INTRODUCTION
(Context, need and scope)
• India today, is the world’s third largest economy in terms
of its Gross National ...
• Yet the gaps in health outcomes continue to widen
• The reality is, “The power of existing interventions is not
matched ...
• Emergence of a robust health care industry growing at
15% compound annual growth rate (CAGR)
• Incidence of catastrophic...
• Moreover, the political will to ensure universal access to
affordable healthcare services in an assured mode – the
promi...
The primary aim of the NHP 2015, is
• To inform, clarify, strengthen and prioritize the role of the
Government in shaping ...
Situation analysis
1. Achievement of Millennium Development Goals:
• India is set to reach the Millennium Development Goal...
2. Achievements in Population Stabilization:
• India has also shown consistent improvement in
population stabilization, wi...
• In the remaining small States and Union Territories
except Meghalaya, the Crude Birth Rate (CBR), is less
than 21 per 10...
3. Inequities in Health Outcomes:
• There are urban-rural inequities and there are inequities
across states
• A number of ...
4. Concerns on Quality of Care:
• Quality of care is a matter of serious concern as it
compromises the effectiveness of ca...
5. Performance in Disease Control Programmes:
• India’s progress on communicable disease control is
mixed
• Even though th...
• Viral Encephalitis, Dengue and Chikungunya are on the
increase, particularly in urban areas and as of now we do
not have...
6. Developments under the National Rural Health
Mission:
• The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) led to a
significant s...
• It provided cash transfers to over one crore pregnant
women annually, empowering and facilitating them to
seek free care...
• Inefficiencies in fund utilization, poor governance and
leakages have been a greater problem in some of the
weaker state...
7. Burden of Disease:
• Disease conditions for which national programmes
provide universal coverage account for less than ...
8. NRHM- for strengthening state health systems:
• NRHM was intended to strengthen State health systems
to cover all healt...
9. Urban Health:
• Rapid urbanization- massive growth in number of the
urban poor population, especially those living in s...
10. Cost of Care and Efforts at Financial Protection:
• The failure of public investment in health to cover the
entire spe...
• Yet, health care costs are more impoverishing than ever
before and over 63 million persons are faced with poverty
every ...
• This led to an increasing number of households facing
catastrophic expenditures due to health costs (18% of all
househol...
11. Publicly Financed Health Insurance:
• A number of publicly financed health insurance schemes
were introduced to improv...
• The population coverage under these various schemes
increased from almost 55 million people in 2003-04 to
about 370 mill...
• Denial of services by private hospitals for many
categories of illnesses
• The insurance schemes vary widely in terms of...
12. Healthcare Industry:
• Engaging and supporting the growth of the health care
industry has been an important element of...
• For International Finance Corporation, the Indian private
health care industry is the second highest destination for
its...
13. Private Sector in Health:
• The private sector today provides nearly 80% of
outpatient care and about 60% of inpatient...
• For OAEs and smaller establishments, the main grounds
for engagement are not financial partnerships with
government, but...
14. Realizing the Potential of AYUSH services:
• The National Policy on Indian Systems of Medicine and
Homeopathy (2002)- ...
15. Human Resource Development:
• The last ten years have seen a major expansion of
medical, nursing and technical educati...
16. Research and Challenges:
• The Department of Health Research was established in
2006 to strengthen Indian efforts in h...
17. Regulatory Role of Government:
• The Government’s regulatory role extends to the
regulation of drugs through the CDSCO...
• There are also genuine concerns that it would bring back
“license raj” the unnecessary and inefficient Government
interf...
18. Investment in Health Care:
• The total spending on healthcare in 2011 in the country is
about 4.1% of GDP
• Spending a...
• The Central Government share of this is Rs. 325 (0.34%
GDP) while State Government share is Rs. 632 on per capita
basis ...
Goal, principles and objectives
Goal:
The attainment of the highest possible level of
good health and well-being, through ...
Principles:
• Equity:
– Action to reach the poorest and minimizing disparity on
account of gender, poverty, caste, disabil...
• Patient Centered & Quality of Care:
– Health Care services would be effective, safe, and
convenient, provided with digni...
• Pluralism:
– Patients would have access to AYUSH care providers
based on validated local health traditions.
– These syst...
• Accountability:
– Financial and performance accountability, transparency in
decision making, and elimination of corrupti...
• Learning and Adaptive System:
– Constantly improving dynamic organization of health care
which is knowledge and evidence...
Objectives:
• Improve population health status through concerted
policy action in all sectors and expand preventive,
promo...
• Assure universal availability of free, comprehensive
primary health care services, as an entitlement, for all
aspects of...
• Ensure improved access and affordability of secondary
and tertiary care services through a combination of public
hospita...
POLICY DIRECTIONS
1. Ensuring Adequate Investment:
• Public health expenditure needed- 4 to 5% of the GDP
• Based on financial capacity of t...
• Major source of financing- general taxation
• The Government would explore the creation of a health
cess on the lines of...
• Since about 50% of health expenditure goes into human
resources for health, an equitous growth of health and
education s...
2. Preventive and Promotive Health:
• Addresses the wider social & environmental determinants
of health
• To realize this ...
• If the social and economic environment in which they is
not conducive to good health, the impact of individual
behaviour...
Seven priority areas for improving the environment for
health :
• The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan,
• Balanced and Healthy Diets
...
• The policy explicitly articulates the need for the
development of strategies and institutional mechanisms in
each of the...
• To lead these preventive measures, commitment and
effectiveness in addressing the health care needs where
preventive act...
2. The strengthening and transformation of the ASHA programme
3. Involvement of communities and multiple stakeholders (Soc...
3. Organization of Public Health Care Delivery:
The 7 Key Policy Shifts:
a. In Primary Care: Selective to assured comprehe...
e. In Urban Health: From token under-financed interventions
to on-scale assured interventions that reach the Urban Poor
an...
