Population, Urbanization and
Environment
December 8th, 2014
Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan
Department of Sociology and Social...
2
Population, Urbanization and Environment, (introduction and index)
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 698]
Social change...
3
http://www.asianoffbeat.com/OddNews/Tokyo-World-Biggest-Megacity-6.jpg
Population growth
4
5
Population growth: demographic concepts
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 602-609]
Crude birth rates: the number of liv...
6
Population growth: demographic theories
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 602-609]
Thomas Robert Malthus (1798)
Theori...
7
www.coolgeography.co.uk
8
Population growth rate
"Population growth rate world 2005-2010 UN" by ClaudioMB - en.wikipedia. Via Wikimedia Commons ...
9
Population density (I)
10
Population density (II)
11
Population
pyramid of the
Europe of
Twenty-Five,
1 January 2003
http://www.cairn-int.
info/article-
E_POPU_402_...
12
Population ageing: Percentage of the population over 65 in Europe
13
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/ChicagovanafSearsTower.jpg
Cities and urban spaces
14
Urbanization: a global process
15
Urbanization density (I)
Deforestation
16
Urbanization density (II)
17
Cities and urban spaces:
Conurbations and megalopolis in USA
18
Cities and urban spaces in EU
http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/explore-interactive-maps/urban-atlas-for-europe
19
Cities and urban spaces: theories of urbanism
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 573-579]
The Chicago School
Robert E....
20
Cities and urban spaces: theories of urbanism
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 573-579]
Urbanism as a way of life urb...
21
Cities and urban spaces: theories of urbanism
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 573-579]
Recent contributions
David
...
22
Cities and urban spaces: trends in Western urban development
[Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 579-587]
Suburbanizatio...
23
Cities and urban spaces: challenges in urbanization in the developing
world [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 587-590] ...
24
Cities and urban spaces: cities and globalization [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp.
591-593]
Global cities: as NY, Lon...
25
Ecological crisis
The Limits to Growth ”is a 1972 book about
the computer simulation of
exponential economic and population growth with fi...
27
Ecological crisis: sustainable development
Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland
Report, from the United N...
28
Ecological crisis: consumption, poverty and the environment
Nitrogen
(agriculture)
29
Ecological crisis: beyond the boundaries
[Rockstrom et al., 2009. A safe operating space for...
30
(pollution and waste)
31
Air pollution kills 60.000 people a year
Air pollution
32
Percentage of urban population resident in areas where pollutant concentrations are
higher than selected limit or tar...
33
http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/images/image11b.gif
34
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/feb/21/chinese-official-swim-polluted-river
Water pollution
35
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/images/earth/environment/water-pollution.jpg
36
Solid waste
37
http://www.terutalk.com/images/LA_County-waste_management_paradigm-lg.JPG
38
39
(depletion of resources)
40
Water
Water
41
Soil degradation and desertification
42
Desertification
43
Deforestation
Aerial view of deforestation on a vast scale
in the Dry Chaco region of Paraguay
44
45
(risk and the environment)
46
Global warming
47
Global warming
48
Genetically modified crops
49
Global warming
Aitäh!!!
Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan | Tallinn 08/12/2014
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Faculty of Social...
