Assignment
Topic: Status & Utilization of Press mud and molasses
in crop production
Introduction:
Press mud and molasses are the basically by-product of sugarcane which could be
used for a better purpose in...
If we accept that the present world production of sugarcane has reached the 60 million
tonnes level, then the quantities o...
Molasses is the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated
crystallization; it is the residual syrup ...
testing, using a wide variety of both highvalue (vegetables, fruit trees, grapes) and high-
volume (field corn, soybeans) ...
• Improves environmental impacts by reducing nitrogen fertilizers and promoting more
CO2-absorbing foliage growth on plant...
C:N 14
In India, sugar industry with 400 sugar factories rank as the second major agro-industry
in the country. The cane-s...
4. potassium 0.48-0.84%
5. Calcium 0.83-1.98%
6. magnesium 0.05-0.25%
7. sulphur 0.22-0.31%
8. copper 35-200mg/kg
9. zinc ...
studies have been conducted on Press mud for its suitability to use in agriculture and for
energy production.
Compost is p...
S.no. Raw material Fraction percentage
1 Sugar press mud 0.878 87.8
2 rock phosphate 0.095 9.5
3 molasses 0.005 0.5
4 SSP ...
Testing of Raw Materials:
Following tests for raw materials and products are carried out before processing:
Production pro...
Bibliography:
1.) FAO ; (Alternative use of sugarcane and its by product in agro industries)
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003...
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pressmud

status &utikliation of press mud in agriculture
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - pressmud

  • 1. Assignment Topic: Status & Utilization of Press mud and molasses in crop production
  • 2. Introduction: Press mud and molasses are the basically by-product of sugarcane which could be used for a better purpose in the crop production and management to get better crop growth and improving soil physical condition rather more organically without causing any harm to the environment. They are released during the industrial milling process and have the great potential to be used as the organic fertilizer so that the indiscriminate use of the chemical fertilizers could be reduced and soil health must be maintained which should be our utmost priorty. In agriculture sector, sugarcane shared about 7% of the total value of agriculture output and occupied about 2.6% of India’s gross cropped area during 2006-07.Being a flexible crop, sugarcane is a rich source of- (a) Fiber containing cellulose material. (b) Food containing sucrose, fructose, syrups, jaggery. (c) Fodder made from green leaves and top of cane, molasses, bagasse, sugar press mud. (d) Fuel from residue/waste of sugar industry. (e) Chemicals like alcohol, bagasse & molasses. The four main by-products of the sugarcane industry are- a) cane tops b) bagasse c) press mud and d) molasses. Sugarcane provides raw material for the second largest agro-based industry after textile. About 527 working sugar factories with total installed annual sugar production capacity of about 242 lakh tonnes are located in the country during 2010-11. The time when cost of chemical fertilizer is skyrocketing and not affordable by farmers, press mud has promise as a source of plant nutrient and as medium for raising sugarcane seedlings and leguminous inoculants. So a large amount of waste releasing from the industries could be used on a large scale for organic fertilizer production. Status and Utilization:
  • 3. If we accept that the present world production of sugarcane has reached the 60 million tonnes level, then the quantities of these by-products produced yearly are approximately the following: Cane top 200 mt Fresh weight Bagasse 60 mt Bone dried weight Press mud 5 mt Air dried weight Molasses 16 mt At 80 per cent DM The flow chart regarding production of various sugarcane by-products such as press mud, molasses is given below:
  • 4. Molasses is the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated crystallization; it is the residual syrup from which no crystalline sucrose can be obtained by simple means. The yield of molasses is approximately 3.0 percent per tonne of cane but it is influenced by a number of factors and may vary within a wide range (2.2 to 3.7 percent). The specific gravity varies between 1.39 and 1.49, with 1.43 as indicative average. The composition of molasses varies also within fairly wide limits but, on average, would be as follows: Water 20% Sucrose 35% Fructose 9% Nitrogenous compounds 4.5% Ash 12% Other carbohydrates 4% Glucose 7% Commercial use an molasses organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry’s profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.The phytochelates in this process are derived from sugar cane by-products (molasses or raffinate). Dextrose and fructose are removed and converted to lactic and succinic acids and processed through centrifugation, clarification, filtration, and softening. This chromatographic process uses a multiple column pseudo-moving-bed design that incorporates a weak cation resin. The lactic and succinic acids are fermented in several steps to separate unwanted material, including material for use as a high protein animal feed, then are further purified and evaporated for handling and storage. Extensive laboratory, greenhouse, and field