National Health Programmes:
RCH services
Maternal and perinatal mortality is highest in population
sub-groups which are
• poorer
• more malnourished
•...
Reduction of Maternal Mortality:
• In antenatal care this translates to timely detection of
complications like hypertensio...
Cash Transfers, Quality of Care Issues:
• No financial barriers
• The existing cash transfer (Janani Suraksha Yojana)
howe...
Universal Immunization Programme:
• Immunization coverage with quality and safety
• Vaccine security through encouragement...
Population Stabilization
• Maintaining a gender balance
• 21 States have already achieved replacement levels of
fertility ...
• In all 36 States however the fertility rates are
declining rapidly and with improving levels of
women’s education, the d...
Women’ Health & Gender Mainstreaming
One major concern is the health response to victims of
gender violence – ranging from...
Communicable Diseases under National
Disease control programmes
Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
• Comprehensive understanding of all communicable
diseases in the respective are...
Control of Tuberculosis
• Disease transmission, rapid progression of the disease in
infected patients and increase in inci...
Leprosy Elimination:
• Less than 1 per 10,000
• Reduction to grade 2 disability to less than 1 per million
by 2020
Vector ...
Non-Communicable Diseases
• Nascent or initial steps
• Integrated approach to be built up at the district level.
• This is...
• Blindness
• Programmes against deafness and for better oral health have also
been initiated.
• Silicosis (occupational d...
Mental Health:
• Sad state of neglect
• 0.47 psychologists per million people
• Integration with the primary care - specia...
Emergency Care and Disaster preparedness:
• A district that cannot respond to a poly trauma responding from a
single house...
Realizing the Potential of AYUSH
• A large part of the population uses AYUSH remedies
• Making AYUSH drugs available and s...
Tertiary Care Services:
• Private sector
• Strengthening 58 medical colleges in the first three phases
• Upgrading 58 dist...
Human Resources for Health:
• Strengthening 58 existing medical colleges and further converting
58 district hospitals to n...
• National Board of Examinations as a statutory body to
innovate new education and training models to train
appropriate sp...
• Primary care from selective care to comprehensive care
• B.Sc in community health
• Paramedical cadre such as perfusioni...
• Nursing school in every large district or cluster of districts of about
20 to 30 lakh population
• Planned expansion of ...
Quality of Medical Education - NEET for UG entrance at All
India level
Financing of Health Care & Engaging the Private Sec...
• Inclusion of cost-benefit and cost effectiveness studies in
programme design and evaluation would also contribute
signif...
Regulatory Framework :
• The regulatory role of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
includes regulation of
– clinica...
Regulatory Framework for Professional Education:
• The four professional councils for medical, nursing, dental
and pharmac...
• India is known as the manufacturing hub and pharmacy of the world
with exports to over 200 nations.
• Post market survei...
Medical Technologies:
• One of the challenges to ensuring access to free drugs and
diagnostics though public services is t...
• Government policy would be to both stimulate innovation
and new drug discovery.
• New drugs at affordable rates
• Instit...
ICT for Health & Health Information Needs:
Use of ICT has the potential to reduce frequency of hospital visits &
managemen...
• Digitization of all health events and processes
• National e-Health Authority (NeHA) will be set up
• A robust growth of...
(c) progressive use of “Aadhaar” (Unique ID) for identification (in
case UID is not available, then other ID would be crea...
• The National Health Policy also sees tremendous potential for the
application of Tele-medicine systems and M-Health.
• T...
Knowledge for Health:
Two approaches
(i) research on country specific health problems necessary to
formulate sound policie...
• The health policy envisages strengthening the 32 publicly
funded health research institutes under the Department of
Heal...
• Health research in India needs to advance on three fronts. One front
is to generate the evidence base required for decis...
• For making full use of all research capacity in the nation, grant in
aid mechanisms which provide extramural funding to ...
• International aid agencies were once important sources of financing
of public health programmes, but today their entire ...
In the context of India being an emerging developed nation, Indian
policy must move towards repositioning India from being...
The Institutional Framework:
• Directorates need to be strengthened by HR policies, central to
which is that, those from a...
State Owned, Guided and Financed Institutions:
• General guidelines in the form of minimum governance standards
for such s...
Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions:
• All elected local bodies- rural and urban would be enabled to
provide leadership an...
Addressing Fiduciary Risks:
The four most important processes where the State should be asked to
create rules that conform...
Improving Accountability:
• The policy would be to increase horizontal accountability, by
providing a greater role and par...
Professionalizing Management, Incentivizing
Performance:
• Competence requires formal training for the requisite
managemen...
Legal Framework for Health Care and the Right to
Health:
• Mental Health Bill
• The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act
•...
• Health rights bill making health a fundamental right-
• Brazil and Thailand
• The policy question is whether we have rea...
• And whether when health care is a State subject, it is desirable or
useful to make a central law?
• And whether such a l...
Concluding Note: Implementation Framework and the
Way Forward.
• The National Health Policy therefore envisages that an
im...
• The implementation framework would also reflect learning from
past experience
• Identify administrative reforms required...
COMMENTS:
1. High level of absenteeism of doctors in public health facilities
especially in rural and tribal areas
2. Lack...
4. The pay-scale of government doctors needs to be
improved so as to prevent them from turning to private
practice.
5.Ther...
Access, Continuum and Organization of Care Perceived problems:
• Rural areas require the establishment and running of func...
• A well established network of health facilities from village to higher
levels must be setup ,as per geographical and pop...
• A suggested method of involving private sector in the provision of
universal health coverage is through the organization...
Tertiary and Emergency Care
Perceived problems
The condition of emergency wards in public hospitals is poor
Suggestions:
•...
Quality of Care
Perceived problems
• Patients do not have the right to quality of care at public health
facilities/Quality...
