International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES)
Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014
ISSN: 2349-...
International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES)
Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014
ISSN: 2349-...
International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES)
Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014
ISSN: 2349-...
International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES)
Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014
ISSN: 2349-...
International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES)
Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014
ISSN: 2349-...
International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES)
Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014
ISSN: 2349-...
of 6

pollutant levels of the lake water of Tadie

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - pollutant levels of the lake water of Tadie

  • 1. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES) Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014 ISSN: 2349-8862 www.ijsres.com Page 24 Pollutant Levels Of The Lake Water In Lake “TADIE” Peter Abum Sarkodie Antoinette Adzi Department of Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong Ashanti, Ghana Collins Kuffour Department of Environmental Health and Sanitation Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong Ashanti, Ghana Abstract: Water is important to life as human life as well as animals and plants life on the planet depend on water. The growth of population of any country tends to increase water demand and everything needed by man for survival. Satisfying these anthropogenic needs in turn pollute some of the existing natural resources of which water is of no exception. The most common sources of pollution of water are from substances used in forestry, waste and agriculture such as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides etc, and aerosols from pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Water resources assessment becomes an important issue of research interest in order to help the inhabitants of an area to know the effect of their activities on water quality, health and the environment. The study was therefore conducted in a lake locally called “Tadie” in Mampong Ashanti, Ghana to assess the pollutant levels of the water in the lake. Laboratory work was the main instrument used for the data collection. The results revealed that the mean concentration levels of these physicochemical parameters; Cu, As, NO3 - , SO4 2- , TDS and temperature were within the “no effect” range proposed by EPA and WHO whilst the levels of pH, PO4 3- , total Fe and Pb were above the recommended levels by both EPA and WHO. Also, apart from Salmonella typhi, the biological analysis of total coliform, faecal coliform and E. coli counts were very high and above the WHO/EPA standards. There should therefore be all level education among the residents on how to balance their anthropogenic needs with the need to protect the lake. Farmers along the banks of the lake should also be entreated to practice the EPA zero fertilizer form of farming along the bank of the lake to drastically reduce the run off of acid forming compounds into the lake. Keywords; Lake (Tadie), anthropogenic needs, zero fertilizer farming, pollutants and aerosols I. INTRODUCTION Water is important to life as human life as well as animals and plants life on the planet depend on water (Domenico, 1972). The role of water in the lives of organisms cannot be downplayed and it is one of the essentials that support all forms of plant and animal life (Vanloon and Duffy, 2005). Water on the earth can be said to be enormous in quantity when it is considered that more than two-thirds of the earth surface is covered by water (Abdulaziz, 2003), and it is generally obtained from two primary natural sources; thus surface water such as fresh water, lakes, rivers, streams etc, and ground water such as borehole water and well water (McMurry and Fary, 2004 and Mendie, 2005 in Tiimub and Adu-Gyamfi, 2012). The population growth of any country increases water demand (Adeniji and John, 1989), and everything needed by man for survival. Satisfying these anthropogenic needs tend to pollute some of the existing natural resources of which water is of no exception. According to Tiimub et al, (2012) the most common source of pollution of water is from substances used in