1
Social Capital and
Industrial Districts.
Approaching the issue
DDaanniieell GGaabbaallddóónn--EEsstteevvaann
Instit...
2
Part 1: General Research Purpose
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
3
Purpose
What is the role of social capital for the development,
diffusion or adoption of innovations on a given
indu...
4
Part 2: Theoretical Framework
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
5
The Industrial Districts Perspective I
(Becattini; Brusco; Pyke...)
from industrial sector to industrial district (ID...
6
The Industrial Districts Perspective II
ID and innovation:
increasing transfer of information
increasing confidence ...
7
The Social Capital Perspective I
(Bourdieu; Coleman; Loury; Putnam...)
putting social structure
into the rational ac...
8
The Social Capital Perspective II
SC effects:
(+) a resource for social control
(+) a source of family support
(+) ...
9
Part 3: Exploratory Study
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
10
Exploratory study
Previous to study the role of social capital for
innovation on an industrial district we wanted to...
11
Theoretical framework
We follow Nelson’s (Nelson, 1993) primary typology of
enterprises attending the characterisati...
12
Hypotheses
H1 innovation in a given industrial district is strongly
dependent on the structure of the district in te...
13
Methodology
Semi-structured interviews were maintained with
representatives of the ceramic industrial districts of b...
14
Main elements in the value chain
Tile
Production
Distribution &
Consumption
Raw Material
Extraction
Machinery &...
15
Production typology in 2002
Italy Spain
Porcelanic tile 329379 54.4% 55335 8.5%
Enamel 453502 74.9% 608034 93.4%
N...
16
Firms and employment in 2003
Italy Spain
Firms 315 294
Employees 30264 25200
Employees/Firm 96.1 85.7
(ASCER and ...
17
Sectoral Innovation System
Legal & Institutional framework
Productive environment
Technological
and advanced
serv...
18
Institutional Environment
CASTELLON
The associative level is fragmented
(ASCER, ANFFECC, ASEBEC,
ALICER, ANDIMAC, ...
19
Scientific Environment
CASTELLON
Important role of the Jaume I
University (UJI) training Chemist
and Chemist Engin...
20
Technological and Advanced Services
Providers’ Environment
CASTELLON
Technological innovation is driven by
the gla...
21
Productive Environment
CASTELLON
Small and Medium Enterprises
flexible and dinamic.
Low specialisation, most compa...
22
Environmental Interactions
CASTELLON
Information flows between UJI, ITC,
the glaze companies, and the
ceramic comp...
23
Innovation within the district
CASTELLON
Few relevant innovations both of
product and process, more
frequent in de...
24
Part 4: Conclusions
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
25
Conclusions
1) similar level of competition within the districts of
both countries but a much weaker cooperation in ...
26
Relations between agents of
different districts in Emilia-Romagna
(Istituto per la
Promozione
Industriale,
Instit...
27
Relations between agents of different districts
in the Valencian Region
(Ministerio de
Industria,
Turismo y
Comer...
28
Part 5: Further Research
Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
29
Further Research
1) the role of ATC (the Spanish Technical
Association) in articulating innovation transfer
across ...
30
Thank Thank yyoouu ffoorr yyoouurr aatttteennttiioonn
INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)
Camino de Vera s/n
46022 Valencia
SPAIN
...