Public Health
Perceived problems
• The diseases in rural are as are mainly because of lack of cleanliness
Suggestions:
• H...
HealthInformationsystems(HIS)
Perceived problems
• Existing telemedicine cannot scale upto entire rural India because of
f...
• There should be an integrated Health Management Information
System for an area providing data such as: characteristics o...
Regulation of Drugs, Food and Medical Practice
• There is an urgency to create public toilets
• Self help groups should be...
IncreasingFinancialResources
Perceived Problems:
• Every year a significant number of people die due to financial
scarcity...
• Public-private partnership model should be implemented for
establishment of hospitals and other needs in health sector
•...
Availability of Drugs, Vaccines and Other Consumables
Perceived Problems:
• There are no dispensaries in remote locations ...
Using Finance as a Tool for Increasing Efficiency
Suggestions:
• NITI Aayog can play a catalytic role in designing incenti...
National Health Policy 2015
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National Health Policy 2015

Concise seminar on 2015 health policy draft
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Healthcare      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National Health Policy 2015

  • 1. INTRODUCTION (Context, need and scope) • India today, is the world’s third largest economy in terms of its Gross National Income (in PPP terms) • India has the potential to grow larger and more equitably, and to emerge to be counted as one of the developed nations of the world • It possesses, a sophisticated arsenal of interventions, technologies and knowledge required for providing health care to her people
  • 2. • Yet the gaps in health outcomes continue to widen • The reality is, “The power of existing interventions is not matched by the power of health systems to deliver them to those in greatest need, in a comprehensive way, and on an adequate scale” Changing contexts: • Changing health priorities – Though the commitments to further achievement in MDG is needed and must not flag, it also signifies a rising and unfulfilled expectation of many other health needs that currently receive little public attention
  • 3. • Emergence of a robust health care industry growing at 15% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) • Incidence of catastrophic expenditure due to health care costs is growing and is now estimated to be one of the major contributors to poverty • Economic growth has increased the fiscal capacity available. Therefore, the country needs a new health policy that is responsive to these contextual changes
  • 4. • Moreover, the political will to ensure universal access to affordable healthcare services in an assured mode – the promise of Health Assurance – is an important catalyst for the framing of a New Health Policy • This National Health Policy addresses the urgent need to improve the performance of health systems • It is a declaration of the determination of the Government to leverage economic growth to achieve health outcomes and an explicit acknowledgement that better health contributes immensely to improved productivity as well as to equity
  • 5. The primary aim of the NHP 2015, is • To inform, clarify, strengthen and prioritize the role of the Government in shaping health systems in all its dimensions (investment in health, organization and financing of healthcare services, prevention of diseases) • Promotion of good health through cross sectoral action, access to technologies, developing human resources, encouraging medical pluralism, building the knowledge base required for better health, financial protection strategies and regulation and legislation for health
  • 6. Situation analysis 1. Achievement of Millennium Development Goals: • India is set to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) with respect to maternal and child survival • While the narrowing of these gaps demonstrate a significant effort, we could have done better. • Notably, the rate of decline of still-births and neonatal mortality has been lower than the child mortality on the whole
  • 7. 2. Achievements in Population Stabilization: • India has also shown consistent improvement in population stabilization, with a decrease in decadal growth rates • Twelve of the 21 large States for which recent TFR is available, have achieved a TFR of at or below the replacement rate of 2.1 and three are likely to reach this soon • The challenge is now in the remaining six states which accounts for 42 % of the national population and 56 % of the annual population increase
  • 8. • In the remaining small States and Union Territories except Meghalaya, the Crude Birth Rate (CBR), is less than 21 per 1000 • The national TFR has declined from 2.9 to 2.4. The persistent challenge on this front is the declining sex ratio
  • 9. 3. Inequities in Health Outcomes: • There are urban-rural inequities and there are inequities across states • A number of districts, many in tribal areas, perform poorly even in those states where overall averages are improving • Marginalized communities and poorer economic quintiles of the population continue to fare poorly • Outreach and service delivery for the urban poor, even for immunization services has been inadequate
  • 10. 4. Concerns on Quality of Care: • Quality of care is a matter of serious concern as it compromises the effectiveness of care • For example, though over 90% of pregnant women receive one antenatal check up and 87 % received full TT immunization, only about 68.7 % of women have received the mandatory three antenatal check-ups • For institutional delivery standard protocols are often not followed during labour and the postpartum period • Only 61% of children have been fully immunized
  • 11. 5. Performance in Disease Control Programmes: • India’s progress on communicable disease control is mixed • Even though there have been significant reductions, there is stagnation ( Leprosy, Kala Azar, Lymphatic Filariasis, HIV etc.,) • In tuberculosis the challenge is high prevalence and rising problems of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis • Though these are significant declines from the MDG baseline, India still contributes to 24% of all global new case detection
  • 12. • Viral Encephalitis, Dengue and Chikungunya are on the increase, particularly in urban areas and as of now we do not have effective measures to address them • Where there are sub-critical human resource deployment, weak logistics and inadequate infrastructure, all national health programmes do badly
  • 13. 6. Developments under the National Rural Health Mission: • The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) led to a significant strengthening of public health systems • ASHA’s brought the community closer to public services, improving utilization of services and health behaviors • The NRHM deployed over 18,000 ambulances for free emergency response and patient transport services to over a million patients monthly
  • 14. • It provided cash transfers to over one crore pregnant women annually, empowering and facilitating them to seek free care in the institutions • Across States, there were major increases in outpatient attendance, bed occupancy and institutional delivery • However these developments were uneven and more than 80% of the increase in services is likely to have been contributed by less than 20% of the public health facilities
  • 15. • Inefficiencies in fund utilization, poor governance and leakages have been a greater problem in some of the weaker states • Much of the increase in service delivery was related to select RCH services and to the national disease control programmes, and not to the wider range of health care services that were needed
