Population and Urban Land Use From Space Christopher D. Elvidge NOAA-NESDIS National Geophysical Data Center 325 Broadway...
High Priority Products <ul><li>Population density – ambient and residential. </li></ul><ul><li>Bounding polygons for citie...
Satellite Remote Sensing Observables Unique To Developed Areas <ul><li>Physical infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal...
Satellite Remote Sensing Observables For Developed Areas TBD TBD Value unproven None Electrical Emissions Improvement over...
Band 6 Thermal Infrared Nighttime Landsat Showing Combustion Sources in the TIR & SWIR Los Angeles, California – November ...
The U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a Unique capabi...
What do a billion people look like? DMSP F-10 OLS cloud-free composite from 1993. Average visible band value = red. Maxi...
Red: Lights brighter in 2000 Yellow: New lights in 2000 Blue: Lights brighter in 1992-93 Blue/Grey: Dim lights detected in...
LandScan Uses Nighttime Lights and Other Data Sources To Model Global Ambient Population http://www.ornl.gov/sci/gist/land...
The Human Footprint Dataset Uses Nighttime Lights and Other Data Sources http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/wild_areas/
The year 2000 constructed impervious surface area (ISA) of the USA is nearly the size of Ohio ISA grid downloaded 308 time...
Anticipated Improvements From VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) <ul><li>Improved spatial resolution (0.8 km) </li></ul><ul><li>On...
How Does the VIIRS DNB Fall Short? <ul><li>Detection limits designed to match OLS – detection of dimmer lighting not antic...
NightSat Concept <ul><li>Demographers, geographers, social scientists, economists and ecologists currently working with DM...
Thermal Brightness and Nightlights of Long Beach California Acquired at 04:25:54 UTC, 9/1/2004 from the NASA ER-2 From and...
Summary <ul><li>High spatial resolution imagery: Systems need to collect on human settlements - producing a global archiv...
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Population and urban land use from space

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population and urban land use from space