  • 5. testing, using a wide variety of both highvalue (vegetables, fruit trees, grapes) and high- volume (field corn, soybeans) test crops, have shown that fermentation succinic acid, either alone or used in a raffinate carrier system, can increase vegetative and reproductive plant growth and boost yield harvests at high statistical probabilities. Hence, major end-uses for fermentation succinic acid and fermentation succinic acid supplemented with molasses raffinate as plant growth enhancers have been demonstrated. These formulations can be used either as soil or foliar applied treatments. However, more testing has been done using soil treatments. % of Minerals in molasses (per 100g): Calcium (21%) 205 mg Iron (36%) 4.72 mg Magnesium (68%) 242 mg Manganese (73%) 1.53 mg Phosphorus (4%) 31 mg Potassium (31%) 1464 mg Sodium (2%) 37 mg Zinc (3%) 0.29 mg Types of molasses: The different types are: first molasses, second molasses, unsulphured molasses, sulphured molasses, and blackstrap molasses. For gardeners, blackstrap molasses (unsulphered) is the best choice because it is the most nutritionally valuable of the various types of molasses since it contains the greatest concentration of sulfur, potash, iron, and micronutrients from the original cane material. So it's not just the sugar content that makes molasses useful, but its trace minerals. Molasses is also an excellent chelating agent, which means that it can help convert some chemical nutrients into a form that's easily available for organisms and plants to use. The blackstrap molasses (unsulphered) is a liquid molasses that can be used alone, or as a component in both sprays and soil drenches, and can be an important addition to organic fertilization program. Benefits: • 33% increase in fertilizer efficiency will save 10 million tons of plant nutrients per year, resulting in a savings of $6 billion annually. • Increases fruit and vegetable yields.
  • 6. • Improves environmental impacts by reducing nitrogen fertilizers and promoting more CO2-absorbing foliage growth on plants and trees. • Reduces plant stress by applying phytochelates to foliage. • Reduces waste from the sugar cane plant, which is converted into phytochelates. • Increases profits for the sugar cane industry. Press mud is a solid residue, obtained from sugarcane juice before crystallization of sugar. Generally press mud is used as manure in India. It is a soft, spongy, lightweight, amorphous, dark brown to black coloured material. It generally contains 60-85% moisture (w/w); the chemical composition depends on cane variety, soil condition, nutrients applied in the field, process of clarification adopted and other environmental factors. Press mud from sugar factory typically contains 71% moisture, 9% ash and 20% volatile solids, with 74-75% organic matter on solids. Sugar molasses has methane potential (i.e. CH4 per ton of raw material) of 230 m3. Composition of press mud- Compound Percentage cellulose 11.4 hemicellulose 10 Lignin 9.3 Protein 15.5 Wax 8.4 Sugar 5.7 Na 0.22 Characteristics of press mud- Parameter Average value (%) Moisture 76.3 Volatile matter 76.6 Sugar 6.4 Wax 7.2
  • 7. C:N 14 In India, sugar industry with 400 sugar factories rank as the second major agro-industry in the country. The cane-sugar industry has several co-products of immense potential value. The co products include press mud (filter cake), molasses and spent wash. Out of which press mud is produced during clarification of sugarcane juice. About 3.6 - 4% of sugarcane crushed end up as press mud i.e. 36 - 40 kg of press mud is obtained after 1 ton of cane crushing. Press mud is a soft, spongy, amorphous and dark brown material containing sugar, fiber and coagulated colloids including cane wax, albuminoids, inorganic salts and soil particles. It consists of 80 % water and 0.9 -1.5 % sugar, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulphur, coagulated colloids and other materials in varying amounts. The advantages of using sugarcane press mud for soil application is its low cost, slower release of nutrients, presence of trace element, high water holding capacity and mulching properties. Press mud like other organic materials affects the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. However, the disadvantages of press mud are that due to its bulky nature and wax content it causes some problems. If press mud is directly applied to soil as manure, the wax present might deteriorate