1
Industrial Districts’ Structure
and Chances for Innovation:
An Empirical Experience
Industrial Districts’ Structure ...
2
Global Trends
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
3
Production of the Main Producers
2002 Total Production: 5.904 millions of S.M.
35,57%
11,03%
10,26%
25,2%
8,6%
2...
4
Consumption of the Main Producers
2002 Total Consumption: 5.426 millions of S.M.
32,25%
6,03%
3,45%
2,03% 8,04%
4...
5
Exports of the Main Producers
2002 Total Exports: 1.385 millions of S.M.
7,22%
25,7%
31,62%
2,38%
5,2%
3,61%
5,...
6
Research Purpose
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
7
Purpose
How does the structure in a given Industrial District
influence its innovative capacity?
Case study of the t...
8
Theoretical framework
We follow Nelson’s (Nelson, 1993) primary typology of
enterprises attending the characterisatio...
9
Hypotheses
H1 innovation in a given industrial district is strongly
dependent on the structure of the district in ter...
10
Methodology
Semi-structured interviews were maintained with
representatives of the ceramic industrial districts of
...
11
Elements in the
Tile Production Process
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
12
Main elements in the value chain
Tile
Production
Distribution &
Consumption
Raw Material
Extraction
Machinery &...
13
Production typology in 2002
Italy Spain
Porcelanic tile 329.379 54,4% 55.335 8,5%
Enamel 453.502 74,9% 608.034 93,4...
14
Main elements in the value chain
Tile
Production
Distribution &
Consumption
Raw Material
Extraction
Machinery &...
15
Firms and employment in 2003
Italy Spain
Firms 315 294
Employees 30.264 25.200
Employees/Firm 96,1 85,7
(ASCER an...
16
The Sectoral Innovation System
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
17
Sectoral Innovation System
Legal & Institutional framework
Productive environment
Technological
and advanced
serv...
18
Institutional Environment
CASTELLON
The associative level is fragmented
(ASCER, ANFFECC, ASEBEC,
ALICER, ANDIMAC, ...
19
Scientific Environment
CASTELLON
Important role of the Jaume I
University (UJI) training Chemist
and Chemist Engin...
20
Technological and Advanced Services
Providers’ Environment
CASTELLON
Technological innovation is driven by
the gla...
21
Productive Environment
CASTELLON
Small and Medium Enterprises
flexible and dinamic.
Low specialisation, most compa...
22
Environmental Interactions
CASTELLON
Information flows between the UJI,
the ITC, the glaze companies, and
the cera...
23
Innovation within the district
CASTELLON
Few relevant innovations both of
product and process, more
frequent in de...
24
Relations between agents of
different districts in Emilia-Romagna
(Istituto per la
Promozione
Industriale
Institu...
25
Conclusions
1) similar level of competition within the districts of
both countries but a much weaker cooperation in ...
26
Thank Thank yyoouu ffoorr yyoouurr aatttteennttiioonn
INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)
Camino de Vera s/n
46022 Valencia
SPAIN
...
of 26

Industrial Districts Structure and Chances for Innovation: An Empirical Experience

Conference: Industrial Districts Structure and Chances for Innovation: An Empirical Experience. Gabaldón-Estevan, D.; Fernández-de.Lucio I.; Tortajada-Esparza, E.; 5th Triple Helix Conference. The Capitalization of Knowledge: cognitive, economic, social & cultural aspects, Turin (Italy) 18-21 May 2005
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Industrial Districts Structure and Chances for Innovation: An Empirical Experience