of 50

Population, urbanization and environment

Population, Urbanization and Environment, (introduction to asociological approach)
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population, urbanization and environment

  • 1. Population, Urbanization and Environment December 8th, 2014 Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, University of Valencia (ES)
  • 2. 2 Population, Urbanization and Environment, (introduction and index) [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 698] Social change “Alteration in the basic structures of a social group or society. Social change is an ever present phenomenon in social life, but has become especially intense in the modern era. The origins of modern sociology can be traced to attempts to understand the dramatic changes shattering the traditional world and promoting new forms of social order” (p. 698). Population growth (concepts and theories) Cities and urban spaces (theories and trends) Ecological crisis (pollution, waste, depletion of resources and risk)
  • 3. 3 http://www.asianoffbeat.com/OddNews/Tokyo-World-Biggest-Megacity-6.jpg Population growth
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5 Population growth: demographic concepts [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 602-609] Crude birth rates: the number of live births per year per thousand of the population Concepts Fertility: the number of live-born children the average of women has (i.e. average number of births per thousand women of childbearing age Fecundity: the potential number of children women are biologically capable of bearing Crude death rates: the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year Mortality: the number of deaths in a population Infant mortality rates: the number of babies per thousand births in a year who die before reaching the age of one Life expectancy: the number of years the average person can expect to live Life span: the maximum number of years that an individual could live
  • 6. 6 Population growth: demographic theories [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 602-609] Thomas Robert Malthus (1798) Theories Warren S. Thompson (1929) developed the Demographic Transition Model
  • 7. 7 www.coolgeography.co.uk
  • 8. 8 Population growth rate "Population growth rate world 2005-2010 UN" by ClaudioMB - en.wikipedia. Via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Population_growth_rate_world_2005- 2010_UN.PNG#mediaviewer/File:Population_growth_rate_world_2005-2010_UN.PNG
  • 9. 9 Population density (I)
  • 10. 10 Population density (II)
  • 11. 11 Population pyramid of the Europe of Twenty-Five, 1 January 2003 http://www.cairn-int. info/article- E_POPU_402_036 1--the-european-union- at-the-time-of- enlarg.htm Population pyramids
  • 12. 12 Population ageing: Percentage of the population over 65 in Europe
  • 13. 13 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/ChicagovanafSearsTower.jpg Cities and urban spaces
  • 14. 14 Urbanization: a global process
  • 15. 15 Urbanization density (I) Deforestation
  • 16. 16 Urbanization density (II)
  • 17. 17 Cities and urban spaces: Conurbations and megalopolis in USA
  • 18. 18 Cities and urban spaces in EU http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/explore-interactive-maps/urban-atlas-for-europe
  • 19. 19 Cities and urban spaces: theories of urbanism [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 573-579] The Chicago School Robert E. Park Ernest W. Burgess Urban ecology the siting of major urban settlements and the distribution of different types of neighbourhoods understood as species in the natural world by means of competition, invasion and succession. http://cronodon.com/images/Burgess2.jpg Amos Hawley, years latter, would rather talk about interdependence due to differentiation)
  • 20. 20 Cities and urban spaces: theories of urbanism [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 573-579] Urbanism as a way of life urbanism is a form of social existence and it influences the nature of the wither social system, is not just a part of society. It is characterized by proximity but unknowingness (interactions as means to other ends) highly mobile but weak bonds, faster ‘peace of life’, and competition prevails over cooperation. The Chicago School Louis Wirth Coit Tower Mural, “City Life” By Victor Arnautoff Photo: Harvey Smith Criticism to Chicago School based mainly in observations of American cities not valid for all times and places. There are still communities inside cities and they might preclude subcultural diversity (Claude Fischer, 1984). Or the ‘harder shell to crack’ of the ‘urban egg’ (Edward Krupat, 1985: 36)
  • 21. 21 Cities and urban spaces: theories of urbanism [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 573-579] Recent contributions David Harvey City as an integral part of processes of collective consumption. Lay-out and architectural features of cities and neighbourhoods express struggles and conflicts between different groups in society (symbolic and spatial manifestations of broader social forces) market forces, government and social movements. Manuel Castells Created environment brought about by the spread of industrial capitalism that blurs the difference between rural and the urban. Space is continually restructured by (1) large firms, (2) the controls asserted by governments over land and industrial production, and (3) private investors buying and selling houses and land.
  • 22. 22 Cities and urban spaces: trends in Western urban development [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 579-587] Suburbanization: earlier in UK than USA. In USA ¾ of white front ¼ of African American live in suburbia in 1990 now changing to become a class issue. Inner city decay: cycle of deterioration ‘flight to suburbs’ means a loss of local tax revenues, building stock becomes more run-down, crime rates and unemployment increase. More must therefore be spent on welfare services, schools, buildings, police and fire service. Urban conflict: due to poverty; ethnic division and antagonism; crime; and the insecurities derived from the previous. Urban renewal: revival of inner city areas and the sustainable development of outlying regions should happen because of technological revolution, ecological threats, and social transformation, and should include recycled land and building, improve the urban environment, excellence in managing local areas (democratic participation of citizens), delivering regeneration Urban recycling: gentrification "the transformation of a working-class or vacant area of the central city to a middle class residential and/or commercial use”* *Lees, Loretta, Tom Slater, and Elvin K. Wyly. Gentrification. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.