forestry, waste and agriculture such as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides etc, and aerosols from pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The constituents of these products are highly toxic, even in minute amounts (Fetter, 1994). Because of farming activities, nitrogen-based fertilizers are the most commonly identifiable pollutant in water in rural areas (Ashbolt and Veal, 1994). Although some chemicals like nitrate are relatively non-toxic, it can cause certain conditions such as oxygen deficiency which reduces hemoglobin in the blood cells. This can lead to suffocation (Offodile, 2002). Water resources assessment becomes an important issue of research interest in order to help the inhabitants of an area to know the effect of their activities on water quality, health and the environment (Cairncross and Cliff, 1987, Musa et al., 1999). In order to determine the contaminant levels of water, the water chemistry and physics must be known. According to Babaji and Ndubusi, (1988) major chemical parameters including Total Dissolves Solids (TDS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+ ), Nitrate (NO3 - ), Nitrite (NO2 - ) and Chloride (CI- ) play significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. The study was therefore conducted in a lake “Tadie” in Mampong Ashanti, Ghana to assess the pollutant levels of the water in the lake. II. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted at Mampong, the capital of Mampong municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Laboratory work was the main instrument used for the data
  • 2. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES) Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014 ISSN: 2349-8862 www.ijsres.com Page 25 collection. Physical observation of site and community-based response survey was also employed to support the results from the laboratory work. A. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AROUND THE LAKE (TADIE) The lake is apparently between a two simple low lying areas (valley) within the Mampong town. It is surrounded by whole activities ranging from agro-economic to social activities. Most vegetable farmers grow vegetable crops like cabbage, carrot, pepper etc at the upper bank of the lake. A Community centre and vehicle washing bay are situated at the southern part of the lower bank. The municipal market is also sited at the south-eastern part to the lake. Finally, larger portion of the upper bank serve as residential area for inhabitants. B. SAMPLE COLLECTION The water samples were collected in the morning in 750ml plastic bottles at five different places in the lake. With the hands covered with sterilized rubber gloves, the bottles were lowered to fetch the water samples. They were sealed and labeled immediately as point (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5). Two samples (P1 and P2) were fetched at the lower lake about 20- 25m apart, other two were fetched from up lake (P4 and P5) and a sample fetched from the middle lake (P3). The samples were transferred into an ice chest to sustain the temperature of the water and bacteria growth and were transported to the laboratory for analysis. The samples were analyzed for some physicochemical parameters like pH, temperature, Biological Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolve Solids, Nitrates, Phosphates, Sulphates, Iron, Arsenic, Copper and Lead, Others included Total and Fecal coliforms, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. C. QUANTITATIVE LABORATORY ANALYSIS  Total and Faecal Coliforms The Most Probable Number (MPN) method was used to determine total and faecal coliforms in the samples. Serial dilutions of 10-1 to 10-4 were prepared by packing 1 ml of the sample into 9 ml sterile distilled water. One millilitre aliquots from each of the dilutions were inoculated into 5 ml of MacConkey Broth incubated at 35o C for total coliforms and 44o C faecal coliforms for 18-24 hours. Tubes showing colour change from purple to yellow and after 24 hours were identified as positive for both total and faecal coliforms. Counts per 100 ml were calculated from Most Probable Number (MPN) tables.  Escherichia coli (Thermotolerant coliforms) From each of the positive tubes identified, a drop was transferred into a 5 ml test tube of trypton water and incubated at 44o C for 24 hours. A drop of Kovacs’ reagents was then added to the tube of trypton water. All tubes showing a red ring colour development after gentle agitation denoted the presence of indole and record as presumptive for Thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli). Counts per 100 ml were calculated from Most Probable Number (MPN) tables.  