TÜRKİYE’DE ÇOCUKLARA ANLATILAN MUSEVİ İSPANYOLCASI VE TÜRKÇE
DİLLERİNDEKİ “NASREDDIN HOCA” (NASRETTİN HOCA) BİLMECELERİ
VE...
Kısacası farklı kavramların kullanımı çocukların bilişsel veya zihinsel gelişimine ve kültürel formasyonuna
faydalıdır. Be...
themselves SEPHARDIM (Sepharads) (Sarhon, n.d., para. 3).
The Ottoman Empire was more tolerant toward the Jews than the Ch...
Besides, among one of the Sephardic magazines published in the Ottoman Empire, we encounter this one,
published in 1860: “...
“Esta es la madre!” les disho Djoha, “Esta es ke le ambezò kualo azer a la vakita chika! A esta es ke la v’a
aharvar!”
(1)...
Hoca, eve doğru giderken nasıl olmuşsa ciğeri bir çaylağa kaptırmış. Çaylak “Gak! Guk!” edip uzaklaşmaya
başlamış. Hoca hi...
“Hodja,” said he, “please read that!”
Hodja took the letter. He glanced at it, and he saw that the letter was in Persian. ...
Djoha prefers to give money to good Jews, going to the synagogue, since God can pay him more. But nobody
comes and pays hi...
The mother did not oppose to Djoha. He was a gifted son. Djoha took the sack of gold. Seeing the good Jews,
going out of t...
Meanwhile, he saw the walnuts on the tree. He looked at the small walnuts on the tree and the huge pumpkins in
the field. ...
Prepared by a commission. (2003). Eğlendiren, düşündüren, eğiten Nasrettin Hoca Fıkraları. Istanbul: Çilek.:
Sansal, B. (2...
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Agis, Derya. November 6 – 8, 2006. “Anecdotes of “Hodja Nasreddin” (“Nasrettin Hoca”) in the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Languages.” 3rd International Children and Communication Congress & 3rd International Children Films Festival & Congress

Agis, Derya. November 6 – 8, 2006. “Anecdotes of “Hodja Nasreddin” (“Nasrettin Hoca”) in the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Languages.” 3rd International Children and Communication Congress & 3rd International Children Films Festival & Congress ‘Tailoring Identities for Future Children,’ Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      
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Transcripts - Agis, Derya. November 6 – 8, 2006. “Anecdotes of “Hodja Nasreddin” (“Nasrettin Hoca”) in the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Languages.” 3rd International Children and Communication Congress & 3rd International Children Films Festival & Congress

  • 1. TÜRKİYE’DE ÇOCUKLARA ANLATILAN MUSEVİ İSPANYOLCASI VE TÜRKÇE DİLLERİNDEKİ “NASREDDIN HOCA” (NASRETTİN HOCA) BİLMECELERİ VEYA FIKRALARI Derya AGİŞ∗ Hacettepe University, TURKEY deryaagis@gmail.com RIDDLES OR ANECDOTES OF “HODJA NASREDDIN” (“NASRETTIN HOCA”) IN THE JUDEO-SPANISH AND TURKISH LANGUAGES NARRATED TO CHILDREN IN TURKEY Abstract In this study, I aim to analyze the famous anecdotes where the funny, and originally Turkish character of Hodja Hasreddin (Nasrettin Hoca) is presented not only in Turkish, but also in Judeo-Spanish. These anecdotes are narrated by Turkish Muslim people in Turkish, and by Turkish Jewish people, thus, the Sepharads – the Jews, who emigrated from Spain to the Ottoman Empire in 1492 - in Judeo-Spanish. These anecdotes are narrated to children from both cultures. I propose that the children can be raised as perfect individuals, as long as they interpret these anecdotes correctly. For the correct interpretation of these anecdotes, these children may invent some metaphors, called conceptual keys, in their mind. Thus, Cognitive Linguistics is a good tool for understanding what these anecdotes can teach children from both cultures. Therefore, I am going to examine the diverse traditions, the diverse human and animal characters and figures, and the other different items used in the anecdotes of Hodja Nasreddin narrated by people belonging to two different cultures. These characters, figures, and objects are effective in the perception of the main theme and the jokes of these anecdotes by Muslim and Jewish children, as they lead to the activation of the right brain parts in understanding different cultural concepts. Briefly, the use of diverse concepts is useful for the cognitive or mental development, and for the cultural formation of the children. I aim to discover all of these concepts leading to the jokes in the anecdotes of Hodja Nasreddin in both languages and in both cultures. Key words: Cognitive Linguistics, Nasrettin Hoca (Nasreddin Hodja), Sephardic Culture, Turkish Culture, Child Instruction and Education Özet Bu çalışmada, komik ve aslı Türk olan Nasrettin Hoca karakterini işleyen Türkçe ve Yahudi İspanyolcası dillerindeki fıkralarını incelemeyi amaçlıyorum. Bu fıkralar, Müslüman Türklerce Türkçe ve Musevi Türklerce (1492 yılında