  • 16. 7. Burden of Disease: • Disease conditions for which national programmes provide universal coverage account for less than 10% of all mortalities and only for about 15% of all morbidities • Over 75% of communicable diseases are not part of existing national programmes • Non-communicable diseases (39.1%) and injuries (11.8%) now constitute the bulk of the country’s disease burden • National Health Programmes for NCD’S are very limited in coverage and scope
  • 17. 8. NRHM- for strengthening state health systems: • NRHM was intended to strengthen State health systems to cover all health needs, not just those of the NHP • In practice, however, it remained confined largely to national programme priorities • Strengthening health systems for providing comprehensive care required higher levels of investment and human resources than that were made available • The budget received and the expenditure thereunder was only about 40% of what was envisaged for a full re- vitalization in the NRHM Framework
  • 18. 9. Urban Health: • Rapid urbanization- massive growth in number of the urban poor population, especially those living in slums • This population has poorer health outcomes due to adverse social determinants and poor access to health care facilities, despite living in close proximity to many hospitals - public and private • National Urban Health Mission was sanctioned in 2013- strong focus on strengthening primary health care • NUHM needs substantial expansion of funding on a sustained basis in order to establish & operationalize well functional primary health care system in the urban areas
  • 19. 10. Cost of Care and Efforts at Financial Protection: • The failure of public investment in health to cover the entire spectrum of health care needs is reflected best in the worsening situation in terms of costs of care and impoverishment due to health care costs • All services available under national programmes are free to all and universally accessed with fairly good rates of coverage • Private markets have little contribution to make in most of these areas
  • 20. • Yet, health care costs are more impoverishing than ever before and over 63 million persons are faced with poverty every year due to health care costs alone • It is because there is no financial protection for the vast majority of health care needs • In 2011-12, the share of out of pocket expenditure on health care as a proportion of total household monthly per capita expenditure was 6.9% in rural areas and 5.5% in urban areas
  • 21. • This led to an increasing number of households facing catastrophic expenditures due to health costs (18% of all households in 2011-12 as compared to 15% in 2004-05) • Under NRHM free care in public hospitals was extended to a select set of conditions • For all other services, user fees especially for diagnostics and “outside prescriptions” for drugs continued • Also due to the selective approach, several essential services especially for chronic illness was not obtainable resulting in physical and financial hardship and poor quality of care
  • 22. 11. Publicly Financed Health Insurance: • A number of publicly financed health insurance schemes were introduced to improve access to hospitalization services and to protect households from high medical expenses • Eight states introduced health insurance programmes for covering tertiary care need • The Central Government under the Ministry of Labour & Employment, launched the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in 2008
  • 23. • The population coverage under these various schemes increased from almost 55 million people in 2003-04 to about 370 million in 2014, of which nearly two thirds (180 million) are those in BPL category • RSBY have improved utilization of hospital services, especially in private sector and among the poorest 20% of households and SC/ST households Problems: • Low awareness among the beneficiaries about the entitlement and how and when to use the RSBY card
  • 24. • Denial of services by private hospitals for many categories of illnesses • The insurance schemes vary widely in terms of benefit packages and have resulted in fragmentation of funds available for health care • All National and State health insurance schemes need to be aligned into a single insurance scheme and a single fund pool reducing fragmentation • The RSBY scheme has now been shifted to the MoHFW, helping the State and Central Ministry move to a tax financed single payer system approach
  • 25. 12. Healthcare Industry: • Engaging and supporting the growth of the health care industry has been an important element of public policy • The current growth rate of at 14% and is projected to be 21% in the next decade • The Government has had an active policy in the last 25 years of building a positive economic climate for the health care industry • Amongst these measures are lower direct taxes; higher depreciation in medical equipment; subsidized education for medical, nursing and other paramedical professional graduating from government institutions
  • 26. • For International Finance Corporation, the Indian private health care industry is the second highest destination for its global investments in health • So there is a necessity and a rationale for the health Ministry to intervene and to actively shape the growth of this sector for ensuring that it is aligned to its overall health policy goals, especially with regards to access and financial protection
  • 27. 13. Private Sector in Health: • The private sector today provides nearly 80% of outpatient care and about 60% of inpatient care • 72% of all private health care enterprises are own- account-enterprises (OAEs), which are household run businesses • But over time employment OAEs are declining and the number of medical establishments and corporate hospitals is rising • There are major ongoing efforts to organize such OAEs within the corporate sector
  • 28. • For OAEs and smaller establishments, the main grounds for engagement are not financial partnerships with government, but skill up-gradation, referral support etc • In terms of comparative efficiency, public sector is value for money as it accounts (based on the NSSO 60th round) for less than 30 % of total expenditure, but provides for about 20% of outpatient care and 40% of in-patient care. • This same expenditure also pays for 60% of end- of-life care (RGI estimates on hospital mortality), and almost 100% of preventive and promotive care and a substantial part of medical and nursing education as well
  • 29. 14. Realizing the Potential of AYUSH services: • The National Policy on Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (2002)- mainstreaming of AYUSH under the NRHM • National AYUSH Mission has been launched for overall strengthening of AYUSH network in the public sector • There is need to recognize the contribution of the large private sector and not-for-profit organizations providing AYUSH services
  • 30. 15. Human Resource Development: • The last ten years have seen a major expansion of medical, nursing and technical education • The challenge is to guide the expansion of educational institutions to provide skilled health workers to where they are needed most, and with the necessary skills
  • 31. 16. Research and Challenges: • The Department of Health Research was established in 2006 to strengthen Indian efforts in health research • Currently over 90% of the research publications from medical colleges come from only nine medical colleges • Funding of less than 1 % of all public health expenditure has resulted in limited progress • The report of the Committee that examined the functioning of the ICMR in 2012, and the report of the Working Group constituted for the 12th Plan can guide policy in this area
