Learning
Types of Learning
Classical
conditioning:
learning to link two
stimuli in a way that
helps us anticipate
an event to which...
We come to associate repeated
exposure to two stimuli
occurring in sequence.
Our natural response to one
stimulus now can ...
 Associate “response” (behavior) with consequences.
Associative Learning:
Operant Conditioning
Behaviorism
 John B. Watson (1878-1958)
 classical conditioning
 B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
 operant conditioning.
 App...
Cognitive Learning
Cognitive learning occurs:
1.by observing events and the behavior of others.
2.by using language to acq...
Ivan Pavlov’s Discovery
Salivating in response to:
 just seeing the food.
 seeing the dish.
 seeing the person who
brou...
Before Conditioning
No response
Neutral
stimulus
(NS)
Neutral stimulus:
a stimulus which does not trigger a response
Unconditioned
response (UR):
dog salivatesUnconditioned
stimulus (US):
yummy dog food
Before Conditioning
Unconditioned st...
Unconditioned
response (UR):
dog salivates
Neutral
stimulus
(NS)
Unconditioned
stimulus (US)
During Conditioning
The bell/...
Conditioned
response:
dog salivates
After Conditioning
Conditioned
(formerly
neutral)
stimulus
The dog begins to salivate ...
 BELL  SALIVATE?
 This is higher-order
conditioning: turning a NS
into a CS by associating it
with another CS.
Higher-O...
13
Acquisition
What gets “acquired”?
How can we tell that acquisition
has occurred?
Timing
For the association to be acqui...
Acquisition and Extinction
 Extinction refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response.
Spontaneous Recovery [Return of the CR]
•After extinction, presenting the tone alone
might lead to a spontaneous recovery
Generalization vs. Discrimination
Generalization refers to the tendency to have
conditioned responses triggered by related...
Before
Conditioning
NS: rat
No fear
UCS: steel bar hit
with hammer
Natural reflex:
fear
Little Albert Experiment
Operant Conditioning
• A type of learning in which behavior is
strengthened if followed by reinforcement
or diminished if ...
Edward Thorndike
• Law of Effect:
rewarded behavior is
likely to recur.
B.F. Skinner: The Operant
Chamber
Recording
device
Bar or lever
that an animal
presses,
randomly at
first, later for
rewar...
Classical conditioning: Operant conditioning:
Operant and Classical Conditioning are
Different Forms of Associative Learni...
Reinforcer
• Any event that STRENGTHENS the
behavior it follows.
Two Types of Reinforcement:
Positive and Negative
Positive Reinforcement
• Strengthens a response by presenting a
stimulus after a response.
Negative Reinforcement
• Strengthens a response by reducing or
removing an aversive stimulus.
Reinforcement
 Reinforcement refers to
any feedback from the
environment that makes a
behavior more likely to
recur.
 Po...
Primary Reinforcer
• An innately reinforcing stimulus
Conditioned (Secondary) Reinforcer
• A stimulus that gains its reinforcing
power through its association with a
primary re...
A cycle of mutual
reinforcement
28
• Child  temper tantrum
• positively reinforced parents
occasionally respond by giving...
How often should we
reinforce?
 Do we need to
give a reward
every single
time? Or is that
even best?
Continuous Reinforcement
• Giving a reward after the target every
single time.
• Quick Acquisition
• Quick Extinction
Partial Reinforcement
• Reinforcing a
response only part of
the time.
• The acquisition
process is slower.
• Greater resis...
Fixed-ratio Schedules
• A schedule that reinforces a response only
after a specified number of responses.
Example: I give ...
Variable-ratio Schedule
• A schedule of
reinforcement that
reinforces a
response after an
unpredictable
number of
response...
Fixed-interval Schedule
• A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces
a response only after a specified time has
elapsed.
...
Variable-interval Schedule
• A schedule of
reinforcement that
reinforces a response
at unpredictable time
intervals.
Pop Q...
Premack Principle
• The Premack Principle, often called
"grandma's rule," states that a high-
frequency activity can be us...
HOW COMPLEX BEHAVIORS
ARE LEARNED
• Shaping
– A procedure in Operant Conditioning in which
reinforcers guide behavior clos...
Criticisms of Skinner’s
behaviorism
• Problem of instinctive drift
How it works in life: Much of the everyday
behavior of adults is a result of
discrimination learning.
Punishment
• An event that
DECREASES
the behavior
that it follows.
Does punishment work?
Operant Effect: Punishment
+ Positive
Punishment
You ADD something
unpleasant/aversive
(ex: spank the child)
- Negative
Pu...
 Punished behaviors may restart
when the punishment is over;
learning is not lasting.
 Punishing focuses on what NOT
to ...
Making Punishment More
Effective
• Tell appropriate behavior, then reinforce it
• Minimize situations that tempt bad behav...
When is punishment
effective?
 Punishment works best in natural
settings.
 Artificially creating punishing
consequences ...
Cognitive-Social Learning
• Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning
(sudden understanding of a problem that implies
...
