childhood
Sensory Development
• Hearing: Can recognize voices within a day
or two of birth
• Practically from birth, infants can:
– ...
“Looking Tasks”
• Babies generally:
– Prefer some stimuli over others
– Notice new or different things
– Can learn to repe...
Piaget: Influential but too
simplistic?
Stage 1: Sensorimotor
Stage 2: Preoperational
Theory of Mind
Stage 3: Concrete Operational
Morality
Capuchin Monkeys
Infant Morality
• Attachments: Strong emotional ties formed to one or
more intimate companions
• How does attachment start?
– Contact comf...
• Separation anxiety
– Ainsworth (1979)
– The strange situation and patterns of
attachment
• Secure
• Anxious-ambivalent
•...
Traditional Approach vs. Life-
Span Approach
• The traditional approach
emphasizes extensive change from
birth to adolesce...
The Life-Events Approach
Contemporary Life-Events Approach: how
life events influence the individual’s
development depends...
“We are an aging population
and because of this, the study of
adulthood is important. We need
to ensure that older adults ...
Aging Population 2000 – 2025 - 2050
Older Adults
The Normal Aging Brain
• Gray matter densities decrease
• White matter atrophy
– Reduced myelination, slows neural
speed
•...
Normal Cognitive Aging
Not affected:
• Procedural memory
• General knowledge
• Language
• Expertise & Skills
Enhanced:
• V...
Balance and Postural Sway
• The incidence of falls increases with age
– Balance becomes more of a conscience effort
• Loss...
Is a Movement Decline
Inevitable with Age?
• Paul Spangler knew that
pacing is often an effective
way to compensate for
sp...
Changes in
perceptual processing speed
• Reaction time tasks
– press button quickly as possible every time light
flashes
•...
Creativity: Some creative
accomplishments of older adults
• George Burns: Academy Award winner, age 80
• Ghandi: Indian in...
Is Decline
Inevitable with Age?
• Decline does not have to begin as early
or as abruptly as it does for many
• The decline...
Abnormal
Development
Prenatal Development
• Teratogens
– Environmental toxins
• Alcohol
– Fetal alcohol syndrome
• Deformities; delayed motor d...
Childhood and Adolescence
• People often think of childhood as a
carefree and happy time – yet it can also
be frightening ...
Childhood and Adolescence
• ≥ 1/5 of all children and adolescents in North
America experience a diagnosable
psychological ...
The Aging Brain
• Neurons do die with age
– However, they can continue to increase in
complexity
• Dementia: Loss in menta...
Alzheimer’s Disease
• Risk Factors
– Age
– Genes (ApoE4 allele)
– Gender
– Cardiovascular health
– Education
– Social inte...
Alzheimer’s Disease
Long-Term Disorders
That Begin in Childhood
• Pervasive developmental disorders
• Impaired social interactions/inappropria...
Autism Spectrum Disorders
• A cluster of disorders that emerge early in
childhood
• Characterized by problems with social
...
What Are the Features of
Autism?
• Lack of responsiveness
• Language and communication problems
• Repetitive and rigid beh...
Genetic syndromes associated
with Mental Retardation
Down Syndrome
• The older the mother, the higher the prevalence
Fragile X
Syndrome
PoP wk 3
of 38