  • 32. 17. Regulatory Role of Government: • The Government’s regulatory role extends to the regulation of drugs through the CDSCO, food safety through the office of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, professional education through the four professional councils and clinical establishments by the National Council for the same • Progress in each of these areas has been challenging • Reforms in each of these areas, but especially in professional councils and clinical establishments is also facing resistance from certain stakeholders
  • 33. • There are also genuine concerns that it would bring back “license raj” the unnecessary and inefficient Government interference in private sector growth • But clearly as private industry grows at a massive pace, and as this is an area touching upon the lives and health of its population the Government has to find ways to move forward on these responsibilities
  • 34. 18. Investment in Health Care: • The total spending on healthcare in 2011 in the country is about 4.1% of GDP • Spending at least 5–6% of its GDP is required to attain basic health care needs • The Government spending on healthcare in India is only 1.04% of GDP which is about 4 % of total Government expenditure, less than 30% of total health spending (Rs. 957 per capita)
  • 35. • The Central Government share of this is Rs. 325 (0.34% GDP) while State Government share is Rs. 632 on per capita basis at base line scenario • The failure to attain minimum levels of public health expenditure remains the single most important constraint • It would be ambitious if India could aspire to a public health expenditure of 4% of the GDP, but most expert groups have estimated 2.5 % as being more realistic • At such levels of expenditure, “purchasing,” would have to be mainly from public providers for efficient use of resources with purchasing from private providers only for supplementation
  • 36. Goal, principles and objectives Goal: The attainment of the highest possible level of good health and well-being, through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence
  • 37. Principles: • Equity: – Action to reach the poorest and minimizing disparity on account of gender, poverty, caste, disability, other forms of social exclusion and geographical barriers • Universality: – Systems and services are designed to cater to the entire population- not only a targeted sub-group – Care to be taken to prevent exclusions on social or economic grounds
  • 38. • Patient Centered & Quality of Care: – Health Care services would be effective, safe, and convenient, provided with dignity and confidentiality with all facilities across all sectors being assessed, certified and incentivized to maintain quality of care • Inclusive Partnerships: – The task of providing health care for all cannot be undertaken by Government, acting alone – Participation of communities & partnerships with academic institutions, not for profit agencies and with the commercial private sector and health care industry to achieve these goals is required
  • 39. • Pluralism: – Patients would have access to AYUSH care providers based on validated local health traditions. – These systems would also have Government support and supervision to develop and enrich their contribution to meeting the national health goals and objectives • Subsidiarity: – For ensuring responsiveness and greater participation, increasing transfer of decision making to as decentralized a level as is consistent with practical considerations and institutional capacity would be promoted
  • 40. • Accountability: – Financial and performance accountability, transparency in decision making, and elimination of corruption in health care systems, both in the public systems and in the private health care industry, would be essential • Professionalism, Integrity and Ethics: – Health workers and managers shall perform their work with the highest level of professionalism, integrity and trust and be supported by a systems and regulatory environment that enables it
  • 41. • Learning and Adaptive System: – Constantly improving dynamic organization of health care which is knowledge and evidence based, reflective and learning from the communities they serve, the experience of implementation itself, and from national and international knowledge partners • Affordability: – As costs of care rise, affordability, as distinct from equity, requires emphasis – Impoverishment due to health care costs is of course, even more unacceptable
  • 42. Objectives: • Improve population health status through concerted policy action in all sectors and expand preventive, promotive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative services provided by the public health sector • Achieve a significant reduction in out of pocket expenditure due to health care costs and reduction in proportion of households experiencing catastrophic health expenditures and consequent impoverishment
  • 43. • Assure universal availability of free, comprehensive primary health care services, as an entitlement, for all aspects of reproductive, maternal, child and adolescent health and for the most prevalent communicable and non- communicable diseases in the population • Enable universal access to free essential drugs, diagnostics, emergency ambulance services, and emergency medical and surgical care services in public health facilities, so as to enhance the financial protection role of public facilities for all sections of the population
  • 44. • Ensure improved access and affordability of secondary and tertiary care services through a combination of public hospitals and strategic purchasing of services from the private health sector • Influence the growth of the private health care industry and medical technologies to ensure alignment with public health goals, and enable contribution to making health care systems more effective, efficient, rational, safe, affordable and ethical
  • 45. POLICY DIRECTIONS
  • 46. 1. Ensuring Adequate Investment: • Public health expenditure needed- 4 to 5% of the GDP • Based on financial capacity of the country to provide this amount and the institutional capacity to utilize the increased funding in an effective manner- 2.5% of the GDP is proposed • Central expenditures- 40% • At current prices, a target of 2.5% of GDP translates to Rs. 3800 per capita, representing an almost four fold increase in five years
  • 47. • Major source of financing- general taxation • The Government would explore the creation of a health cess on the lines of the education cess for raising the necessary resources • Other than general taxation, this cess could mobilise contributions from specific commodity taxes- such as the taxes on tobacco, and alcohol, from specific industries and innovative forms of resource mobilization
  • 48. • Since about 50% of health expenditure goes into human resources for health, an equitous growth of health and education sectors would also lead to increased employment in many areas and communities • High public investment in health care is one of the most efficient ways of ameliorating inequities, and for this reason, this commitment to higher public expenditures is essential
  • 49. 2. Preventive and Promotive Health: • Addresses the wider social & environmental determinants of health • To realize this vision of attainment of highest level of health, “Health In All” approach as complement to Health For All is needed • All sectors would need to be convinced that preventive and promotive health care approaches are not only a health gain but a first order economic gain as well