  • 23. 23 Cities and urban spaces: challenges in urbanization in the developing world [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 587-590] Economic implications: high relevance of informal economy that is untaxed ,unregulated and less productive than formal economy. Environmental challenges: pollution, housing shortages, inadequate sanitation and unsafe water supplies. (“living in Mexico City is equivalent to smoke 40 cigarettes a day” pp. 589) Social effects: overcrowded and under-resourced. Poverty widespread and demands for health care, family planning advice, education and training are not meet in a very young population whose access to schooling is restrained.
  • 24. 24 Cities and urban spaces: cities and globalization [Giddens, A. 2001Sociology, pp. 591-593] Global cities: as NY, London or Tokyo (Saskia Sassen) characterized by: being ‘command posts’ of the global economy; key locations for financial and specialized service firms; sites of production and innovation of these newly expanded industries; are also te markets where to buy, sell and dispose them. The city and periphery: cities as they become more global they also disconnect from their outlying regions and nation Inequality and the global city: “The growth sectors of the ‘new economy’ – financial services, marketing, high technology – are reaping profits far greater than any found within traditional economic sectors. As the salaries and bonuses of the very affluent continue to climb, the wages of those employed to clean and guard their offices are dropping”.
  • 25. 25 Ecological crisis
  • 26. The Limits to Growth ”is a 1972 book about the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with finite resource supplies commissioned by the Club of Rome. The book used the World3 model to simulate the consequence of interactions between the Earth's and human systems. Five variables were examined in the original model: world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Limits_to_Growth 26 Ecological crisis: limits to growth http://www.worldwatch.org/brain/features/timeline/timeline.htm
  • 27. 27 Ecological crisis: sustainable development Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was published in 1987. Its targets were multilateralism and interdependence of nations in the search for a sustainable development path (sought to recapture the spirit of the Stockholm Conference - which had introduced environmental concerns to the formal political development sphere). Our Common Future placed environmental issues firmly on the political agenda; it aimed to discuss the environment and development as one single issue. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Common_Future "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
  • 28. 28 Ecological crisis: consumption, poverty and the environment
  • 29. Nitrogen (agriculture) 29 Ecological crisis: beyond the boundaries [Rockstrom et al., 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature. 461, 472-475] Biodiversity (urbanization, agriculture)
  • 30. 30 (pollution and waste)
  • 31. 31 Air pollution kills 60.000 people a year Air pollution
  • 32. 32 Percentage of urban population resident in areas where pollutant concentrations are higher than selected limit or target values, 2000-2012 (EU-28)
  • 33. 33 http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/images/image11b.gif
  • 34. 34 http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/feb/21/chinese-official-swim-polluted-river Water pollution
  • 35. 35 http://visual.merriam-webster.com/images/earth/environment/water-pollution.jpg
  • 36. 36 Solid waste
  • 37. 37 http://www.terutalk.com/images/LA_County-waste_management_paradigm-lg.JPG
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39 (depletion of resources)
  • 40. 40 Water Water
  • 41. 41 Soil degradation and desertification
  • 42. 42 Desertification
  • 43. 43 Deforestation Aerial view of deforestation on a vast scale in the Dry Chaco region of Paraguay
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45 (risk and the environment)
  • 46. 46 Global warming
  • 47. 47 Global warming
  • 48. 48 Genetically modified crops
  • 49. 49 Global warming
  • 50. Aitäh!!! Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan | Tallinn 08/12/2014 Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Valencia- Valencia (ES) - daniel.gabaldon@uv.es - www.uv.es/dagaes http://www.slideshare.net/DanielGabaldnEstevan http://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=es&user=iw85GxUAAAAJ https://uv.academia.edu/DanielGabald%C3%B3nEstevan https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Daniel_Gabaldon-Estevan https://www.linkedin.com/pub/daniel-gabad%C3%B3n-estevan/23/722/aaa http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2086-5012 http://www.researcherid.com/rid/B-5195-2011

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