the physical properties such as permeability, aeration, soil structure and composition etc. and with the passage of time the deterioration might get worsen. Also, if it is freshly applied to the soil directly from the factory, it has the tendency to burn the plants as a result of the rapid decomposition of the new sugarcane press mud which liberates heat and ammonia in high concentrations. The aim of present study is to determine the water holding capacity of soil by using wax containing press mud and dewaxed press mud and its compost which would helps to give idea which press mud increases the water holding capacity of soil. It also aims of this work were to study the physico-chemical parameters of wax containing press mud and dewaxed press mud and its compost. Extraction of wax from press mud will be helpful to enhance the quality of press mud as organic manure. % of nutrients present in press mud S.no. parameter values 1. Organic carbon 34.5-42% 2. nitrogen 0.47-1.05% 3. phosphorus 2.31-3.01%
  • 8. 4. potassium 0.48-0.84% 5. Calcium 0.83-1.98% 6. magnesium 0.05-0.25% 7. sulphur 0.22-0.31% 8. copper 35-200mg/kg 9. zinc 47-215mg/kg 10. Manganese 163-625mg/kg 11. iron 250-9500mg/kg 12. pH 6.5-7.3 During the processing of sugarcane, cane juice contains a large number ofimpurities which are in the form of precipitates and these impurities are separated using filtration process. Both types of filtration processes i.e. batch type filter presses or rotary vacuum filtration process or produces cake. SPM produced during extraction of sugar as an impurity has multiple uses like as a fertilizer, animal feed and industrial use as a building lime after calcinations process. Composition of SPM varies with different industries by the following factors: (a) Classification methods (b) Variety of cane (c) Locality (d) Mill efficiency (e) Soil type (f) Nutrients available This SPM is produced at a rate of 7-9% of total weight of sugar cane in carbonation industries and 3-5 % in sulfitation industries. Press mud is a rich source of organic carbon, NPK and other micronutrients. Addition of organics improved soil organic carbon and available NPK status and had no adverse effect on soil pH and EC. This study indicated that through the application of 10 tonnes of bio compost or enriched press mud or Acetobacter + phosphobacterium (each 10kg), 25% chemical fertilizers could be saved without losing yield and quality besides improving soil fertility. Several
  • 9. studies have been conducted on Press mud for its suitability to use in agriculture and for energy production. Compost is prepared drom residues such as press mud and molasses obtained in large amount during milling of sugarcane and is used as biofertilizer. Preparation of Biofertilizer Composting Process: Compost produced from biological wastes does not contain any chemicals unfavorable to living soil. This organic fertilizer is also one of them which contain phosphate, nitrogen solubilizing bacteria and decomposing fungi, which is co-friendly and protect the plants from various soil borne diseases. Results of trial based production of Compost at large scale is discussed. Different ratios of sugar press mud (SPM), Molasses and Rock Phosphate was mixed, piled and transformed in to Compost products in about 14-21 days. Single super phosphate (SSP) & Sulfur mud was also added and investigated to increase the Phosphoric components of Compost to produce a good quality of biofertilizer. In the end, granulation of this bio fertilizer was also investigated at different temperatures using Rotary dryers to produce grains for the ease of farmers. Production of Compost fertilizer: *Principles of composting process: Composting is the controlled biological decomposition and conversion of solid organic material into humus like substance called compost. Composting is the process of letting nature transforms organic materials into a material with environmentally beneficial applications. The process is aerobic, meaning it requires oxygen. The process uses various microorganisms such as bacteria, actinomyces and fungi to break down the organic compounds into simpler sub-stances. In natural surroundings, leaves and branches that fall to the ground form a rich, moist layer of mulch that protects the roots of plants and provides a home for nature’s most fundamental recyclers: worms, insects and a host of microorganisms too small to see with the naked eye. Composting is a viable process of treating solid waste for beneficial use and destroying pathogens, diseases and undesirable weed seed. By properly managing air, moisture and nutrients, the composting process can transform large quantities of organic material into compost in a relatively short time. *Basic raw material requirements for compost production: Following raw materials are utilized for production of compost fertilizer from sugar pressmud which are listed as below.