İspanya’dan Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na göçen Museviler tarafından) de Yahudi İspanyolcası dillerinde anlatılır. Bu fıkralar iki kültürün çocuklarına da anlatılmaktadır. Bu fıkraları doğru bir şekilde yorumladıkları takdirde çocukların mükemmel bireyler olarak yetiştirilebileceklerini ileri sürüyorum. Bu fıkraların doğru bir şekilde yorumlanabilmesi için çocuklar zihinlerinde kavramsal anahtarlar adı verilen metaforlar keşfedebilirler. Dolayısıyla, Bilişsel Dilbilim iki kültürün çocuklarına bu fıkraların ne öğretebileceğini anlamak için iyi bir araçtır. Bu nedenle, iki kültüre de ait olan Nasrettin Hoca fıkralarında kullanılan farklı gelenekleri, farklı insan ve hayvan figürlerini ve diğer değişik araç – gereçleri inceleyeceğim. Farklı kültürel kavramların anlaşılmasında doğru beyin bölgesinin harekete geçmesini sağlayarak, bu karakterler, figürler ve nesneler fıkraların ana fikrinin ve şakalarının Müslüman ve Musevi çocuklar tarafından anlaşılmasında etkilidirler.  Derya Agiş, Hacettepe University, Department of English Linguistics, deryaagis@gmail.com
  • 2. Kısacası farklı kavramların kullanımı çocukların bilişsel veya zihinsel gelişimine ve kültürel formasyonuna faydalıdır. Ben iki dile ve kültüre ait olan Nasrettin Hoca fıkralarındaki şakalara yol açan bütün bu kavramları bulmayı amaçlıyorum. Anahtar kelimeler: Bilişsel Dilbilim, Nasrettin Hoca fıkraları, Sefarad Kültürü, Türk Kültürü, Çocuk Öğrenimi ve Eğitimi 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper, I intend to discover the similarities and differences in the anecdotes of Nasrettin Hoca (Hodja Nasreddin) and of the Sephardic Djoha. The customs narrated in the former represent elements of the Turkish Islamic culture, and usually the customs of Ottomans, since Hoca is always old in these anecdotes, whereas the Djoha of the Sepharads, thus, of the Jews who emigrated from Spain to the Ottoman Empire, reflects the customs of the Jews not only during the period of the Ottoman Empire, but also in the modern world, as the Sephardic Djoha can be a child, an adolescent, or an adult. All of these anecdotes have an undeniable impact on children. They are useful for teaching the cultural elements, customs, and various attidues and skills to children. As we teach the anecdotes of both cultures to children, these children will respect others from different cultures, who speak different mother tongues and have a different religion. The anecdotes of Nasreddin Hodja are perfect peacebuilders. Briefly, this study will examine the cognitive effects of the anecdotes of Nasrettin Hoca and Djoha on the children of both Turkish and Sephardic cultures, and will highlight the best education methods to raise children as peacebuilders and respectful members of the society. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Various studies on the anecdotes of Nasrettin Hoca (Hodja Hasreddin) and Djoha have been conducted. One of them belongs to Beki Bardavid; in her work Bardavid (1997) compares Hodja Hasreddin tales, belonging to Turkish and Sephardic cultures. She explains that Sepharads called intelligent and funny children Djoha, and this character is represented sometimes as a young, and sometimes as an old person in the Sephardic anecdotes; this character can be intelligent, stupid, clever, pure, sad, and happy in both cultures; besides, he has always moral values, but in the Turkish anecdotes, he is always old. In addition, she also cites that the Turkish Hoca speaks Turkish, whereas the Jewish Djoha speaks Judeo-Spanish. Moreover, Civelek (2005) compares Turkish Nasrettin Hoca anecdotes to Cuha-el-Arabi anecdotes. He mentions the similarities and differences between the Turkish and Arabic anecdotes from a folkloristic point of view. At this point, we can mention that the name Djoha might have been derived from the Arabic word Cuha. Also, Fedai (2001) conducted a comparative study: he compared Hodja Nasreddin tales narrated by Greeks and Cypriot Turks, and he suggests that Cuha is the Arabic version of Djoha and Hoca. There are too many observations of the anecdotes of Hodja Nasreddin; but my study differs from those previous ones, as it is mainly based on some cognitive linguistic theories, and the cognitive elements in the anecdotes that have a direct impact on the children’s education and instruction. I suppose that children can be raised as future peacebuildres via the teachings of the anecdotes of both cultures, and also of other cultures. Shortly, we can regard Hodja Nasreddin as a perfect peacebuilder. 3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SEPHARDIC JEWS IN TURKEY AND INFORMATION ABOUT JUDEO-SPANISH The destiny conducted Spanish Jews to the Ottoman Empire in March 1492, as the fall of Granada indicated the end of the Reconquista, and the Catholic monarchs of Spain, Isabella of Castilla, Ferdinand of Aragon and their prime minister Torquemada sent them away from Spain, since they refused to be converted into Christianity (Sarhon, n.d., para. 1). Until the end of the sixteenth century, Jews emigrated to Istanbul, Safed, Salonica, Jerusalem, and Cairo: the communities were divided into groups in accordance with their origins, as Cordova, Aragon, Leon etc. (Sarhon, n.d., para. 3). They took the name SEPHARAD, which means Spain in Hebrew; furthermore, they called