  • 50. • If the social and economic environment in which they is not conducive to good health, the impact of individual behaviours may be severely limited • Given the multiple determinants of health, a prevention agenda that addresses the social and economic environment requires cross-sectoral, multilevel interventions that involve sectors • Community support and capacity to enjoy good health, particularly among those who are most vulnerable and have the least capacity to make choices and changes in their lifestyle is needed
  • 51. Seven priority areas for improving the environment for health : • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, • Balanced and Healthy Diets • Nasha Mukti Abhiyan • Yatri Suraksha • Nirbhaya Nari • Reduced stress and improved safety & preventive measures in the work place • Reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution
  • 52. • The policy explicitly articulates the need for the development of strategies and institutional mechanisms in each of these seven areas to synergize individual and family level action, with social movements • Taken together, this Health in all approach could be popularized as the Swasth Nagrik Abhiyan- a social movement for health • Policy recognizes the need for the holistic approach and cross sectoral convergence in addressing social determinants of health
  • 53. • To lead these preventive measures, commitment and effectiveness in addressing the health care needs where preventive action fails is needed • Some aspects of disease prevention and health promotion are specific services that are to be delivered as part of primary health care services (Immunization, ANC, School health programs etc) • Occupational Health also requires greater emphasis. • Delivery of such an expanded range of services requires 1. moving from primary health care to comprehensive health care approach
  • 54. 2. The strengthening and transformation of the ASHA programme 3. Involvement of communities and multiple stakeholders (Social movement for health) • Convergence with sectors for synergistic improvement of health status is envisaged • The policy also recommends the setting up of seven “Task Forces” for formulation of a detailed “Preventive and Promotive Care Strategy” in each of the seven priority areas for preventive and promotive action and to set the indicators and the targets and mechanisms for achievement in each of these areas
  • 55. 3. Organization of Public Health Care Delivery: The 7 Key Policy Shifts: a. In Primary Care: Selective to assured comprehensive care b. In Secondary and Tertiary Care: Input oriented, budget line financing to an output based strategic purchasing c. In Public Hospitals: From User Fees & Cost Recovery Based Public Hospitals to Assured Free Drugs, Diagnostic and Emergency Services d. In Infrastructure and Human Resource Development: From normative approaches in their development to targeted approaches to reach under-serviced areas
  • 56. e. In Urban Health: From token under-financed interventions to on-scale assured interventions that reach the Urban Poor and establish linkages with national programmes f. In National Health Programmes- Integration with health systems for effectiveness, and contributing to strengthening health systems for efficiency g. In AYUSH services: From Stand-Alone AYUSH to a three dimensional Mainstreaming
  • 57. National Health Programmes:
  • 58. RCH services Maternal and perinatal mortality is highest in population sub-groups which are • poorer • more malnourished • less educated • have lower age of parity and • have too many children or too soon.
  • 59. Reduction of Maternal Mortality: • In antenatal care this translates to timely detection of complications like hypertension, anemia and diabetes and adequate response to the same • Skilled birth attendant • Regularly functional operation theatres with blood available on a regular basis (Ots- quality standards) • Surgeon – regular service (maintaining skills)
  • 60. Cash Transfers, Quality of Care Issues: • No financial barriers • The existing cash transfer (Janani Suraksha Yojana) however has been effective to cover non medical costs of care and needs to be retained Child and Adolescent Health: • Single digit neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates through community based intervention centred around the ASHA and anganwadi worker and improved home based and facility based management of sick newborns • Adolescents (10 to 19 years) - reduction of obesity
  • 61. Universal Immunization Programme: • Immunization coverage with quality and safety • Vaccine security through encouragement of multiple suppliers and appropriate procurement policies • Introduction of new cost effective vaccines • Health technology assessment and national epidemiological information base Supportive Supervision: • One such promising strategy that can be scaled up is where carefully selected and supported nurse-trainers will visit and work with facilities in underperforming and highly vulnerable districts to establish a better quality of facility and community level care.
  • 62. Population Stabilization • Maintaining a gender balance • 21 States have already achieved replacement levels of fertility rates • Strategic objectives now are better and safer contraceptive choices, with a further push back in age of marriage and improvement in spacing
  • 63. • In all 36 States however the fertility rates are declining rapidly and with improving levels of women’s education, the demand for contraceptive services is established. • Fertility rates continue to be unsustainably high in as many as nine States which account for over 35% of the population. • To increase the proportion of male sterilization from < 5% to at least 30 % and if possible much higher
  • 64. Women’ Health & Gender Mainstreaming One major concern is the health response to victims of gender violence – ranging from sexual assault to acid attacks on women
  • 65. Communicable Diseases under National Disease control programmes
  • 66. Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme • Comprehensive understanding of all communicable diseases in the respective areas • Sufficient public health capacity down to the district level The approach to integration • HIV, tuberculosis and leprosy, plus all the vector borne diseases and the expanded programme of immunisation • Robust public health system • Blood safety – HIV control • The control of malaria requires ASHAs
  • 67. Control of Tuberculosis • Disease transmission, rapid progression of the disease in infected patients and increase in incidence of drug resistant tuberculosis • Changing patterns of microbial sensitivity and medication compliance Control of HIV/AIDS: • Enhanced prevention and wider access to ART • Balance the financing strategy
  • 68. Leprosy Elimination: • Less than 1 per 10,000 • Reduction to grade 2 disability to less than 1 per million by 2020 Vector Borne Disease Control: • Malaria, Filaria and Kala-azar • Lymphatic filariasis and kala-azar are targeted for elimination by 2015, • National programme for prevention and control of Japanese Encephalitis (JE)/Acute Encephalitis Syndrome AES
  • 69. Non-Communicable Diseases • Nascent or initial steps • Integrated approach to be built up at the district level. • This is one area where research and protocol development for mainstreaming AYUSH • Developing Integrative Medicine has huge potential for effective prevention and therapy that is also safe and cost- effective, since NCDs often require life-long management.
