Brazil <ul><li>Originally called the United States of Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state was sovereign, almost a conf...
Brazil continued <ul><li>64% of the pop over the age of 15 were illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>3% of the pop voted </li></ul...
Politics and Economics in the 30’s <ul><li>But the GD had a huge impact on the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External deb...
Background <ul><li>Was born in 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>He first started with the military, then turned to law </li></ul><ul...
Vargas’ Hold on Power.. <ul><li>He ruled over a coalition that was frustrated at the power of Sao Paulo </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Vargas Cont. <ul><li>In 1932 he lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 and extended the vote to women </li></ul><ul><li>Sti...
Estado Novo <ul><li>The left led an armed uprising…squashed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15,000 imprisoned and many tortured or p...
Impact <ul><li>Industrial production doubled from 1931-1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased trade with Germany </li></ul><ul><...
WWII and Brazil <ul><li>B became less strategic after front became Europe not N. Africa </li></ul><ul><li>B thought commit...
Vargas….again? <ul><li>Ran in 1950 for President again in 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran on a platform of industrializatio...
Impact <ul><li>Under the Estado Novo society was controlled by the government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included all printed m...
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Populism Continued Vargas Web

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Populism Continued Vargas Web

  • 1. Brazil <ul><li>Originally called the United States of Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state was sovereign, almost a confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 1889 and 1930, there was significant instability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social, political and economic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total dependency on their coffee industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created artificial demand through storing excess coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plantations became violent because the workers lived in debt peonage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired thugs were used to keep workers in line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brazil got into the war because U-boats sank B merchant ships </li></ul><ul><li>B basically got involved with supplies not military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food production was neglected in favor of light industry and coffee…led to malnutrition, diseases and a lack of proper sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average lifespan in 1920 was 28…low huh? </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. Brazil continued <ul><li>64% of the pop over the age of 15 were illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>3% of the pop voted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Really meant nothing because elections were rigged anyway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coronels ruled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The coronels of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais cut a deal, between 1889 and 1930 6 presidents came from there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So what was the impact??? </li></ul>
  • 3. Politics and Economics in the 30’s <ul><li>But the GD had a huge impact on the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External debt in 1930 of 1.2 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 rd of national budget went to the debt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coffee prices fell, how much?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happened the demand? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1930 the outgoing President nominated a Paulista like himself….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranchers from Minas Gerais wanted the next President to come from their region soooo…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberal Alliance was formed…what did it do? </li></ul><ul><li>Vargas became the President…how and what did it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Getulio Vargas…. </li></ul>
  • 4. Background <ul><li>Was born in 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>He first started with the military, then turned to law </li></ul><ul><li>He and his wife had 5 children </li></ul><ul><li>Came from a region called Rio Grande do Sul </li></ul><ul><li>He served various roles in the government, including Secretary of the Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>He was a wealthy nationalist and anti-communist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He favored a liberal, capitalist approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He lost a 1930 election, running on a populist platform </li></ul><ul><li>He took part in the bloodless coup in 1930, installing Vargas as “provisional president” </li></ul>
  • 5. Vargas’ Hold on Power.. <ul><li>He ruled over a coalition that was frustrated at the power of Sao Paulo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included growing middle class, intellectuals and tenant farmers, conservative landowners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressured by blacks and women for better rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His first few years he challenged SP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Interventers” were installed in every state except MG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty to country, not state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SP oligarchy led a revolt in 1932 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Constitutionalist Revolution was supported by all of SP </li></ul><ul><li>It was squashed, Vargas pardoned the leaders to gain support and the debt was excused </li></ul>
  • 6. Vargas Cont. <ul><li>In 1932 he lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 and extended the vote to women </li></ul><ul><li>Still 95% remained ineligible to vote (illiterate) </li></ul><ul><li>But between 1930-1945 there were no national elections, only state </li></ul><ul><li>1934-New Constitution drafted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vargas was elected until 1938 by the national assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalized energy, defense, fixed minimum wage, guaranteed the right to strike, fixed the 8-hour day and created social security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes were repressed that weren’t supported by gov </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Estado Novo <ul><li>The left led an armed uprising…squashed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15,000 imprisoned and many tortured or put to dealth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1937—Vargas cancelled 1938 elections, dissolved congress and assumed dictatorial status w/ new constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled by European Fascism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved all political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested anyone against Vargas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict censorship was established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The new regime was called the Estado Novo( New State) </li></ul><ul><li>They regulated the economy and industrialization became the focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vargas gave tax incentives, import quotas, lowered duties on imports needed for industrialization and low interest long term loans </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Impact <ul><li>Industrial production doubled from 1931-1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased trade with Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German for SA established 300 branches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1940 there was significant foreign capitol-especially with the US </li></ul><ul><li>US/B signed a secret agreement to build airstrips in B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B broke ties w/Germany in 1942 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to G sinking B merchant ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In August a B transport shop was sunk, 257 soldiers died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US sent anti-sub ships to B…finally declared war on 8/22/42 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vargas gave the US complete control over the B Navy and Air Force….why? </li></ul>
  • 9. WWII and Brazil <ul><li>B became less strategic after front became Europe not N. Africa </li></ul><ul><li>B thought committing soldiers meant post-war reconstructing </li></ul><ul><li>In 44’ 25,344 troops were sent to Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazilian Expeditionary Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All logistical support was supplied by the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent a fighter squadron as well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lost 1,889 soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>WWII led to rapid industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US needed supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship with the US was mutually favorable…but how about fascism? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vargas needed to acquire a façade of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He game amnesty for political prisoners, allowed political parties and set a date for elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military thought he would not hold them….deposed him </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Vargas….again? <ul><li>Ran in 1950 for President again in 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran on a platform of industrialization, nationalism (populism) and expansion of the social welfare program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He won with 48% of the vote…but he found that…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inflation rose which hurt the middle class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He needed foreign investment… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After a series of labor strikes he proposed a doubling of the minimum wage </li></ul><ul><li>In 1954—The “Manifesto of Colonels” </li></ul><ul><li>Due to a failed assassination attempt of his opponent, he was forced to resign </li></ul><ul><li>The day he was to leave office he committed suicide at the age of 72 </li></ul>
  • 11. Impact <ul><li>Under the Estado Novo society was controlled by the government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included all printed materials and radio programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vargas did nothing to improve status of women or minorities </li></ul><ul><li>The promises made to the MC were never a reality…such as… </li></ul><ul><li>When he died people were devastated….really? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The masses were saddened, he appealed to the common people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education was not improved at all…in 1942 16% had completed more than three years of education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over all, his rhetoric did not match his realty…populism  </li></ul>

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