  • 3. themselves SEPHARDIM (Sepharads) (Sarhon, n.d., para. 3). The Ottoman Empire was more tolerant toward the Jews than the Christian countries: Jews did not have to build walls around their villages, or separate themselves from the natives of the country (Sarhon, n.d., para. 5). This was also valid linguistically: the Iberian Jews who emigrated to North European countries did not continue to speak Judeo-Spanish, but those who settled in North Africa, and Ottoman Empire continued to speak it; few additions and some structural readjustments were made to the language (Altabev, 2003, p. 62-63). “The name "Ladino" is a variant of "Latin". The language is also called Judæo-Spanish, Sefardi, Dzhudezmo, Judezmo, and Spanyol; Haquitía” (Ladino Language, 2006, section 2, para. 1). “Minorities, such as Greeks, Italians, and Armenians, and Jews conducted their private and business lives in their own languages in the Ottoman Empire” (Altabev, 2003, p. 63). In Turkey, the Jews, coming from Spain, were speaking Spanish, those from Portugal Portuguese, and some also Greek, as it used to be the language of Byzantines; besides, there were Venetians and Genovans, living in Turkey: they could speak Italian (Shaul, 1994, p. 12). The words of these languages together with those of Turkish and Hebrew, the mother tongue of the Jews, entered into the Judeo-Spanish language. Later l’Alliance Israelite Universelle was founded in Paris in 1860 for protecting the Jews all around the world; in 1865 it established its first school in Istanbul; by 1912, there were 115 Alliance schools in Turkey (Sephiha, 1977, p. 43); for this reason, we also see some French words in Judeo-Spanish. Until the last decades, Judeo-Spanish was written in rashi, a script developed from Hebrew characters and used for printing, and the handwritten cursive script was called soletreo, as told by Bunis (1982) (ctd. in Altabev, 2003, p. 62). 4. METHODOLOGY In this research, I chose the Turkish anecdotes of Nasrettin Hoca from a compilation of these anecdotes, entitled Nasrettin Hoca Fıkraları (Anecdotes of Hodja Nasreddin), published by Çilek Publications in 2003, and the Judeo-Spanish anecdotes from the book of Eli Shaul, Folklor de los Judios de Turkiya (Folklor of the Jews of Turkey), published in 1994, and from the book of Matilda Koen-Sarano, entitled Djoha Ke Dize?: Kuentos Populares Djudeo Espanyoles (What did Djoha say?: Popular Judeo-Spanish Stories), published in 1991. In this study, I observe these anecdotes by dividing them into three groups: 1) Those to create love between animals and children, without making children imitate them, 2) Those, depicting a perfect human being, and 3) Those based on religious values, tolerance, and respect. 5. AIM OF THIS STUDY I aim to show that the objects and other cultural concepts used in the anecdotes of Djoha and Nasrettin Hoca, and impose how one should be a good, tolerant, and kind person to herself / himself, the nature, the animals, and most importantly, to people who come from a different cultural background from theirs. I intend to demonstrate that these anecdotes are good for the cognitive and psychological development, education and instruction of children, as they make children think, by imposing how to be good and tolerant members of the society. 6. ON DJOHA AND HOCA Nasreddin Hoca was born in 1208 in the village of Hortu village of Sivrihisar, near the city of Afyonkarahisar. He moved to Aksehir in 1237 in order to study under the guidance of recognized scholars of the time, among which there were Seyid Mahmud Hayrani and Seyid Haci Ibrahim; he worked as Kadi, a Muslim judge until his death in 1284 (Sansal, 2005, para. 1). Hodja Nasreddin, or Hoca - the word ‘hoca’ means teacher and imam in Turkish - is known by people from different nationalities with different names: Turks call him “Nasrettin” or “Nasreddin Hoca;" Kazakhs, “Koja Nasreddin;” Greeks, “Hoja Nasreddin;” Azerbaijanis and Iranians, “Molla” or “Mulla Nasreddin;” Arabs, “Juha” or “Cuha”, and Tajiks, “Mushfiqi” (Sansal, 2005, para. 3), and the Sepharads “Djoha.”