  • 70. • Blindness • Programmes against deafness and for better oral health have also been initiated. • Silicosis (occupational disease) Geriatric population • The population above 60 years comprise of 8.6% of the population (103.8 million) and above 75 years (20.52 million) • Almost 8% of the elderly population is bed ridden or homebound (NSSO) • Increasing access to palliative care would be an important objective, and in this like for all geriatric illness, continuity of care across levels will play a major role.
  • 71. Mental Health: • Sad state of neglect • 0.47 psychologists per million people • Integration with the primary care - specially trained general medical officers and nurses • Tele-medicine linkages • Supplementing primary level facilities with counselors and psychologists would be useful in several programmes including mental health, such as adolescent and sexual health programmes and HIV control.
  • 72. Emergency Care and Disaster preparedness: • A district that cannot respond to a poly trauma responding from a single house collapse or a single road accident is in no position to respond to an earthquake or a major train accident or flood. • Army of community members • Burns, drowning, stampede during fairs and festivals, etc. • Building earthquake and cyclone resistant infrastructures • A network of emergency care that has an assured provision of life support ambulances linked to trauma management centers- one per 30 lakh population in urban and one for every 10 lakh population in rural areas will form the key to a trauma care policy
  • 73. Realizing the Potential of AYUSH • A large part of the population uses AYUSH remedies • Making AYUSH drugs available and standardising drugs and treatment protocols. • Recently adopted National AYUSH Mission. • Initiating community-based AYUSH interventions • In many primary health centers however they are the only medical professionals available and therefore take care of both ayush and allopathic curative care • Validating processes of health care promotion and cure • Development of appropriate clinical protocols for primary, secondary and tertiary levels will be part of this approach
  • 74. Tertiary Care Services: • Private sector • Strengthening 58 medical colleges in the first three phases • Upgrading 58 district hospitals to become medical colleges and building up close to 15 more new AIIMS. • In addition the center has six AIIMS which will soon be functioning at full capacity and a number of national tertiary care hospitals ,which are declared national centers of excellence in tertiary health care • Aravind Eye Hospitals, or the Christian Medical College Hospitals, or Tata Cancer Hospitals, or the Sai Hospitals, have made remarkable contributions to training appropriate specialists and super-specialists
  • 75. Human Resources for Health: • Strengthening 58 existing medical colleges and further converting 58 district hospitals to new medical colleges • Continuous flow of faculty for the over 600 medical colleges • AIIMS like centers of medical education and research from 9 to 15. • Ensuring that doctors are attracted to work in remote areas • Mandatory rural postings or mandatory rotational postings • The requirement of patient care in super specialty services is very different from the General Specialties with regard to skills required to render effective care. This calls for developing human resources for super specialty care, which would entail developing training centres for the same.
  • 76. • National Board of Examinations as a statutory body to innovate new education and training models to train appropriate specialists. • Technological innovations coupled with advances in cellular biology knowledge are influencing therapeutic interventions. • Hence, developing teams comprising of clinicians, cellular biologists, researchers, academicians, etc. in each specialty who can deliver holistic care becomes pertinent.
  • 77. • Primary care from selective care to comprehensive care • B.Sc in community health • Paramedical cadre such as perfusionists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, radiological technicians, MRI technicians, nurse practitioners, and public health nurses • Tertiary care facilities like critical care, cardio-thoracic vascular care, neurological care, trauma care, etc. requires specialized knowledge and skills. The policy recognizes the need for developing training courses and curriculum in these areas. • ASHA- activists, facilitators and providers of community level care across various contexts. • Community based geriatric and palliative care
  • 78. • Nursing school in every large district or cluster of districts of about 20 to 30 lakh population • Planned expansion of allied technical skills- radiographers, laboratory technicians, physiotherapists, pharmacists, audiologists, optometrists etc. • The last seven years have seen a major inculcation of public health management skills of different backgrounds into the public health systems and they have performed well in improving programme effectiveness. • The nation has also seen a major expansion of public health and public health management education from two or three courses in 2004 to over 30 such courses across the nation.
  • 79. Quality of Medical Education - NEET for UG entrance at All India level Financing of Health Care & Engaging the Private Sector: • Tax based financing • 70% of the population who are poor and vulnerable (Whose per capita monthly consumption expenditure is less than Rs. 1640 in Rural and Rs. 2500 in urban areas at current prices) • Raising resources for investing in health • Improving efficiency of public sector expenditure and second is the various forms of engagement of private sector
  • 80. • Inclusion of cost-benefit and cost effectiveness studies in programme design and evaluation would also contribute significantly to increasing efficiency of public expenditure. • Resource allocation/payment mechanisms to public health facilities • A robust National Health Accounts System needs to be operationalised to enable this • Private Sector engagement would largely take the form of purchasing care from private hospitals on a reimbursement basis- against cashless services
  • 81. Regulatory Framework : • The regulatory role of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare includes regulation of – clinical establishments – professional and technical education – food safety – medical technologies and medical products with reference to introduction, manufacture, quality assurance and sales, clinical trials and research, and implementation of other health related laws. Clinical Establishments Act 2010 • Only nine States and Union Territories have adopted the Act so far. A few States have enacted their own State laws
  • 82. Regulatory Framework for Professional Education: • The four professional councils for medical, nursing, dental and pharmacy council face many challenges in enforcing quality in professional education or professional ethics and good practice. • Availability of safe, wholesome, and healthy foods is an important requirement for health. • Though enacted in 2006, the Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, was operationalized only from late 2011.