Salmonella typhi Prepared 10 ml of manufactured formula of Buffered peptone water (BPW) was in a universal bottle and serial dilution of samples was added to it. It was incubated at 37o C for 24 hours. Then 0.1 ml of the sample from the BPW was placed in a 10 ml of selenite broth in universal bottle and incubated at 44o C for 48 hours. Swaps from the bottle onto SS agar and incubated at 37o C for 48 hours. Black colonies on the SS agar indicated the presence of Salmonella.  Temperature, pH and Total Dissolved Solids The temperature, pH and total dissolved solids of the water were determined by multi parameter probe Sonde with the model YSI 650 MDS. The electrode of the instrument was lowered into the sampled water in a beaker and the readings were recorded appropriately.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5)-Dilution method A known volume of the sample was poured into a 300ml BOD bottle and mixed with distilled water until it overflowed and then capped. Another standard 300ml BOD bottle was filled with distilled water to represent the blank. The initial dissolved oxygen concentrations of the blank and diluted sample were determined using a DO meter. Both bottles were stored at 20°C in the incubator for five days. After 5 days the amount of dissolved oxygen remaining in the samples were measured with a DO meter and BOD5 was calculated  Nitrate-N and Phosphate Determination - Low Range Comparator CODE 3119-01 A test tube was filled to 2.5ml with sampled water and diluted to 5ml with Mixed Acid Reagent (MAR). The mixture was capped and kept for 2 minutes. 0.1g of Nitrate Reducing Reagent (NRR) was added capped and shake for a minute until it was thoroughly mixed. The test tube was inserted into the Low Range Comparator instrument with the Nitrate-N & Phosphate Comparator Bar. Sample colour was then matched to the colour standard.  Phosphate The test tube was filled to 10 ml with sampled water. 1.0 ml of Phosphate Acid Reagent was added. The test tubes were covered and shake well. 0.1g spoon was used to add one level measure of Phosphate Reducing Reagent. After five minutes the test tube was placed into the Low Range Comparator instrument with the Nitrate-N & Phosphate Low Range Comparator Bar. The sample colour was matched to a colour standard, and the results were recorded as parts per million (ppm) Orthophosphate.  Sulphate 100ml water sample was measured and poured into a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask. Exactly 5 ml conditioning reagent was added and mixed in the stirring apparatus. While the solution was being stirred a spoon full of barium chloride crystals was added. Some of the solution was poured into the absorption cell of the photometer and the absorption level was measured at the fifth minute. Maximum turbidity was achieved within 2 minutes and the reading remained constant thereafter for 3-10 minutes. Sulphate that was present in the water sample was read and calculated.
  • 3. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES) Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014 ISSN: 2349-8862 www.ijsres.com Page 26  Method of Determination of Iron, Lead, Arsenic and Copper by AAS The iron, lead, arsenic and copper in the sample were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer - AAS (Model 210 VGP). 100 ml water sample was poured in 250 ml volumetric flask. Then, 5 ml concentrated HNO3 (55%) was added after which it was put on the hot plate to evaporate to 20 ml. The sample was cooled to room temperature. The solution was then diluted to 100 ml with distilled water in 100 ml volumetric flask. Characteristic standard solutions for the metals were aspirated first into flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer to prepare the standard curve for them and then finally samples were aspirated and the concentration of the metals were observed and reported in mg/L. Each metal level was then calculated. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Treatme nts Temp pH TDS BOD Sulphate Nitrate Phosphate P1 28.87 6.86 73.03 15.00 28.50 1.60 0.50 P2 28.63 6.32 74.08 12.50 21.50 1.82 0.52 P3 28.54 6.23 78.05 14.00 27.50 1.65 0.50 P4 28.81 6.04 71.03 13.00 25.50 1.33 0.52 P5 28.82 6.13 73.08 15.00 28.50 1.58 0.51 Means 28.73 6.31 73.85 13.90 26.30 1.60 0.51 LSD(p≤ 0.05) 0.08 0.04 0.10 0.90 3.50 0.27 0.04(NS) C.V% 0.10 0.20 0.00 2.30 4.80 6.10 2.40 WHO - 6.5- 8.5 1000 - 500 50 - EPA - 6.5- 8.5 1000 - - 50 0.05 Table 1: Physicochemical parameters Figure 1: Graphical presentation of the physicochemical parameters of the sampling points  Temperature From the above table, the highest temperature of 28.87o C was recorded at P1 followed by P5 with 28.82o C. P4 recorded 28.81o C and 28.63o C for P2. The least temperature was recorded at P3 with 28.54o C. Although the recorded mean temperature (28.730 C) fell within the EPA limit and the water could be suitable for drinking and domestic purposes in respect of temperature (EPA Ghana,1997), the least temperature of the lake (surface water) was even higher than some boreholes (underground water) studied in the same catchment area (Tiimub and Kuffour, 2013). These high temperatures in the lake could be attributed to the washing of vehicles all the time close the lake. The heat from the engines heat up the water and run back into the lake gradually increasing the overall water temperature. Clearing of the vegetation just along the lake due to market expansion and human settlement is also a significant factor accounting for these temperatures, because the trees could have absorbed some of the sun rays that directly hit the water surface.  pH There was a significance difference (0.05) of 0.04 among the water samples. P1 recorded pH of 6.86, followed by P2 with 6.32. P3 recorded 6.23, P5, 6.13 and the least pH of 6.04 was recorded at P4. However, the mean pH for the water in the lake was 6.31. This means that the water in the lake was slightly acidic and does not fall within the EPA and WHO guideline value of 6.5-8.5. The acidic nature could be due to the release of acid-forming substances such as sulphate, phosphate, nitrates, etc. into the water. These substances might have altered the acid-base equilibrium and resulted in the reduced acid-neutralizing capacity (Abdul-Razak, 2009). True to Razak words, vegetables farmers at the upper bank of the lake usually apply fertilizers and pesticides on their field which gradually run into the lake water after heavy rainfall. These fertilizers may contain nitrate, sulphate and phosphate components.  Total Dissolved Solids The result from the analysis showed that there was a significant difference (0.05) of 0.10 between the sample total dissolved solids. The highest TDS of 78.05 mg/L was recorded at P3 and the lowest of 71.03mg/L at P4. P2, P5 and P1 recorded the values of 74.08mg/L, 73.08mg/L and 73.03mg/L respectively. The mean TDS for the five sampling points was 73.85mg/L which was within the recommended range set by both EPA and WHO (<1000mg/L) for drinking purposes and 300mg/L recommended by WHO (2003) for aquatic organisms. Though the TDS value was lower than expected in respect to the physical environment around the lake, some elements when run into water tend to accumulate and/or bond with others and settle down the lake. According to Water Resources Commission (WRC), (2003), Sulphates, when added to water, tend to accumulate progressively thereby increasing its density and causing easy sedimentation  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) The highest BOD value of 15mg/L was recorded at P5 and P1 followed by P3 recording 14.00mg/L, P4 with 13.00mg/L and the least value of 12.50mg/L at P2. There was significance difference of 0.90 among the water samples. The mean BOD for the lake water was 13.90mg/L. According to Nemerow (1974), water bodies with high BOD values of 12mg/L or more are considered to be grossly polluted. The average BOD obtained showed that the lake water was polluted and this may be attributed to the high rate of organic matter emanating from the market into the lake during rainfall, chemical fertilizers and animal manure used by the farmers at the upper bank of the lake as well as run off from the nearby refuse dump.  Sulphate (SO4 2- ) Concentration