  • 1. 1 Industrial Districts’ Structure and Chances for Innovation: An Empirical Experience Industrial Districts’ Structure and Chances for Innovation: An Empirical Experience DDaanniieell GGaabbaallddóónn--EEsstteevvaann IIggnnaacciioo FFeerrnnáánnddeezz--ddee--LLuucciioo EEnnrriiqquuee TToorrttaajjaaddaa--EEssppaarrzzaa Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 2. 2 Global Trends Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 3. 3 Production of the Main Producers 2002 Total Production: 5.904 millions of S.M. 35,57% 11,03% 10,26% 25,2% 8,6% 2,69% 2,74% 3,9% China Spain Italy Brazil Indonesia Turkey Mexico Other Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management (ASCER 2003)
  • 4. 4 Consumption of the Main Producers 2002 Total Consumption: 5.426 millions of S.M. 32,25% 6,03% 3,45% 2,03% 8,04% 43,96% China Spain Italy Brazil Indonesia Turkey Mexico Other 2,6% 1,66% Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management (ASCER 2003)
  • 5. 5 Exports of the Main Producers 2002 Total Exports: 1.385 millions of S.M. 7,22% 25,7% 31,62% 2,38% 5,2% 3,61% 5,2% 19,06% China Spain Italy Brazil Indonesia Turkey Mexico Other Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management (ASCER 2003)
  • 6. 6 Research Purpose Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 7. 7 Purpose How does the structure in a given Industrial District influence its innovative capacity? Case study of the two most important ceramic tile industrial districts in Europe: Sassuolo (Italy) & Castellon (Spain) Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 8. 8 Theoretical framework We follow Nelson’s (Nelson, 1993) primary typology of enterprises attending the characterisation of their technical change process: Type A enterprises are producers of the commodity Type B enterprises, namely providers of technology and advanced services B1 complex systems producers B2 chemical products producers Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 9. 9 Hypotheses H1 innovation in a given industrial district is strongly dependent on the structure of the district in terms of the kind of enterprises that compose it. H2 the innovative capacity of a district depends on the strength of the relations that the type B enterprises in that district have with other type B enterprises in other geographically close districts. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 10. 10 Methodology Semi-structured interviews were maintained with representatives of the ceramic industrial districts of both countries including: – Managers from either ceramic, electromechanical or glaze companies; – Representatives of employers and workers associations; – Representatives of public institutions specialized in technology or trade; – Responsible of research institutions directly responsible for R&D for the industry; – Academics whose work had intensively been focussed on the issue. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 11. 11 Elements in the Tile Production Process Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 12. 12 Main elements in the value chain Tile Production Distribution & Consumption Raw Material Extraction Machinery & Equipments Design Glaze & Colour Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 13. 13 Production typology in 2002 Italy Spain Porcelanic tile 329.379 54,4% 55.335 8,5% Enamel 453.502 74,9% 608.034 93,4% Not Enamel 151.975 25,1% 42.966 6,6% Wall tile 122.306 20,2% 240.870 37,0% Floor tile 438.171 72,4% 410.130 63,0% Total 605.477 651.000 Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management (ASCER 2003)
  • 14. 14 Main elements in the value chain Tile Production Distribution & Consumption Raw Material Extraction Machinery & Equipments Design Glaze & Colour Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 15. 15 Firms and employment in 2003 Italy Spain Firms 315 294 Employees 30.264 25.200 Employees/Firm 96,1 85,7 (ASCER and ASSOPIASTRELLE ) Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 16. 16 The Sectoral Innovation System Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 17. 17 Sectoral Innovation System Legal & Institutional framework Productive environment Technological and advanced services providers’ environment Scientific environment (Adapted from Fernandez-de-Lucio et al. 1996 ) Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 18. 18 Institutional Environment CASTELLON The associative level is fragmented (ASCER, ANFFECC, ASEBEC, ALICER, ANDIMAC, AFPE and ATC) and although ASCER is the most important actor, it is not as predominant as its Italian counterparts Assopiastrelle. Relevance of Cevisama and QUALICER as international events. There are no direct policies towards supporting the sector although a good institutional disposition is observed. SASSUOLO The associative level is concentrated mainly around Assopiastrelle and ACIMAC. Leader position of Cersaie and Tecnargilla. There are no direct policies towards supporting the sector and the institutional disposition is weaker. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 19. 19 Scientific Environment CASTELLON Important role of the Jaume I University (UJI) training Chemist and Chemist Engineers. Deficient commercial and management training. Inadequate Industrial Engineering training. Research is developed by the ICV (Ceramic and Glass Institute), the ITC (Technological Institute of Ceramics) and the UJI (Jaume I University). SASSUOLO The Modena and Reggio Emilia University only recently offer degrees on Chemistry and Ceramic Engineering, being more experienced on Business Administration and on Industrial Engineering training. Less research is done in the Italian scientific environment, and it is carried by the CCB (Ceramic Centre of Bolonia). Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 20. 20 Technological and Advanced Services Providers’ Environment CASTELLON Technological innovation is driven by the glaze sub sector and assisted by the ITC (Technological Institute of Ceramics). Central role of the ITC on education and on process innovations. Education on chemistry and cooperation from the ATC (Ceramic Technicians Association) is remarkable. SASSUOLO Technological innovation is driven and supported by the capital goods sub sector and design studios. The role of the CCB (Ceramic Centre of Bolonia) although being important is not as central as its Spanish counterpart. Excellence on design, business administration and commercialization. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 21. 21 Productive Environment CASTELLON Small and Medium Enterprises flexible and dinamic. Low specialisation, most companies undertake all product typologies. Relative vertical integration within companies. Family founded firms, decisions are still adopted by the owner or main shareholder. Small inter-firm collaboration on R&D projects. Subcontracting is considerable. Weakness on the high market segment positioning. SASSUOLO Bigger ceramic holdings less dynamic than their Spanish counterparts. Higher product specialisation. Weak vertical integration within companies. Decisions are adopted by shareholders on steering committees adopting a more management like approach. Stronger tile firms implication on the Sectorial Innovation System articulation. Leadership on main markets. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 22. 22 Environmental Interactions CASTELLON Information flows between the UJI, the ITC, the glaze companies, and the ceramic companies, and is reinforced by the mobility of and relationship between graduates. The internationalization of the Spanish district with the Italian one is trough the relationship between the Spanish ceramists and tne Italian capital goods providers. Predominant role of the institutional Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management actors. SASSUOLO Dense network of actors invigorated by the capital goods companies.. The internationalization of the Italian district with the Spanish one is trough the relation of the Itañian ceramist with the Spanish glaze providers. Predominant role of the business associations.
  • 23. 23 Innovation within the district CASTELLON Few relevant innovations both of product and process, more frequent in design and carried out by glaze firms. Too much dependent on capital goods providers and glaze firms. Lower innovative tension than their Italians counterparts. SASSUOLO Frequent product and process innovations driven by their leading position in capital goods. Try not to be excessively dependent on providers. Continuous search on new tile uses. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 24. 24 Relations between agents of different districts in Emilia-Romagna (Istituto per la Promozione Industriale Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management 2002 )
  • 25. 25 Conclusions 1) similar level of competition within the districts of both countries but a much weaker cooperation in the Spanish one. 2) scarcity of technology and advanced services providers in the Spanish district relegates it to a follower role in the process of innovation adoption. 3) presence of cross-sector technology enterprises in the Italian district, raises the innovative tension because of the technology diffusion across districts, and it is favoured by the mobility of qualified workers. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 26. 26 Thank Thank yyoouu ffoorr yyoouurr aatttteennttiioonn INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia SPAIN www.ingenio.upv.es Turin 18/05/2005 Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management

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