  • 4. Besides, among one of the Sephardic magazines published in the Ottoman Empire, we encounter this one, published in 1860: “Coha i Cohayko” (“Djoha and Djohayko”) (Birmizrahi, 2004, para. 4). 7. CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR THEORY (CMT) FOR EXPLAINING THE BEST INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD FOR CHILDREN It is important to cite here the cognitive linguistic theory of metaphors on which my study is based. I suggest that the metaphors are good instructional tools, and children formulate these for understanding the anecdotes of Djoha and Hoca. According to this theory, metaphors are principally divided into two major groups: conceptual metaphors and linguistic metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 6). The conceptual metaphors are those structural metaphors, and the linguistic metaphors formed by linguistic expressions are those orientational and ontological metaphors. The structural or conceptual metaphors define a concept with another one: “One concept is metaphorically structured in terms of another.” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 14). Thus, the source, the metaphorical concept defines the target concept, as in “jealousy is heat.” In this sentence, heat is the source used to depict the target emotion of jealousy. On the other hand, orientational metaphors have to do with spatial orientation, and give a concept a spatial orientation (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 14), as in “a sad person is down”. Futhermore, “our experiences with physical objects (especially our own bodies) provide the basis for an extraordinary wide variety of ontological metaphors, that is, ways of viewing events, activities, emotions, ideas, etc., as entities and substances” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 25); for instance, in “the cruelty of hunger kills people.” 8. THREE PURPOSES OF THE ANECDOTES OF DJOHA AND HASRETTIN HOCA As previously explained, Nasreddin Hodja anecdotes that I chose have three purposes: they aim to teach children to love animals without imitating them, to be good people, and to be peacebuilders. 8.1. Teaching Children to Love Animals without Imitating Them Animals are the best friends of Djoha and Hoca. Let me call Nasrettin Hoca just Hoca talking about the Turkish anecdotes, and just Djoha, talking about the Sephardic anecdotes. The first anecdote “Djoha edukator en el ahir” (“Djoha educator in the stable”) concerns the maternal education given to the child by her / his mother. Here, “vakita” (little cow) is a structural metaphor, referring to a child. We can depart from the conceptual keys, formed by the conceptual metaphors, CLIMBING ONTO THE WALL IS DISOBEDIENCE, ROSES ARE BEAUTY, DESTROYING THE BEAUTY IS NASTINESS and DESTROYING THE GARDEN AND ROSES IS NASTINESS, and therefore HARMING THE NATURE IS NASTINESS. A child imagines herself / himself to be in a rose garden, and to destroy everything, but s/he remembers the condition of the little cow. However, here is another conceptual metaphorical key: EDUCATION IS PUNISHING THE MOTHER. Djoha catches the mother of the cow, and beats it. The neighbours arrive, and ask why Djoha beats the mother, not the little cow. At this point, another conceptual metaphorical key makes the children understand the situation here: TEACHING BAD IS DOING EVIL. The child may form this conceptualization in her / his mind, and s/he will understand how bad it is to harm the nature. A child loves her / his mother more than everything. The punishment of the mother will show her / him that it is better not to destroy the nature, as people can blame and punish her / his mother. Besides, the behavior of an animal can be a good or a bad example, as animals are people’s friends. A child would conceptualize this frame, and will never hurt the animals and damage the environment. (1) ANECDOTE IN JUDEO-SPANISH: Djoha edukador en el ahir Un dia Djoha vido ke una de sus vakitas saliò a la guerta i le izo la guerta entera d’arriva abasho. Le pizò las rozas… le destruyò todo! A lugar de aferrarla, s’entrò derecho al ahir, ande stan las vakas grandes, l’aferrò a la vaka i la empesò a aharvar. Vinieron los vizinos, le disheron: “La vakita te izo la guerta d’arriva abasho. Ke stas aharvando a la vaka?”