PoP wk 3

PoP wk 3
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - PoP wk 3

  • 1. Human Development Across the Life Span (plus a little comparative)
  • 2. Outline • Normal Development – Chronological – Piagetian Stages – Attachment – Approaches to studying development • Abnormal Development – Chronological – Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Mental Retardation
  • 3. Prenatal Development • 3 phases – germinal stage – embryonic stage – fetal stage • Human development vastly differs from other animals
  • 4. Changes through Infancy and Early Childhood
  • 5. Sensory Development • Hearing: Can recognize voices within a day or two of birth • Practically from birth, infants can: – Distinguish tastes – Recognize mother’s smell – Experience pain, as well as soothing touch • Vision – Can perceive strong contrast – Blurry
  • 6. “Looking Tasks” • Babies generally: – Prefer some stimuli over others – Notice new or different things – Can learn to repeat rewarding activities
  • 7. Piaget: Influential but too simplistic?
  • 8. Stage 1: Sensorimotor
  • 9. Stage 2: Preoperational
  • 10. Theory of Mind
  • 11. Stage 3: Concrete Operational
  • 12. Morality Capuchin Monkeys Infant Morality
  • 13. • Attachments: Strong emotional ties formed to one or more intimate companions • How does attachment start? – Contact comfort: warm physical contact – Harlow’s research: newborn rhesus monkeys become attached to soft objects Early Emotional Development: Attachment
  • 14. • Separation anxiety – Ainsworth (1979) – The strange situation and patterns of attachment • Secure • Anxious-ambivalent • Avoidant Early Emotional Development: Attachment
  • 15. Traditional Approach vs. Life- Span Approach • The traditional approach emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in late old age. • The life-span approach emphasizes developmental change during adulthood as well as childhood.
  • 16. The Life-Events Approach Contemporary Life-Events Approach: how life events influence the individual’s development depends on: • The life event itself • Mediating factors • The individual’s adaptation to the life event • Life-stage context • Sociohistorical context
  • 17. “We are an aging population and because of this, the study of adulthood is important. We need to ensure that older adults have every possible chance of maintaining a high quality of life.”
  • 18. Aging Population 2000 – 2025 - 2050 Older Adults
  • 19. The Normal Aging Brain • Gray matter densities decrease • White matter atrophy – Reduced myelination, slows neural speed • Frontal lobes are hit hardest • Incredible variability – Cardiovascular health is a major factor
  • 20. Normal Cognitive Aging Not affected: • Procedural memory • General knowledge • Language • Expertise & Skills Enhanced: • Vocabulary • Wisdom • Emotional regulation (e.g. lower depression)
  • 21. Balance and Postural Sway • The incidence of falls increases with age – Balance becomes more of a conscience effort • Loss of balance control may be due to: – Decreasing ability of the central nervous system to control movement – Reduction of the number of cells in the cerebellum and brain stem – Decreased capacity in using proprioceptive information
  • 22. Is a Movement Decline Inevitable with Age? • Paul Spangler knew that pacing is often an effective way to compensate for speed • Until his death at age 95 yr, he was still running marathons
  • 23. Changes in perceptual processing speed • Reaction time tasks – press button quickly as possible every time light flashes • Perceptual speed accounts for >70% of age-related variance in performance on memory tasks
  • 24. Creativity: Some creative accomplishments of older adults • George Burns: Academy Award winner, age 80 • Ghandi: Indian independence movement, age 72 • Nelson Mandela: Nobel Peace Prize at age 75 • Grandma Moses: painting at age 100 • GB Shaw: writing plays at age 93 • Strom Thurmond: US Senator, age 100 • Jesse Orosco: MLB pitcher, age 45
  • 25. Is Decline Inevitable with Age? • Decline does not have to begin as early or as abruptly as it does for many • The decline can be avoided with compensatory strategies, exercise, and practice
  • 26. Abnormal Development
  • 27. Prenatal Development • Teratogens – Environmental toxins • Alcohol – Fetal alcohol syndrome • Deformities; delayed motor development; lowered intelligence • Nicotine – Premature birth/low birth-weight/fetal death; disturbed fine motor skills • Marijuana – Abstract thinking; perseveration
  • 28. Childhood and Adolescence • People often think of childhood as a carefree and happy time – yet it can also be frightening and upsetting – Children of all cultures typically experience at least some emotional and behavioral problems as they encounter new people and situations
  • 29. Childhood and Adolescence • ≥ 1/5 of all children and adolescents in North America experience a diagnosable psychological disorder • Major Depressive Disorder – ~2% of children and 9% of adolescents – 15 % of adolescents experience at least one depressive episode • There also are disorders that begin in birth or childhood and persist in stable forms into adult life.
  • 30. The Aging Brain • Neurons do die with age – However, they can continue to increase in complexity • Dementia: Loss in mental functioning caused by physical changes in the brain – Fewer than 1% of those over 65 y.o. have dementia – About 20% over 80 y.o. have dementia
  • 31. Alzheimer’s Disease • Risk Factors – Age – Genes (ApoE4 allele) – Gender – Cardiovascular health – Education – Social interaction – Head injury
  • 32. Alzheimer’s Disease
  • 33. Long-Term Disorders That Begin in Childhood • Pervasive developmental disorders • Impaired social interactions/inappropriate responses • Mental retardation • Impaired cognitive/emotional functioning
  • 34. Autism Spectrum Disorders • A cluster of disorders that emerge early in childhood • Characterized by problems with social connectedness & communication • A tendency toward ritualistic behavior
  • 35. What Are the Features of Autism? • Lack of responsiveness • Language and communication problems • Repetitive and rigid behavior • Strong attachment to particular objects – plastic lids, rubber bands, buttons, water • Unusual motor movements of people
  • 36. Genetic syndromes associated with Mental Retardation Down Syndrome • The older the mother, the higher the prevalence
  • 37. Fragile X Syndrome