  • 10. S.no. Raw material Fraction percentage 1 Sugar press mud 0.878 87.8 2 rock phosphate 0.095 9.5 3 molasses 0.005 0.5 4 SSP 0.02 2 5 Sulphur mud 0.002 0.2 1. Sugar press Mud: Sugar press mud (SPM) is also termed as press mud cake or filter cake. During the processing of sugarcane, cane juice contains a large number of impurities which are in the form of precipitates and these impurities are separated using filtration process. Both types of filtration processes i.e. batch type filter presses or rotary vacuum filtration process or, produces cake. SPM produced during extraction of sugar as an impurity has multiple uses like as a fertilizer, animal feed and industrial use as a building lime after calcinations process. Manufacturing process: The process of Production of compost fertilizer is very simple process as described in block diagram in figure:
  • 11. Testing of Raw Materials: Following tests for raw materials and products are carried out before processing: Production process: 1. Digestion unit: The result was obtained in open air atmospheric conditions at a temperature of 30-35 0C. First the SPM, local rock phosphate, SSP and sulfur mud were mixed thoroughly and piled of approximately 100-110 ft. in length above ground level, 3-4 ft. in width and 2-2.5 ft. high in semicircle shape. These piles were given time to be composited and to complete digestion process for about 14-21 days. During piling, the mixture was mixed, turned and watered after every three days to maintain moisture content of 50-60 %. A turner was used for turning process to maintain uniform mixing. 2. Granulation Unit: The compost mixture from the digestion unit is then sent to granulation unit. Here molasses (0.5 % of total raw material) and water are sprayed before entering the dryer for the formation of granules. A horizontal Rotary dryer is used to form granules at a temperature of 240-250 0C. 3. Screening unit: After granulation process it is sent to screening unit. Average size of the biofertilizer should be of 5mm diameter for the ease of farmer and good quality granule. Oversize and undersize granules are recycled again to dryer unit. This screening unit is same as the screening process used for SSP screening. Product of required size is sent to Packaging unit where it is packed in the bags through auto filling. And then finally product is sent to distribution unit. 4. Quality assurance or testing of final compost product: Final resultant compost contained; 25% of organic matter and amount of molasses present is 0.5%.
  • 12. Bibliography: 1.) FAO ; (Alternative use of sugarcane and its by product in agro industries) http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/s8850e/s8850e03.htm (accessed on 11/11/2015) 2.) Bhosale P.R., Chonde S.G., Nakade D.B. and Raut P.D; (May 2012); Studies on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waxed and Dewaxed Pressmud and its effect on Water Holding Capacity of Soil, ISCA Journal of Biological Sciences ; Vol. 1(1), 35-41, page no. 1,2,3. http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v1i1/5.ISCA-JBS-2012-013.pdf (accessed on 11/11/2015) 3.) V. Rengaraj*1 and Mazher Sultana (Aug 2014) ; Standardization of the optimal ratio of distillery spent wash to the pressmud windrows for effective and ecofriendly compost; INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NOVEL TRENDS IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES; ISSN: 2277 – 2782. http://www.ijntps.org/File_Folder/0059.pdf 4.) Nagesh N. Patil, Sumit Jadhav, Sachin S. Ghorpade and Abhijeetkumar B. Sharma; (Jan 2013) ISOLATION AND ENRICHMENT OF SUGAR PRESS MUD (SPM) ADAPTED MICROORGANISM FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOFERTILIZER BY USING SUGAR PRESS MUD ; International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research; ISSN 0976-2612, Online ISSN 2278–599X;Vol 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp 96- 104 http://bipublication.com/files/IJABR-V4I1-2013-14.pdf (accessed on 10/11/2015) 5.) Agriculture Project Fact sheet (Bioconversion of Sugarcane molasses) http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/751070-Pc7EVd/webviewable/ (accessed on 13/11/2015) 6.) Sardar, Suneela; Ilyas, Suhaib Umer; Malik, Shahid Raza; Javaid, Kashif , February 2012, International Journal of Chemical & Environmental Engineering;Feb2012, Vol. 3 Issue 1, following p38 , Compost Fertilizer production from Sugar Press Mud (SPM). http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/74124009/compost-fertilizer-production- from-sugar-press-mud-spm (accessed on 13/11/2015) 7.) Milind Patil, Mohit Kavitkar, Ankush Borkar, Sanjay Amley; ISSN: 2321-8134 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY; COMPOST FERTILIZER PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR PRESS MUD. http://www.ijfeat.org/papers/agnipankh41.pdf (accessed on 13/11/2015)