  • 5. “Esta es la madre!” les disho Djoha, “Esta es ke le ambezò kualo azer a la vakita chika! A esta es ke la v’a aharvar!” (1) TRANSLATION: Djoha educator in the stable One day Djoha saw that one of his little cows climbed onto the garden, and ruined all of his garden from the top to the foot. It crushed his roses... it destroyed everything! In place of catching it, he entered directly into the stable, in which the old cows were living, he caught the cow, and began to beat it. The neighbours came, and told him, “The little cow ruined your garden. Why are you beating the cow?” “This is the mother!” Djoha told them, “This is who taught the small little cow what to do! This is the one to be beaten.” (narrated by Rashel Perera – 1987) Moreover, hearing or reading the Sephardic anecdote in (2), a child will formulate the following conceptual metaphorical keys: BEING CLEAN IS USING A SOAP AND WATER, BLACKNESS IS BADNESS, and BEING DIRTY IS BEING BLACK. As birds are friends of human beings, one can imitate them. The child understands how it is important to wash the clothes and herself or himself. But s/he perceives how it is bad to steal the soap of others. S/he understands that by blackness a bad behavior is expressed. But as the bird is black due to dirt, it is also necessary to be physically clean. Therefore, via her / his imagination, the child understands that one must be not only physically, but also spiritually clean and tidy. (2) ANECDOTE IN JUDEO-SPANISH: L’aparensia enganya La mujer de Djoha stava lavando la ropa al bodre del rio. Ensupitò vino un pasharo, aferrò el shavon i se fue. La mujer empesò a gritar. Le dishò Djoha: “No gritis! Deshalo! No stas viendo ke sta preto? El pasharo tiene demenester del shavon muncho mas de mozotros!” (2) TRANSLATION: The appearance cheats The wife of Djoha was washing dirty clothes on the edge of the river. Suddenly, a bird came, caught the soap and escaped. The wife began to cry out. Djoha told her: “ Don’t cry out!” Let it go! Don’t you see that it is black? The bird needs the soap more than we do!” (narrated by Rashel Perera – 1987) Let us observe another anecdote in (3), which belongs to the Turkish Muslim culture. The child will formulate same frame as that in (2): there is a thief. Here a kite, again a bird, one of the friends of human beings comes and takes the meat. The conceptual metaphorical keys BEING DELICIOUS IS BEING COOKED ACCORDING TO THE RECIPE and EATING WITH “AĞIZ TADI” (JOY OF ONE’S MOUTH) IS EATING JOYFULLY DUE TO THE GOOD TASTE OF THE FOOD are formulated in the brain of the child. Besides, via the conceptual metaphorical key STEALING IS UNTASTY FOOD, s/he understands how bad it is stealing, as the owner of each good knows how to use the good in the best way. The best food is that obtained via one’s efforts: the child conceives this. From all of these anecdotes, we understand that although we must love animals, we must not imitate their behavior, as these act without thinking. We can communicate with them, squeeze them, caress them..., but we must act after we have thought about the details and consequences of our attitudes and behavior. (3) ANECDOTE IN TURKISH: Hiç boşuna sevinme Hoca bir gün ciğer almış. Kasaba; “Bunu nasıl pişireyim?” diye sormuş. Kasap ciğerin nasıl pişirileciğini bir kağıda yazıp Hoca’nın eline vermiş. Ardında da; “Bu tarife uyularak pişirilirse ciğer pek lezzetli olur!” demiş.
  • 6. Hoca, eve doğru giderken nasıl olmuşsa ciğeri bir çaylağa kaptırmış. Çaylak “Gak! Guk!” edip uzaklaşmaya başlamış. Hoca hiç telaş etmemiş. Elinde tuttuğu tarifnameyi kaldırarak; “Hiç boşuna sevinme!” demiş, “Tarifnamesi bende! Ağız tadı ile yiyemeyeceksin!” (3) TRANSLATION: Don’t be happy in vain! One day Hodja bought livers. He asked to the butcher: “How can I cook these?” The butcher wrote down on a piece of paper how to cook them. And later he said, “If one cooks these according to this recipe, these will be delicious!” While Hodja was going home, it was unknown how it happened, but he permitted a kite to catch the livers. The kite went away, after saying “Gack! Guck!” Hodja did not panic. Lifting up the recipe in his hand, he said, “Don’t be happy in vain! I have the recipe! You will not eat eat with a great deal of joy!” 8.2. Teaching Children to Be Good People In this part, it is taught how to be a good person. Sometimes it is hard to take a child to the ocularist, but what does Djoha do in (4)? These conceptual metaphorical keys guide the child: HAVING BAD VISUAL CAPACITIES IS BEING INCAPABLE OF ENTERING THE MILITARY and LYING IS SEEING THE REALITY, BUT STATING THE UNREALITY, INSTEAD. A child will understand that lying is bad, and people will understand when one lies through her / his words. (4) ANECDOTE IN JUDEO-SPANISH: Djoha, El Doktor de Ojos Djoha no keriya azer askerlik, i diziya ke no ve bueno. El doktor de la armada, ya entendio ke se esta djugando de el i le demanda: “Dizeme komo es ke no ves!” Djoha risponde: “Estas viendo este table enferente en la pared?” “Si,” dize el doktor, “i mas kualo ay?” “Na, yo no veyo el tablo,” responde