of 30

Social Capital and Industrial Districts. Approaching the issue

Conference: Social Capital and Industrial Districts. Approaching the issue. Gabaldón-Estevan, D.; ECSR Euro Summer School “Integrating Sociological Theory and Research in Europe” Nijmegen (The Netherlands) 21-28 August 2005.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Social Capital and Industrial Districts. Approaching the issue

  • 1. 1 Social Capital and Industrial Districts. Approaching the issue DDaanniieell GGaabbaallddóónn--EEsstteevvaann Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 2. 2 Part 1: General Research Purpose Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 3. 3 Purpose What is the role of social capital for the development, diffusion or adoption of innovations on a given industrial district? How important is to have all relevant agents within the same industrial district? What is the contribution of intermediary institutions for the well functioning of industrial districts? Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 4. 4 Part 2: Theoretical Framework Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 5. 5 The Industrial Districts Perspective I (Becattini; Brusco; Pyke...) from industrial sector to industrial district (ID) ID as: Socio-territorial entity (the region matters). Active presence of people and SME enterprises. A shared system of values and ideas. A developed system of norms and institutions. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 6. 6 The Industrial Districts Perspective II ID and innovation: increasing transfer of information increasing confidence lowering transaction costs improving access to experienced and high-skilled human capital privileged perspective of those inside the district the pressure of competitiveness availability of resources inside the district Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 7. 7 The Social Capital Perspective I (Bourdieu; Coleman; Loury; Putnam...) putting social structure into the rational action paradigm SC as: Social relations that allow individuals to claim access to resources possessed by their associates, and the amount and quality of those resources (Portes, 1998) trust, norms, reciprocity, embeddedness Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 8. 8 The Social Capital Perspective II SC effects: (+) a resource for social control (+) a source of family support (+) a source of benefits through extra familiar networks (-) exclusion of outsiders (-) prevention of success of member initiatives (-) restriction of individual freedom Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 9. 9 Part 3: Exploratory Study Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 10. 10 Exploratory study Previous to study the role of social capital for innovation on an industrial district we wanted to deeply study and understand the particular district composition and functioning. Consequently we focused on the two most important ceramic tile industrial districts in Europe: Sassuolo (Italy) & Castellon (Spain) Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 11. 11 Theoretical framework We follow Nelson’s (Nelson, 1993) primary typology of enterprises attending the characterisation of their technical change process: Type A enterprises are producers of the commodity Type B enterprises, namely providers of technology and advanced services B1 complex systems producers B2 chemical products producers Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 12. 12 Hypotheses H1 innovation in a given industrial district is strongly dependent on the structure of the district in terms of the kind of enterprises that compose it. H2 the innovative capacity of a district depends on the strength of the relations that the type B enterprises in that district have with other type B enterprises in other geographically close districts. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 13. 13 Methodology Semi-structured interviews were maintained with representatives of the ceramic industrial districts of both countries including: – Managers from either ceramic, electromechanical or glaze companies; – Representatives of employers and workers associations; – Representatives of public institutions specialized in technology or trade; – Responsibles of research institutions in charge of the industry R&D; – Academics whose work had intensively been focussed on the issue. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 14. 14 Main elements in the value chain Tile Production Distribution & Consumption Raw Material Extraction Machinery & Equipments Design Glaze & Colour Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 15. 15 Production typology in 2002 Italy Spain Porcelanic tile 329379 54.4% 55335 8.5% Enamel 453502 74.9% 608034 93.4% Not Enamel 151975 25.1% 42966 6.6% Wall tile 122306 20.2% 240870 37.0% Floor tile 438171 72.4% 410130 63.0% Total 605477 651000 Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management (ASCER, 2003)
