Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare Ralph C. Merkle, Ph.D. Principal Fellow
<ul><li>The overheads (in PowerPoint) are available on the web at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/talks/p...
<ul><li>Ninth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>November 9-11, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>San...
Foresight www.foresight.org/SrAssoc/ www.nanodot.org Gatherings
Health, wealth and atoms
Arranging atoms <ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
Richard Feynman,1959 There’s plenty of room at the bottom
1980’s, 1990’s Binnig and Rohrer Experiment and theory
President Clinton, 2000 <ul><li>“ Imagine the possibilities: materials with ten times the strength of steel and only a sma...
Arrangements of atoms . Today Overview
The goal . Overview
Core molecular manufacturing capabilities Today Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Pr...
Positional assembly
Experimental 100 microns
H. J. Lee and W. Ho, SCIENCE 286, p. 1719, NOVEMBER 1999 Experimental
Theoretical
<ul><li>Property Diamond’s value Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactivity Extremely low </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness (...
Making diamond today Illustration courtesy of P1 Diamond Inc.
Hydrogen abstraction tool
Other molecular tools
Bearing
Planetary gear
Fine motion controller
Theoretical
Self replication A redwood tree ( sequoia sempervirens ) 112 meters tall Redwood National Park
The Von Neumann architecture Universal Computer Universal Constructor http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html Self r...
Replicating bacterium DNA DNA Polymerase Self replication
http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html Drexler’s proposal for an assembler Self replication
<ul><li>Von Neumann's constructor 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma genitalia 1,160,140 </li></ul><ul><li>Drexler's a...
Micro rotation
Exponential assembly
<ul><li>The impact </li></ul><ul><li>of a manufacturing technology </li></ul><ul><li>depends on what we manufacture </li><...
<ul><li>We’ll have more computing power in the volume of a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that ex...
<ul><li>Disease and ill health are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s ...
<ul><li>In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision. </li></ul><ul>...
Scale “ Typical” mitochondrion ~1-2 by 0.1-0.5 microns Size of a robotic arm ~100 nanometers 8-bit computer
Scale “ Typical” cell: ~20 microns Mitochondrion Size of a robotic arm ~100 nanometers 8-bit computer
Remove infections
Clear obstructions
Respirocyte
<ul><li>Today: preserve function </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow: preserve structure </li></ul>A Revolution
Liquid nitrogen Time Temperature Cryonics
<ul><li>Would you rather </li></ul><ul><li>join the control group </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>the experimental ...
<ul><li>“ Thus, like so much else in medicine, cryonics, once considered on the outer edge, is moving rapidly closer to re...
<ul><li>By Robert Freitas, Zyvex Research Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology </li>...
Human impact on the environment depends on <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Living standards </li></ul><ul><li>Technol...
Restoring the environment with nanotechnology <ul><li>Low cost greenhouse agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost solar pow...
<ul><li>Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings. </li></u...
 
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Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare

Ralph C. Merkle
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare

  • 1. Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare Ralph C. Merkle, Ph.D. Principal Fellow
  • 2. <ul><li>The overheads (in PowerPoint) are available on the web at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/talks/ppt/ </li></ul><ul><li>France 010608.ppt </li></ul>Slides on web
  • 3. <ul><li>Ninth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>November 9-11, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Clara, California Introductory tutorial November 8 </li></ul><ul><li>www.foresight.org/Conferences/MNT9/ </li></ul>Foresight
  • 4. Foresight www.foresight.org/SrAssoc/ www.nanodot.org Gatherings
  • 5. Health, wealth and atoms
  • 6. Arranging atoms <ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
  • 7. Richard Feynman,1959 There’s plenty of room at the bottom
  • 8. 1980’s, 1990’s Binnig and Rohrer Experiment and theory
  • 9. President Clinton, 2000 <ul><li>“ Imagine the possibilities: materials with ten times the strength of steel and only a small fraction of the weight -- shrinking all the information housed at the Library of Congress into a device the size of a sugar cube -- detecting cancerous tumors when they are only a few cells in size.” </li></ul>The National Nanotechnology Initiative
  • 10. Arrangements of atoms . Today Overview
  • 11. The goal . Overview
  • 12. Core molecular manufacturing capabilities Today Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Overview
  • 13. Positional assembly
  • 14. Experimental 100 microns
  • 15. H. J. Lee and W. Ho, SCIENCE 286, p. 1719, NOVEMBER 1999 Experimental
  • 16. Theoretical
  • 17. <ul><li>Property Diamond’s value Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactivity Extremely low </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000 </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength (pascals) 3.5 x 10 9 (natural) 10 11 (theoretical) </li></ul><ul><li>Compressive strength (pascals) 10 11 (natural) 5 x 10 11 (theoretical) </li></ul><ul><li>Band gap (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Resistivity (W-cm) 10 16 (natural) </li></ul><ul><li>Density (gm/cm3) 3.51 </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10 -6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10 -6 </li></ul><ul><li>Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Crystallume </li></ul>What to make Diamond physical properties
  • 18. Making diamond today Illustration courtesy of P1 Diamond Inc.
  • 19. Hydrogen abstraction tool
  • 20. Other molecular tools
  • 21. Bearing
  • 22. Planetary gear
  • 23. Fine motion controller
  • 24. Theoretical
  • 25. Self replication A redwood tree ( sequoia sempervirens ) 112 meters tall Redwood National Park
  • 26. The Von Neumann architecture Universal Computer Universal Constructor http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html Self replication
  • 27. Replicating bacterium DNA DNA Polymerase Self replication
  • 28. http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html Drexler’s proposal for an assembler Self replication
  • 29. <ul><li>Von Neumann's constructor 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma genitalia 1,160,140 </li></ul><ul><li>Drexler's assembler 100,000,000 </li></ul>Complexity (bits)
  • 30. Micro rotation
  • 31. Exponential assembly
  • 32. <ul><li>The impact </li></ul><ul><li>of a manufacturing technology </li></ul><ul><li>depends on what we manufacture </li></ul>Impact
  • 33. <ul><li>We’ll have more computing power in the volume of a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 21 bits in the same volume </li></ul><ul><li>Almost a billion Pentiums in parallel </li></ul>Impact Powerful Computers
  • 34. <ul><li>Disease and ill health are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison </li></ul>Impact Nanomedicine
  • 35. <ul><li>In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision. </li></ul><ul><li>We will also have computers much smaller than a single cell to guide those tools. </li></ul>Impact Nanomedicine
  • 36. Scale “ Typical” mitochondrion ~1-2 by 0.1-0.5 microns Size of a robotic arm ~100 nanometers 8-bit computer
  • 37. Scale “ Typical” cell: ~20 microns Mitochondrion Size of a robotic arm ~100 nanometers 8-bit computer
  • 38. Remove infections
  • 39. Clear obstructions
  • 40. Respirocyte
  • 41. <ul><li>Today: preserve function </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow: preserve structure </li></ul>A Revolution
  • 42. Liquid nitrogen Time Temperature Cryonics
  • 43. <ul><li>Would you rather </li></ul><ul><li>join the control group </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>the experimental group? </li></ul><ul><li>(www.alcor.org) </li></ul>What to do?
  • 44. <ul><li>“ Thus, like so much else in medicine, cryonics, once considered on the outer edge, is moving rapidly closer to reality” </li></ul><ul><li>ABC News World News Tonight , Feb 8 th </li></ul><ul><li>“… [medical] advances are giving new credibility to cryonics.” </li></ul><ul><li>KRON 4 News, NightBeat, May 3, 2001 </li></ul>Perception
  • 45. <ul><li>By Robert Freitas, Zyvex Research Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Volume I (of three) published in 1999 </li></ul>Theory Nanomedicine http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine
  • 46. Human impact on the environment depends on <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Living standards </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>The Vision
  • 47. Restoring the environment with nanotechnology <ul><li>Low cost greenhouse agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost solar power </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution free manufacturing </li></ul>The Vision
  • 48. <ul><li>Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings. </li></ul><ul><li>K. Eric Drexler </li></ul>