Djoha. (4) TRANSLATION: Djoha, the Ocularist Djoha was unwilling to attend the military, and was saying that he did not see well. The doctor of the armada, understood that he was playing with him and asked him: “Tell me how you do not see!” Djoha answers: “Do you see the board hanging on the wall?” “Yes,” says the doctor, “and which other things are there?” “Yeap, I do not see the board,” answers Djoha. (from Shaul, Eli: Folklor de los Judios de Turkiya) Besides, in the Turkish anecdote in (5), we encounter another funny situation. The successive metaphorical conceptualization makes the child conceive the main theme of the anecdote: CARRYING A TURBAN CLOTH CAP IS KNOWING ALL. A turban cloth was used in the Ottoman Empire by imams and Muslim teachers. But reading, or hearing the rest of the anecdote, the child understands that everyone does not know all, and the clothes they wear do not render them wise and intellectual. (5) ANECDOTE IN TURKISH: Sen oku da görelim Adamın biri bir mektupla Hoca’ya gelmiş. Mektubu Hoca’ya uzatmış; “Hocam,” demiş, “Şunu bir zahmet okuyuver.” Hoca mektubu almış. Bakmış ki, mektup Farsça. Adama; “Ben bu mektubu okuyamam. Farsça yazılmış bu demiş.” Adam sinirlenmiş; “Bir de Hoca olacaksın,” demiş, “başındaki şu koca sarıktan utan, meğer bir mektubu okumaktan acizmişsin!” Hoca hemen sarığı başından çıkarmış. Adamın başına oturtmuş. Sonra; “Haydi bakalım,” demiş, “Keramet sarıktaysa sen oku da görelim!” (5) TRANSLATION: You read it, and we see A man came to Hodja with a letter. He passed the letter to Hodja:
  • 7. “Hodja,” said he, “please read that!” Hodja took the letter. He glanced at it, and he saw that the letter was in Persian. He told to the man: “I cannot read this letter, this is written in Persian.” The man got angry. “You are a hodja,” said he, “get ashamed of the turban cloth cap on your head, in reality, you are incapable of reading a letter!” Immediately Hodja took off the turban cloth cap from his head, put it on the head of the man. Later; “Therefore, you read it, if the turban cloth has this miracle. And we see it,” said he. In (6) the conceptual metaphorical keys PLAYING THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS IS STEALING, STEALING IS BEING BAD, CRYING OUT IS BEING ANGRY, and GOING OUT OF THE HOUSE SCREAMING IS SEEING NOTHING AT THIS HOUSE motivate the children to understand the main theme of the anecdote. From these metaphors, they understand that it is bad to steal the goods of other people. (6) ANECDOTE IN JUDEO-SPANISH: Muzika de amanyana En kaminando en la kaleja, Djoha vido ladrones ke stavan kortando los fierros de las ventanas de una kaza, para entrar ariento. Vino un ijiko, le demandò: “Djoha, kualo stan aziendo estos?” Le disho Djoha: “Stan tanyendo!” “Stan tanyendo?!!” disho l’ijiko, “Ama no stan kitando boz!” “Aaa!” le disho Djoha, “Amanyana vas a sintir la boz de los patrones de kaza, ke van salir kon gritos!” (6) TRANSLATION: Music of tomorrow Walking on the street hodja saw thieves, who were cutting the metals of the windows of a house for entering inside. A little boy came, and asked him: “Djoha, what are they doing?” Djoha told him, “They are playing the musical instruments.” “Are they playing the musical instruments?!!” uttered the little boy, “”but they are not creating any voices!” “Ahh!” said Djoha, “Tomorrow you will hear the voice of the homeowners, who are going to go out screaming!” (narrated by Rashel Perera – 1987) 8.3. Teaching Children to Be Peacebuilders Now it is time to analyze how Djoha and Hoca teach why one must respect others, who have different origins and beliefs, and speak different languages. We see these in (7) and (8). For understanding the anecdote in (7), a child formulates these metaphors in her / his mind: BEING A TOTAL HODJA IS BEING A FUNNY AND STUPID PERSON FROM ISTANBUL, DONATING MONEY TO THE POOR IS GETTING TEN TIMES OF THE DONATED SUM, THE SAVED MONEY IS A HELP DURING HARD TIMES, THE SAVED MONEY IS HELPFUL IN OLDNESS, and other conceptualizations, such as the generalization of rabbis, as a rabbi cannot tell lies, the fact that the good Jews go to the synagogue for praying, and the imagination of some quarters of Istanbul, as the synagogue of Neve Shalom which is in Istanbul. Besides, Kasım Paşa (Kasim Pasha), Kuledibi and Çık Salı (Chik Sali) are some Jewish quarters of Istanbul. The child, reading or hearing this anecdote, learns about the places mostly frequented by the Jews, and also some customs and beliefs of the Jews, including the belief in afterlife: as indicated by the answer of the Jew, the God lives in Chik Sali, in the Jewish cemetary, and a rabbi gives good advise: the Jews help poor from all religions.