  • 4. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES) Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014 ISSN: 2349-8862 www.ijsres.com Page 27 The overall mean sulphate concentration in the lake was 26.30mg/L at a significant difference of 3.512. The highest level of 28.50mg/L was recorded at P1 and P5 and the least value of 21.50mg/L was recorded at P2. However, the intermediate values recorded were 27.50mg/L at P3 and 25.50mg/L at P4.The sulphate concentration in the samples were within the “no effect” range set by WHO standards. The reasons to this low level of sulphate in the sample could be many though the environmental setting around the lake should have caused high level of sulphate in the lake. Sulphate could be used by bacteria as an oxygen source under anaerobic conditions (Peirce et al., 1998). According to Mathuthu et al. (1997) the lower sulphate value could be as a result of precipitation and settlement to the bottom sediment of the lake.  Nitrates (NO3 - ) Concentration The highest value of 1.82mg/L was recorded at P2 and the least value of 1.30mg/L recorded at P4. P3, P1 and P5 recorded nitrate values of 1.65mg/L, 1.60mg/L and 1.58mg/L respectively, with a significant difference of 0.27. The mean nitrate level (1.60mg/L) of the sample in the lake was lesser than the EPA permissible limit of 50mg/L. The presence of nitrate in the lake water was attributable to run off after rainfall from the farming lands at the upper bank of the lake. Though the nitrate present in the sample was infinitesimal and was within the “no effect” range set by both EPA and WHO, and this low count for nitrate could be as a result of other organism that were nitrate dependent in the water having used it up.  Phosphate (PO4 3- ) Ion Concentration High values of phosphate were recorded in the samples. The values ranged from 0.52mg/L as the highest at P2 and the least value of 0.50mg/L at P3 and P1. Values of 0.52mg/L and 0.51mg/L were recorded at P4 and P5 respectively. The mean phosphate in the sample was 0.51mg/L and it was beyond the allowable limit set by EPA. This high level of phosphate was attributable to the use of phosphate fertilizers for vegetable production along the banks of the lake, which was mentioned by Abdul-Razak, (2009) that there was a possibility that farmers had used N-P-K fertilizer, at least during the sampling period, which has the potential to leach or wash into the river A. HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF THE LAKE WATER Treatments As Cu Fe Pb P1 0.082 1.290 0.675 0.040 P2 0.084 0.925 0.725 0.022 P3 0.082 0.710 0.725 0.029 P4 0.081 1.775 0.800 0.029 P5 0.091 0.525 0.925 0.025 Means 0.084 1.045 0.770 0.029 LSD(p≤0.05) 0.004 0.087 0.088 0.004 C.V% 1.6 3.00 4.1 5.5 WHO 0.01 2.00 0.3 0.01 EPA 0.01 2.00 0.3 0.0 Table 2: Heavy metals concentrations Figure 2: Graphical presentation of the heavy metals concentration  Arsenic (As) Concentration of the lake water The highest concentration of arsenic was 0.091mg/L at P5. P4 recorded the least concentration of 0.081mg/L and both P1 and P3 recorded 0.082mg/L. P4 also recorded 0.084mg/L and the total mean arsenic concentration for the lake was 0.084mg/L at a significance difference of 0.004 The mean arsenic concentration was higher than the WHO recommended value of 0.01mg/L. This indicated higher pollution of the lake water by arsenic. The high arsenic content in the lake may be due to the release of arsenic present in alloys, glass and in old glass paint from the nearby refuse damp into the lake water. Also certain fertilizers and pesticides release high amounts of arsenic on the land which gradually leach into the lake water (Sabine and Griswold, 2009). Also to Carbonell-Barrachina et.al, 2000 arsenic is present mainly as DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid) and as arsenite and release into water bodies from domestic effluents and sewage sludge  Iron (Fe) Concentration of the Lake Water The highest level of iron of 0.925mg/L was recorded at P5. P2 and P3 recorded the same values of 0.725mg/L and the least value of 0.675mg/L was recorded by p1. From the results, the mean value of iron recorded was 0.770mg/L which was higher than the WHO/EPA recommended values of 0.3 in drinking water and water used for domestic purposes. According to WRC, (2003) the concentration of dissolved iron in water is dependent on the pH, redox potential as well as the concentration of aluminium and the occurrence of several heavy metals, notably manganese. Hence, the high values of iron recorded in the lake can be attributed to the pH levels recorded and this implies that iron and pH status were from similar pollution source. The high mean iron concentration resulted from the activities that go on around the water body such as discharge of domestic liquid wastes from households and nearby refuse dump. This in fact, is further supported by