  • 16. 16 Firms and employment in 2003 Italy Spain Firms 315 294 Employees 30264 25200 Employees/Firm 96.1 85.7 (ASCER and ASSOPIASTRELLE ) Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 17. 17 Sectoral Innovation System Legal & Institutional framework Productive environment Technological and advanced services providers’ environment Scientific environment (Adapted from Fernandez-de-Lucio et al. 1996 ) Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 18. 18 Institutional Environment CASTELLON The associative level is fragmented (ASCER, ANFFECC, ASEBEC, ALICER, ANDIMAC, AFPE and ATC) and although ASCER is the most important actor, it is not as predominant as its Italian counterparts Assopiastrelle. Relevance of Cevisama and QUALICER as international events. There are no direct policies towards supporting the sector although a good institutional disposition is observed. SASSUOLO The associative level is concentrated mainly around Assopiastrelle and ACIMAC. Leader position of Cersaie and Tecnargilla. There are no direct policies towards supporting the sector and the institutional disposition is weaker. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 19. 19 Scientific Environment CASTELLON Important role of the Jaume I University (UJI) training Chemist and Chemist Engineers. Deficient commercial and management training. Inadequate Industrial Engineering training. Research is developed by the ICV (Ceramic and Glass Institute), the ITC (Technological Institute of Ceramics) and the UJI (Jaume I University). SASSUOLO The Modena and Reggio Emilia University only recently offer degrees on Chemistry and Ceramic Engineering, being more experienced on Business Administration and on Industrial Engineering training. Less research is done in the Italian scientific environment, and it is carried by the CCB (Ceramic Centre of Bolonia). Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 20. 20 Technological and Advanced Services Providers’ Environment CASTELLON Technological innovation is driven by the glaze sub sector and assisted by ITC (Technological Institute of Ceramics). Central role of ITC on education and on process innovations. Education on chemistry and cooperation from ATC (Ceramic Technicians Association) is remarkable. SASSUOLO Technological innovation is driven and supported by the capital goods sub sector and design studios. The role of CCB (Ceramic Centre of Bolonia) although being important is not as central as its Spanish counterpart. Excellence on design, business administration and commercialization. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 21. 21 Productive Environment CASTELLON Small and Medium Enterprises flexible and dinamic. Low specialisation, most companies undertake all product typologies. Relative vertical integration within companies. Family founded firms, decisions are still adopted by the owner or main shareholder. Small inter-firm collaboration on R&D projects. Subcontracting is considerable. Weakness on the high market segment positioning. SASSUOLO Bigger ceramic holdings less dynamic than their Spanish counterparts. Higher product specialisation. Weak vertical integration within companies. Decisions are adopted by shareholders on steering committees adopting a more management like approach. Stronger tile firms implication on the Sectorial Innovation System articulation. Leadership on main markets. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 22. 22 Environmental Interactions CASTELLON Information flows between UJI, ITC, the glaze companies, and the ceramic companies, and is reinforced by the mobility of and relationship between graduates. The internationalization of the Spanish district with the Italian one is through the relationship between the Spanish ceramists and the Italian capital goods providers. Predominant role of institutional Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management actors. SASSUOLO Dense network of actors invigorated by the capital goods companies. The internationalization of the Italian district with the Spanish one is through the relation of the Italian ceramist with the Spanish glaze providers. Predominant role of business associations.
  • 23. 23 Innovation within the district CASTELLON Few relevant innovations both of product and process, more frequent in design and carried out by glaze firms. Too much dependent on capital goods providers and glaze firms. Lower innovative tension than their Italians counterparts. SASSUOLO Frequent product and process innovations driven by their leading position in capital goods. Try not to be excessively dependent on providers. Continuous search on new tile uses. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 24. 24 Part 4: Conclusions Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 25. 25 Conclusions 1) similar level of competition within the districts of both countries but a much weaker cooperation in the Spanish one. 2) scarcity of technology and advanced services providers in the Spanish district relegates it to a follower role in the process of innovation adoption. 3) presence of cross-sector technology enterprises in the Italian district, raises the innovative tension because of the technology diffusion across districts, and it is favoured by the mobility of qualified workers. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 26. 26 Relations between agents of different districts in Emilia-Romagna (Istituto per la Promozione Industriale, Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management 2002 )
  • 27. 27 Relations between agents of different districts in the Valencian Region (Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio, Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management 2005)
  • 28. 28 Part 5: Further Research Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 29. 29 Further Research 1) the role of ATC (the Spanish Technical Association) in articulating innovation transfer across the Spanish district; 2) the role of the manager club (not mentioned in this work) in stimulating and adopting of innovations; and 3) to what extent social capital articulates relations between agents from different districts, both of districts in the same sector but different countries, and from different sectors in the same country. Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management
  • 30. 30 Thank Thank yyoouu ffoorr yyoouurr aatttteennttiioonn INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia SPAIN www.ingenio.upv.es Nijmegen 22/08/2005 Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management

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