  • 1. Population and Urban Land Use From Space Christopher D. Elvidge NOAA-NESDIS National Geophysical Data Center 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 USA Tel. 1-303-497-6121 Email: chris.elvidge@noaa.gov September 14, 2004
  • 2. High Priority Products <ul><li>Population density – ambient and residential. </li></ul><ul><li>Bounding polygons for cities, towns, villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban landuse classes (e.g. low density residential). </li></ul><ul><li>Vectors for streets and roads. </li></ul><ul><li>3-D models of urban centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Impervious surface area. </li></ul><ul><li>Living conditions (e.g. extent of electrification, poverty). </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial distribution of fossil fuel trace gas and aerosol emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial distribution of economic activity (e.g. GDP). </li></ul>Periodic Updates Required For All Products
  • 3. Satellite Remote Sensing Observables Unique To Developed Areas <ul><li>Physical infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion point sources – from large gas flares, other industrial sources and down individual dwellings </li></ul>
  • 4. Satellite Remote Sensing Observables For Developed Areas TBD TBD Value unproven None Electrical Emissions Improvement over OLS – but falls short on spatial resolution and performance TBD. VIIRS-DNB Coarse spatial resolution – poor calibration. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Lights TBD TBD Little nighttime Landsat acquired – ASTER SWIR bands typically not collected at night. Value unproven. Nighttime Landsat, ASTER SWIR, Hyperion Combustion point sources Observational capability adequate, global archive required. Landsat 8?, VIIRS and others Mixed pixel problems with 30+ meter data. Global archives required. Landsat, ASTER. Ikonos, Quickbird, MODIS, others Infrastucture (spectral) Observational capability adequate, global global collections required on human settlements. Commercial systems - TBD Observational capability adequate, global collections required on human settlements. IKONOS Quickbird others Infrastucture (spatial & 3-D) Adequacy Planned Systems Adequacy Current System(s) Observable
  • 5. Band 6 Thermal Infrared Nighttime Landsat Showing Combustion Sources in the TIR & SWIR Los Angeles, California – November 24, 2000 Band 7 SWIR
  • 6. The U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a Unique capability to collect low-light imagery. Polar orbiting 3000 km swath 2.7 km ground sample distance (GSD) Two spectral bands: visible and thermal Nightly global coverage Flown since 1972 Will continue till ~2012 Visible Thermal
  • 7. What do a billion people look like? DMSP F-10 OLS cloud-free composite from 1993. Average visible band value = red. Maximum visible band value = green. Minimum visible band value = blue .
  • 8. Red: Lights brighter in 2000 Yellow: New lights in 2000 Blue: Lights brighter in 1992-93 Blue/Grey: Dim lights detected in both years Black: Lights Saturated in both periods Nighttime Lights Change Detection (1992-93 versus 2000) Italy and surroundings
  • 9. LandScan Uses Nighttime Lights and Other Data Sources To Model Global Ambient Population http://www.ornl.gov/sci/gist/landscan/index.html
  • 10. The Human Footprint Dataset Uses Nighttime Lights and Other Data Sources http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/wild_areas/
  • 11. The year 2000 constructed impervious surface area (ISA) of the USA is nearly the size of Ohio ISA grid downloaded 308 times during June and July, 2004. Reference: Elvidge, C.D., Milesi, C., Dietz, J.B., Tuttle, B.T., Sutton, P.C., Nemani, R., Vogelmann, J.E., 2004, U.S. constructed area approaches the size of Ohio.  EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 85, p. 233. <ul><li>One km 2 ISA grid used the following data inputs: </li></ul><ul><li>Nighttime lights (NOAA) </li></ul><ul><li>Road density </li></ul><ul><li>(Census Bureau) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Landsat urban land cover </li></ul><ul><li>(USGS) </li></ul><ul><li>4) Calibrated using commercial aerial photography </li></ul>
  • 12. Anticipated Improvements From VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) <ul><li>Improved spatial resolution (0.8 km) </li></ul><ul><li>On-board calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Will cover OLS dynamic range with automatic gain changes to avoid saturation and higher level of quantitization. </li></ul><ul><li>In-scene discrimination of lights and fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved cloud and snow detection. </li></ul>
  • 13. How Does the VIIRS DNB Fall Short? <ul><li>Detection limits designed to match OLS – detection of dimmer lighting not anticipated. </li></ul><ul><li>Panchromatic – no spectral information on lighting type. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial resolution remains relatively coarse. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of the DNB TBD. </li></ul>
  • 14. NightSat Concept <ul><li>Demographers, geographers, social scientists, economists and ecologists currently working with DMSP-OLS nighttime lights data are dissatisfied with the OLS’ coarse spatial resolution, saturation of urban centers and lack of calibration. Technology exists for a NightSat sensor: </li></ul><ul><li>Objective – annual global cloud-free nighttime lights composites far exceeding the quality of the OLS products and future VIIRS products. </li></ul><ul><li>Pan-chromatic or multispectral low light imaging at 100 meter (or less) spatial resolution with on-board calibration. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 200 km swath (similar to Landsat). </li></ul><ul><li>Lower detection limits / wider dynamic range than OLS and VIIRS – for detection of sparser / dimmer lighting while avoiding saturation in urban centers. </li></ul><ul><li>SWIR band for fire detection or fly in constellation with MODIS/VIIRS? </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal band for cloud detection or fly in constellation with MODIS/VIIRS? </li></ul>
  • 15. Thermal Brightness and Nightlights of Long Beach California Acquired at 04:25:54 UTC, 9/1/2004 from the NASA ER-2 From and Altitude of 13 km MODIS Airborne Simulator Thermal Bands 46-42-36 as r,g,b. Cirrus DCS Camera Observation of Nighttime Lights
  • 16. Summary <ul><li>High spatial resolution imagery: Systems need to collect on human settlements - producing a global archive. Consolidated effort would be required to generate databases for streets and roads, impervious surfaces, 3-D urban models. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium resolution multispectral (30 m to 1 km): Continuity of observations appears assured. Global urban landuse products from Landsat style data could be expedited based on nighttime lights to reduced data volume to be processed. </li></ul><ul><li>Nighttime lights: VIIRS will provide data for improved products. Observations of nighttime lights could be substantially improved over DMSP-OLS and VIIRS with a dedicated sensor using existing technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Emissions: Unexplored to date. </li></ul>

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