Observational Learning
Observational (or social) learning proposed two
primary modes of learning:
1. Modeling
2. Imitation...
Observational Learning
Observational (or social) learning proposed two
primary modes of learning:
1. Modeling
2. Imitation...
Observational Learning
In a set of well-known experiments, called the
"Bobo doll" studies, Bandura showed that
children (a...
Observational Learning
• Gender Differences
Observational Learning
Part of the Cognitive-Social Learning Theory
1. Children want to be like the model
2. Children beli...
Tolman & Cognitive Learning
• Maze Learning
–Group 1: No reward
–Group 2: Reinforced
from the start
–Group 3: Rewarded
sta...
Always Reinforced
Never Reinforced
Latent learning
evident once
reinforcement
begins on day 11
Cognitive Learning
Latent Learning
Hidden learning that exists
without behavioral signs
Cognitive Maps
Mental Image of a t...
Mirroring & Mirror Neurons
Mirroring in the Brain
Mirror neurons
From Mirroring to Imitation
 Humans are prone to spontaneous imitation of both
behaviors and emotions (“emotional contagi...
Cognitive-Social Learning
• emphasizes thinking and social learning
in behavior.
• People have attitudes, beliefs,
expecta...
PoP wk 6
of 58

PoP wk 6

PoP wk 6
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - PoP wk 6

  • 1. Learning
  • 2. Types of Learning Classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction Operant conditioning: changing behavior choices in response to consequences Cognitive learning: acquiring new behaviors and information through observation and information, rather than by direct experience
  • 3. We come to associate repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence. Our natural response to one stimulus now can be triggered by the new, predictive stimulus. Associative Learning: Classical Conditioning Here, our response to thunder becomes associated with lightning. Stimulus 1: See lightning Stimulus 2: Hear thunder After Repetition Stimulus: See lightning Response: Cover ears to avoid sound
  • 4.  Associate “response” (behavior) with consequences. Associative Learning: Operant Conditioning
  • 5. Behaviorism  John B. Watson (1878-1958)  classical conditioning  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  operant conditioning.  Applications in shaping human behavior:
  • 6. Cognitive Learning Cognitive learning occurs: 1.by observing events and the behavior of others. 2.by using language to acquire information about events experienced by others.
  • 7. Ivan Pavlov’s Discovery Salivating in response to:  just seeing the food.  seeing the dish.  seeing the person who brought the food.  just hearing that person’s footsteps.
  • 8. Before Conditioning No response Neutral stimulus (NS) Neutral stimulus: a stimulus which does not trigger a response
  • 9. Unconditioned response (UR): dog salivatesUnconditioned stimulus (US): yummy dog food Before Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus and response: a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning
  • 10. Unconditioned response (UR): dog salivates Neutral stimulus (NS) Unconditioned stimulus (US) During Conditioning The bell/tone (N.S.) is repeatedly presented with the food (U.S.).
  • 11. Conditioned response: dog salivates After Conditioning Conditioned (formerly neutral) stimulus The dog begins to salivate upon hearing the tone. The UR and the CR are the same response, triggered by different events. The NS and the CS are the same stimulus.
  • 12.  BELL  SALIVATE?  This is higher-order conditioning: turning a NS into a CS by associating it with another CS. Higher-Order Conditioning
  • 13. 13 Acquisition What gets “acquired”? How can we tell that acquisition has occurred? Timing For the association to be acquired, the neutral stimulus (NS) needs to repeatedly appear right before the unconditioned stimulus (US). Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning/conditioning.
  • 14. Acquisition and Extinction  Extinction refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response.
  • 15. Spontaneous Recovery [Return of the CR] •After extinction, presenting the tone alone might lead to a spontaneous recovery
  • 16. Generalization vs. Discrimination Generalization refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli. Discrimination refers to the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimuli, preventing generalization. MORE stuff makes you drool. LESS stuff makes you drool.
  • 17. Before Conditioning NS: rat No fear UCS: steel bar hit with hammer Natural reflex: fear Little Albert Experiment
  • 18. Operant Conditioning • A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment.
  • 19. Edward Thorndike • Law of Effect: rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
  • 20. B.F. Skinner: The Operant Chamber Recording device Bar or lever that an animal presses, randomly at first, later for reward Food/water dispenser to provide the reward
  • 21. Classical conditioning: Operant conditioning: Operant and Classical Conditioning are Different Forms of Associative Learning  involves respondent behavior, reflexive, automatic reactions such as fear or craving  involves operant behavior, chosen behaviors which “operate” on the environment There is a contrast in the process of conditioning. The experimental (neutral) stimulus repeatedly precedes the respondent behavior, and eventually triggers that behavior. The experimental (consequence) stimulus repeatedly follows the operant behavior, and eventually punishes or reinforces that behavior.
  • 22. Reinforcer • Any event that STRENGTHENS the behavior it follows. Two Types of Reinforcement: Positive and Negative
  • 23. Positive Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response.
  • 24. Negative Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus.