  • 8. Djoha prefers to give money to good Jews, going to the synagogue, since God can pay him more. But nobody comes and pays him, and he looks for God. A child, reading, or hearing this anecdote, will understand the words of rabbis must be interpreted in the right way, thus, spiritually, and one’s spiritual well-being is more important than her / his material well-being, as everybody passes away, and reaches God. The passage from the streets with avidity for money to the cemetary implies this. The child will understand that it is important to help others not excessing some economic limits, and the money earned in this world remains in this world, as everybody dies. (7) ANECDOTE IN JUDEO-SPANISH: Djoha i el Dio de los Judios Un dia Djoha – tam Djoha d’Estanbol – se hue al kal noche de alhat. El haham esta deskorsando: “Todo el ked a al prove uno, el Dio le da sien.” Djoha disho: “Mijor de este echo yo ande vo a topar? Mi mamà tiene sien liras de oro. Yo vo agora a kaza, las bozeo i do paràs a los proves, i el Dio me paga a mi dies vezes mas!” Le dize la madre: “Djoha, ijo del padre, estas pareykas son paras de la vejes… No las gastes ansina!” “Mamà,” le dize Djoha, “el haham no avla mintiras!” Disho: “El ked a uno, el Dio le paga dies! Tu a mi dame esta bolsa de oro. Yo la v’a dagidiarla a los proves, i el Dio me va darme a mi dies vezes demazia.” La madre no saliò abash kon Djoha. Era ijo regalado. Djoha tomò la bolsa del oro. Esta viendo los Buenos Djudios ke salieron del kal de Neve Shalom, les dio una lira de oro a kada uno. Las paras s’eskaparon i Djoha se vino a kaza sin soldo. La madre està yorando: “Ke izites? Estas son paras para la vejes!” “Mamà,” le disho Djoha, “el haham disho ke en un mes el Dio baruhu’ ya me las va pagar.” El buen de Djoha està asperando al mes ke va vinir, i el Dio baruhu’ le va pagarle, asigun disho el haham en la teva noche de alhat. Ya vino kaje kavo de mes, dingunos no ay ke vengan, ke le digan: “Toma estas paras!” La madre le esta diziendole: “Ke izites?!” “E,” le dize Djoha, “daynda mos mankan dos dias para kavo de mes…” Vido: ya vino kavo de mes, las paras daynda no estan viniendo a su lugar. La bolsa se vaziò, la para se hue! Ke izo? Abashando de Neve Shalom para Kasim Pasha, vido un buen djudio. “Bak,” le disho, “el Dio ande mora?” “El Dio mora en Chik Sali.” Le disho el otro. Djoha tomò kamino. Un tiempo ayà era todo kampos i no avia otomobiles. Ya s’izo areskuro, kere tornar atras, està viendo ke no va poder. Mirò por aki, mirò por ayi, topò un lugariko, disho: “Pasaré aki la noche. Demanyana me torno a Kuledibi,” i s’echò debasho de un arvolé. (7) TRANSLATION: Djoha and the God of Jews One day Djoha – completely Djoha from Istanbul – went to the synagogue on a Sunday night. The rabbi was talking: “God will give one hundred to all who give to the poor one.” Djoha said, “ Where will I find a work better than this? My mom has 100 golden liras. Now I’m going home, I exchange them with smaller units and give the money to the poor, and God gives me ten times more than this amount!” The mom told him, “ Djoha, son of your father, this money is for the old age... You must not waste it in this manner!” “Mom,” told her Djoha, “the rabbi does not lie! He said: to the one who gives one, God pays him ten times of this! You give me this sack of gold. I will distribute money to the poor, and God will give me an amount ten times more than this.”
  • 9. The mother did not oppose to Djoha. He was a gifted son. Djoha took the sack of gold. Seeing the good Jews, going out of the synagogue of Neve Shalom, he gave a golden lira to each of them. The money finished, and Djoha returned home without any money. The mother was crying: “What did you do? This money was for old age!” “Mom,” said Djoha, “the rabbi said that within a month the benedicted God will pay them to me.” The good Djoha was waiting for the following month, and benedicted God was going to pay him, according to what the rabbi told him near the synagogue where he distributed the money on Sunday night. The end of the month arrived, and nobody came, and told him, “Take this money!” The mother was asking him, “What did you do?!” “Ehh,” told her, Djoha, “from now on, for us two days are lacking to the beginning of the new month...” He saw: the new month arrived, the money was not coming to its place. The sack emptied itself, the money escaped! What did he do? Passing down the street of Neve Shalom going to Kasim Pasha, he saw a good Jew. “Look,” said he, “ Where does God live?” “God lives in Chik Sali,” he replied. Djoha began to walk. There were fields, but no cars for a while. It became dark there, he wanted to return back, seeing that he could not. He observed all around, he found a place, and said, “I will pass the night here. Tomorrow I will return to Kuledibi.” He lay down under a tree. (narrated by Matilde Koen-Sarano - 1991) Additionally, in (8), Hoca appreciates God, observing the nature. At this point, the ontological metaphor WHAT GOD CREATES IS LOGICAL can be employed. Small fruits grow on the trees, and when they fall down, they do not hurt anybody. Logically, big fruits and vegetables grow in the fields, and they do not hurt anybody, by falling on them. The child understands this. The rhymes of “Gak” and “Tak” facilitate child’s conceptualization of the kite and the walnut. (8) ANECDOTE IN TURKISH: Tövbe, Ey Yüce Allahım! Hoca, günün birinde bostana gitmiş. Çalışıp çabalamış, bir hayli de yorulmuş. Biraz dinlenmek istemiş. Gidip tarlanın kıyısındaki ceviz ağacının altına şöyle bir uzanmış. O sıra, gözleri ağaçtaki cevizlere takılmış. Bir ağaçtaki küçük cevizlere, bir de tarladaki koca koca bal kabaklarına bakmış. Başlamış düşünmeye. Küçücük cevizler büyük bir ağacın dallarına, kafasından büyük kabaklar ise ipincecik bir gövdeye bağlıymış. Sonra kendi kendine söylenmiş; “Hey yeri, göğü yaratan!” demiş. “Bir şu yerde yatana, bir de şu dalda bitene bak! Gerçi senin işine karışılmaz ama bun e ters iştir. Dağına göre kış verirsin de, ne diye dalına göre yemiş vermezsin?” Tam bu sırada bir karga “Gak,” demiş, bir ceviz de gelip Hoca’nın çıplak başına tak diye düşmüş. Hoca neye uğradığını şaşırmış. Hemen doğrulmuş. Pek öyle korkulacak bir şey yokmuş ama Hoca’nın gözleri çakmak çakmak olmuş, kıvılcımlar saçmış! İşte o zaman, Hoca ellerini yukarı açıp; “Tövbe, ey yüce Allah’ım!” demiş. “Senin hikmetinden sual olunmaz! Bir daha işine karışırsam iki olsun! Ya benim düşündüğüm gibi şu kabakları ağaçta yaratmış olsaydın, şimdi benim halim nice olurdu?!” Hoca bir ceviz yemiş, bin şükretmiş yüce Allah’a. (8) TRANSLATION: I’ll never do that again, my great God! One day Hodja went to the vegetable field. He worked and worked, and got very tired. He wanted to have a rest for a while. He lay down under the walnut tree at the edge of the field.