  • 5. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES) Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014 ISSN: 2349-8862 www.ijsres.com Page 28 the European Commission Directorate of Environment’s (2001) report that some portion of the high level of iron in water bodies emanates from raw sewage and agricultural waste discharge.  Lead (Pb) Concentration of the Lake Water Lead concentrations recorded were 0.040mg/L at P1. P3 and P4 followed with 0.029mg/L and the least value recorded was 0.022mg/L at P2 and P5 value of 0.025. However, the overall mean lead concentration recorded was 0.029mg/L which was a bit higher than the WHO recommended value 0.01mg/L. Lead accumulations in the water might have been due to discharges from vehicular exhaust from the washing bay near the lake. Lead again might have been discharged into the water from old batteries dumped at the refuse dump.  Copper (Cu) Concentration of the Lake Water Concentration of copper (Cu), from the table above revealed that P1 and P4 recorded 1.290mg/L and 1.775mg/L respectively. P2 then followed with 0.925mg/L, P3 with 0.710mg/L and P5 recording the least value of 0.525mg/L at. The mean value of copper concentration 1.045mg/L was within the “no effect” standards of World Health Organization. Its presence in the lake may be due to the presence of the refuse dump because most of waste products found in landfill and waste disposal site contain copper constituting materials. B. BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS WHO <1/100ml <1/100ml <1/100ml <1/100ml EPA 0/100ml 0/100ml 0/100ml 0/100ml Table 3: Microbial content of the lake water The mean total coliform recorded was 6.763x107 , mean faecal coliform 3.703x106 while mean Escherichia coli 9.65x105 per 100cfu/ ml. There was no count for Salmonella typhi. According to WHO and EPA; there should not be the presence of any of these microbes in the water used for drinking and domestic purposes. This clearly indicated that pollution level of the lake water by microbes was significantly high. The presence of the coliform bacteria was as a result of faecal matter from both animals and humans that have their way into the lake as stated by Abdul-Razak, (2009) that high counts of faecal coliforms can be attributed to the indiscriminate defecation along the river banks by both humans and other animals that graze along the river banks. At times other animals like birds also swim in the lake that might possibly cause these pollutants levels. According to Jones & White (1984) birds “pollute” more faecal indicators than humans. IV. CONCLUSION The results revealed that the mean levels of Copper (Cu), Arsenic (As), Nitrate (NO3 - ), sulphate (SO4 2- ), TDS and Temperature (physicochemical) were within the “no effect” range proposed by EPA and WHO whiles the levels of Phosphate (PO4 3- ), Total Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and pH were above the recommended levels by both EPA and WHO. Also, apart from Salmonella typhi, the biological analysis of total coliform, faecal coliform and E. coli counts were very high and above the WHO/EPA standards. There was an indication therefore that the lake has been polluted to some extent. In view of this, there should be all level education among the residents on how to balance their anthropogenic needs with the need to protect the lake. Again residents who direct their effluents into the lake should be reprimanded and possibly penalized for their actions. Furthermore farmers who farm along the banks of the lake should be entreated by the EPA to practice zero fertilizer form of farming to drastically reduce the run off of acid forming compounds into the lake. The huge refuse dump closer to the lake should also be cleared by the Municipal Assembly. Finally, the washing bay closer to the water body should direct it used water from the lake to a different place in order to protect the aquatic organisms in it and also the lake to curb the increasing levels of lake water temperature. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors of this work wish to express their profound gratitude to the people living around the lake for their co- operation during the personal interview for the study. REFERENCES [1] Abdulaziz, M. (2003). Spatial variation in water quality in Nguru Urban. Unpublished MSc Project. University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. [2] Abdul-Razak, A., Asiedu, A.B., Entsua-Mensah, R.E.M and deGraft-Johnson, K.A.A (2009). Assessment of the Water Quality of the Oti River in Ghana. West African Journal of Applied Ecology.Vol 15. [3] Adeniji, F.A., and John, V.L. (1989). Sources, Availability and Safety of water. Proceedings of International Seminar of Water Resources in the Lake Chad Basin. University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. [4] Ashbolt, N.J., and Veal, D.A. (1994). Testing the waters for a redundant indicator. Today’s Life Science 6: 28-29. [5] Babaji, I., and Ndubusi, O.L. (1988). Self reliance in community water supply. Proceedings of Seminar on Engineering for community Development, Nigerian Society for Engineers. Maiduguri. Treatments Total Coliform Fecal Coliform E. coli Salmo nella typhi P1 9x106 6.65x105 2.3x105 nil P2 2x107 5.1x106 4.15x105 nil P3 4x107 1.5x106 9.15x105 nil P4 3x107 9.15x106 2.35x106 nil P5 2x108 2.1x106 9.15x105 nil Means 6.763x10 7 3.703x106 9.65x105 nil LSD(p≤0.05) 8165008 7431870.4(NS) 72663.9 nil C.V% 4.3 72.3 2.7 nil
  • 6. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Studies (IJSRES) Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2014 ISSN: 2349-8862 www.ijsres.com Page 29 [6] Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A., Jugsujinda, A., Burlo, F., Delaune, R.D., Patrick, W.H. Jr. (2000). Arsenic chemistry in municipal sewage sludge as affected by redox potential and pH, Water Res., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 216-224. [7] Cairncross, S., and Cliff, J.L. (1987). Water use and health in Mireda, Mozambique. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81: 51-54. [8] Domenico, P.A. (1972). Concept and models in ground water hydrology. New York. McGraw hill. [9] EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual. [10]EPA841B97003.http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring/vo lunteer/stream/European Commission Directorate of Environment (2001). Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge. Luxembourg. [11] Fetter, C.W. (1994). Applied hydrology .University of Wisconsin [12] Jones F. and White W. R. (1984). Health Amenity Aspects of Surface Water. Wat. Pollut. Control 83: 215– 225. [13] Mendie, U. (2005). The Nature of Water. In: The Theory and Practice of Clean Water Production for Domestic and Industrial Use. Lagos: Lacto-Medals Publishers, 1-21 [14] McMurray, J., Fay, R. C. (2004). Hydrogen, Oxygen and Water. In: McMurray Fay Chemistry Kp. Hamann, 4th Edn. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 575-599 [15] Musa, H.A., Shears, P., Kafi, S., and Elsabag, S.K (1999).Water quality and public health in northern Sudan: a study of rural and peri-urban communities. J. Appl. Microbial. 87: 676-682. [16] Mathuthu A. S., Mwanga K., and Simoro A. (1997). Impact Assessment of Industrial and Sewage Effluents on the Water Quality of the receiving Marimba River in Harare. In Lake Chivero: A Polluted Lake. (N. A. G. Moyo, ed.), pp. 43–52. University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare, Zimbabwe [17] Nemerow, N. L., (1974). Scientific Stream Pollution Analysis, McGraw-Hill. [18] Offodile, M.E. (2002). Groundwater study and development in Nigeria. University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria. [19] Peirce J., Weiner R. F., and Vesilind P. A. (1998). Environmental Pollution and Control, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heineman, Boston.400 pp [20] Sabine, M. & Griswold, W. (2009). Human Health Effect of Heavy Metals. Environmental Science and Technology Briefs for Citizens. Centre for Hazardous Substance Research. Kansas State University. 104 Ward Hall (assessed at www.engg.ksu.edu/CHSR/) [21] Tiimub, B.M., & Adu-Gyamfi, A. (2013). “Potable quality determination of groundwater from point collection sources in the Asante Mampong Municipality of Ashanti Region in Ghana”. American International Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol.3 No. (3): 2013. Pg 1-12. [22] Tiimub, B.M., Bia, A.M. and Awuah R.T. (2012). Physicochemical and heavy metal Concentration in surface water, UEW-M [23] Tiimub, B.M. and Kuffour, C. (2013). Groundwater Quality Assessment: Unpublished BSc Thesis of the University of Education, Winneba-Mampong [24] Vanloon, G. W., Duffy, S. J. (2005). The Hydrosphere: In Environmental Chemistry: A Global Perspective. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 197-211 [25] Water Resources Commission (WRC) (2003). Ghana Raw Water Criteria and Guidelines, Vol. 1. Domestic Water. CSIR-Water Research Institute, Accra, Ghana. [26] World Health Organization (2003). Emerging Issues in Water and Infectious Disease. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/em erging.pdf

Related Documents