  • 25. Reinforcement  Reinforcement refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to recur.  Positive reinforcement: adding something desirable  Negative reinforcement: ending something unpleasant For the meerkat, this warm light is desirable. This meerkat has just completed a task out in the cold
  • 26. Primary Reinforcer • An innately reinforcing stimulus
  • 27. Conditioned (Secondary) Reinforcer • A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.
  • 28. A cycle of mutual reinforcement 28 • Child  temper tantrum • positively reinforced parents occasionally respond by giving in to a child’s demands. • Parents who occasionally give in to tantrums • negatively reinforced when the child responds by ending the tantrum.
  • 29. How often should we reinforce?  Do we need to give a reward every single time? Or is that even best?
  • 30. Continuous Reinforcement • Giving a reward after the target every single time. • Quick Acquisition • Quick Extinction
  • 31. Partial Reinforcement • Reinforcing a response only part of the time. • The acquisition process is slower. • Greater resistance to extinction.
  • 32. Fixed-ratio Schedules • A schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Example: I give Carl a banana every FIVE times he says “Whaaat?”
  • 33. Variable-ratio Schedule • A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. Example: slot machines and sales bonuses
  • 34. Fixed-interval Schedule • A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. Example: I give Kevin chocolate TEN MINUTES after every time he provides a ride.
  • 35. Variable-interval Schedule • A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. Pop Quizzes
  • 36. Premack Principle • The Premack Principle, often called "grandma's rule," states that a high- frequency activity can be used to reinforce low-frequency behavior. • Access to the preferred activity is contingent on completing the low-frequency, non- preferred behavior. •Reinforcement hierarchy
  • 37. HOW COMPLEX BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED • Shaping – A procedure in Operant Conditioning in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer towards a goal. • Successive Approximations – An intermediate behavior • Prerequisite for terminal behavior or • Higher order member of the same response topography
  • 38. Criticisms of Skinner’s behaviorism • Problem of instinctive drift
  • 39. How it works in life: Much of the everyday behavior of adults is a result of discrimination learning.
  • 40. Punishment • An event that DECREASES the behavior that it follows. Does punishment work?
  • 41. Operant Effect: Punishment + Positive Punishment You ADD something unpleasant/aversive (ex: spank the child) - Negative Punishment You TAKE AWAY something pleasant/ desired (ex: no TV time, no attention)
  • 42.  Punished behaviors may restart when the punishment is over; learning is not lasting.  Punishing focuses on what NOT to do, which does not guide people to a desired behavior.  Instead of behaviors, the child might learn an attitude of fear or hatred. This can generalize. Applying operant conditioning to parenting Problems with Punishment
  • 43. Making Punishment More Effective • Tell appropriate behavior, then reinforce it • Minimize situations that tempt bad behavior • Use punisher that’s aversive • Punishment must occur right after behavior • Punishment must occur every time behavior occurs • Remain calm while punishing
  • 44. When is punishment effective?  Punishment works best in natural settings.  Artificially creating punishing consequences for other’s choices; works best when consequences happen as they do in nature.
  • 45. Cognitive-Social Learning • Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPz6uvIbWZE
  • 46. Observational Learning Observational (or social) learning proposed two primary modes of learning: 1. Modeling 2. Imitation Differs from Behaviorism: 1. Acknowledges learning can occur without obvious change in behavior 2. Acknowledges role of cognition in learning process
  • 47. Observational Learning Observational (or social) learning proposed two primary modes of learning: 1. Modeling 2. Imitation Differs from Behaviorism: 1. Acknowledges learning can occur without obvious change in behavior 2. Acknowledges role of cognition in learning process
  • 48. Observational Learning In a set of well-known experiments, called the "Bobo doll" studies, Bandura showed that children (ages 3 to 6) would change their behavior by simply watching others. • One group of children saw an adult praised for aggressive behavior He observed three different groups of children:
  • 49. Observational Learning • Gender Differences
  • 50. Observational Learning Part of the Cognitive-Social Learning Theory 1. Children want to be like the model 2. Children believe they are like the model 3. Children experience emotions like those the model is feeling. 4. Children act like the model
  • 51. Tolman & Cognitive Learning • Maze Learning –Group 1: No reward –Group 2: Reinforced from the start –Group 3: Rewarded starting on Day 11
  • 52. Always Reinforced Never Reinforced Latent learning evident once reinforcement begins on day 11
  • 53. Cognitive Learning Latent Learning Hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs Cognitive Maps Mental Image of a three- dimensional space that an organism has navigated *PLACE CELLS
  • 54. Mirroring & Mirror Neurons
  • 55. Mirroring in the Brain Mirror neurons
  • 56. From Mirroring to Imitation  Humans are prone to spontaneous imitation of both behaviors and emotions (“emotional contagion”).  This includes even overimitating, that is, copying adult behaviors that have no function and no reward.  Children with autism are less likely to cognitively “mirror,” and less likely to follow someone else’s gaze as a neurotypical toddler (left) is doing below.
  • 57. Cognitive-Social Learning • emphasizes thinking and social learning in behavior. • People have attitudes, beliefs, expectations, motivations that affect learning. • Observational Learning