  • 10. Meanwhile, he saw the walnuts on the tree. He looked at the small walnuts on the tree and the huge pumpkins in the field. He started thinking. The small walnuts were tied to the branches of a big tree, the pumpkins bigger than his head to a very thin trunk. Then he uttered: “Hey, the great Creator of the land and the sky! Look at the one lying on the land, and the other growing on this branch! In fact, nobody must intervene your work, but what an opposite fact this is! You give winter in accordance with the mountain, but why don’t you give a fruit in accordance with its branch?” At this moment a crow said, “Gack!”, and a walnut fell on the naked head of Hodja with a noise of “Tack!” Hodja got astonished about what had happened to him. Suddenly he stood up. There was nothing to be afraid of, but the eyes of Hodja became larger and distributed fire. Thus, this time, lifting up his hands, Hodja said, “I’ll never do that again, my God! One must not question your intentions! If I interfere your work, punish me twice! If you had created the pumpkins on the trees, as I thought, now I would be in a terrible condition?! Hodja ate a walnut, and thanked God. These anecdotes belonging to both cultures are full of lessons. The children, who read them, can categorize objects, as they categorize walnuts and pumpkins among the eatable plants, reading, or hearing (8). They understand why they grow in specific places under certain conditions; so, they respect the nature, God, and other people. 9. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The anecdotes of Djoha and Hoca are useful for children, as they teach them how to be clever, alert, tender, kind, tolerant, and honest members of a globalized world. Reading, or hearing anecdotes and comparing them to those of other cultures, children learn to respect others, and become friends, despite their differences. Interpreting Djoha and Hoca anecdotes, children activate certain mechanisms in their brains, as they think and formulate several conceptual keys. These anecdotes are useful both for their cognitive development and their spiritual development. Briefly and more concisely, it is good to teach the anecdotes of Hoca and Djoha to all the children, living not only in Turkey, but also those living in other parts of the world so that they can learn to be perfect individuals, who are excellent peacebuilders at the same time, as they learn to develop ideas. REFERENCES Altabev, M. (2003). Judeo-Spanish in the Turkish Social Context: Language Death, Swan Song, Revival or New Arrival? Istanbul: Isis. Bardavid, B. (1997, June). Bizim Hoca – Nasreddin Hoca. Toplumbilim, 6, 87 – 95. Birmizrahi, R. (2004). The Judeo-Spanish (Ladino-Press) [with translations]: "Our Fathers' Newspapers." Retrieved October 10, 2006, from http://www.sephardicstudies.org/news-papers.html Civelek, Y. (2005). Türk ve Arap Folklorunda Nasrettin Hoca ve Cuha El-Arabi Karakteri. Akademik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 26, 143 - 158. Fedai, H. (2001). Mulla Or Hodja Nasreddin As Seen by Cypriot Turks a Greeks. Folklore, Vol. 16, 105 – 111. Retrieved August 4, 2006, from http://haldjas.folklore.ee/folklore/vol16/mulla.pdf Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (1991). Djoha Ke Dize?: Kuentos Populares Djudeo-Espanyoles. Gerusalemme: Kana. Ladino Language. (2006, February 26). Retrieved March 1, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladino_language Lakoff, G.and Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • 11. Prepared by a commission. (2003). Eğlendiren, düşündüren, eğiten Nasrettin Hoca Fıkraları. Istanbul: Çilek.: Sansal, B. (2005). About Turkey. Retrieved October 06, 2006, from: http://www.allaboutturkey.com/nasreddin.htm. Sarhon-Gerson, K. (n.d.). Judeo-Spanish Language and Culture. Retrieved March 1, 2006, from http://www.istanbulsephardiccenter.com/index.php?contentId=41&mid=31 Sephiha, V. H. (1977). L’agonie des judeo-espagnols. Paris: Editions Entente. Shaul, E. (1994). Folklor de los Judios de Turkiya. Istanbul: Isis Press.