  • 83. • India is known as the manufacturing hub and pharmacy of the world with exports to over 200 nations. • Post market surveillance program for drugs, blood products and medical devices shall be strengthened to ensure high degree of reliability and to prevent adverse outcomes due to low quality and/or refurbished devices/health products. • Clinical trials - Drugs and Cosmetic Act for its regulation, transparent and objective procedures shall be specified, and functioning of ethics and review committees strengthened. • Integrated vaccine complex at Chengalpattu would be set up and vaccine, anti-sera manufacturing units in the public sector upgraded with rise in their installed capacity
  • 84. Medical Technologies: • One of the challenges to ensuring access to free drugs and diagnostics though public services is the quality of public procurement and logistics. • Public procurement and distribution when well done, as Tamilnadu and more recently Rajasthan has shown, reduces out of pocket expenditures on account of drugs and diagnostics considerably and increases access while limiting irrational prescription practices. • Central procurement agency • National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) under National Essential List of Medicines (NELM) • Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) which is the back-bone of the generic formulations industry
  • 85. • Government policy would be to both stimulate innovation and new drug discovery. • New drugs at affordable rates • Institutions like CRI, Kasauli, the BCG Institute, Chennai, the Institute of Serology, Kolkata, the National Biological Institute, Noida, and Indian Pharmacopeia Commission play vital roles in production of biologicals and vaccines and in quality assurance and testing mechanisms.
  • 86. ICT for Health & Health Information Needs: Use of ICT has the potential to reduce frequency of hospital visits & management of chronic diseases. Five pillars -the systems for increasing public access to information of community health and the individual’s access to her/his own health records -the tools required for public health providers at the periphery and at mid level management -systems for support to providers and hospital managers for a measurable improvement in quality and efficiency of care -an IT enabled supply chain management systems -systems for better monitoring, planning and governance.
  • 87. • Digitization of all health events and processes • National e-Health Authority (NeHA) will be set up • A robust growth of ICT to meet various needs of health care system The integrated health information system will be based on key principles and strategies like (a) adoption of National Electronic Health Record Standards (announced by the Ministry in 2013) and Metadata and Data Standards; (b) federated architecture to roll-out and link systems at State level and national level
  • 88. (c) progressive use of “Aadhaar” (Unique ID) for identification (in case UID is not available, then other ID would be created as per the standards notified by the Ministry) and issue of a unique Health Card to every citizen; (d) creation of health information exchange platform and national health information network (e) use of existing/planned national & state level IT infrastructures such as the National Optical Fiber Network, Meghraj (cloud) (f) smartphones/tablets for capturing real-time data (h) setting up of dedicated governance structures.
  • 89. • The National Health Policy also sees tremendous potential for the application of Tele-medicine systems and M-Health. • Today we have reliable medically certified causes for only about 28% of deaths. • Careful deployment of ICT tools, improvement of work processes, and innovative capacity building has to come together to make this fundamental tool of decentralized and disaggregated burden of disease measure reliable enough for health planning and health outcome measurements at all levels.
  • 90. Knowledge for Health: Two approaches (i) research on country specific health problems necessary to formulate sound policies and plans for field action; (ii) contributions to global health research In a knowledge based sector like health, where advances happen daily it is important to invest at least 5 % of all health expenditure on health research. The establishment of a Department of Health Research (DHR) in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare was in recognition of the key role that health research would play for the nation.
  • 91. • The health policy envisages strengthening the 32 publicly funded health research institutes under the Department of Health Research, the 15 apex public health institutions under the Department of Health & Family Welfare, and research activity in the over 143 Government and over 150 private medical colleges in the nation. • The fact is that in 2007, 96% of the research publications in India emanated from as little as 9 medical colleges that reflect how little most of them are geared to the challenges of health research.
  • 92. • Health research in India needs to advance on three fronts. One front is to generate the evidence base required for decision making in Health Systems and Services. • The second front is in medical product innovation and discovery as required for our public health needs and to sustain a vibrant Indian pharmaceutical and medical device industry on par with global standards. • The third front is to encourage the development of fundamental research • Each of these three fronts of advance needs their own distinct strategies, and institutional and governance mechanisms.
  • 93. • For making full use of all research capacity in the nation, grant in aid mechanisms which provide extramural funding to research efforts • Grant-in-aid mechanisms would also enable a large and active number of health NGOs to participate in the generation of knowledge and it would be able to engage and get desirable outputs from private institutions. • Growing concern in health research is in the ethical dimensions • There is also the need to develop information data-bases that researchers can share on a wide variety of areas
  • 94. • International aid agencies were once important sources of financing of public health programmes, but today their entire contribution is less than 1% of public health expenditure. • India needs to also develop its own new policy towards international health and health diplomacy. • Such a policy should leverage our strengths in frugal innovation in the area of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, health care delivery and information technology to assist all nations in improved access to essential health commodities at much lower costs.
  • 95. In the context of India being an emerging developed nation, Indian policy must move towards repositioning India from being a recipient of aid and technical assistance to an equal partner in international technical cooperation and the pace-setter in setting international norms and standards that prioritize peoples health as the central consideration. Governance: Federal Structure- Role of State and Role of Center: Though health is a State subject, the Center has accountability to Parliament for central funding – which is about 36% of all public health expenditure and in some states over 50%.
  • 96. The Institutional Framework: • Directorates need to be strengthened by HR policies, central to which is that, those from a public health management cadre must hold senior positions in public health. • Civil servants too should have clear induction and orientation programmes in the domain as also general understanding of institutional processes that they need to put in place so that the directorates and various state owned institutions in a knowledge based sector are able to perform optimally.
  • 97. State Owned, Guided and Financed Institutions: • General guidelines in the form of minimum governance standards for such state owned or state financed corporations and trusts and societies within which one can have flexibility to frame rules and incur expenditure without referral for approvals at each step would be put in place for ensuring optimal functioning.
  • 98. Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions: • All elected local bodies- rural and urban would be enabled to provide leadership and participate in the functioning of district and sub-district institutions. • Most important of these are the Rogi Kalyan Samitis(RKS) and the Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC). • In particular they would be in charge of, and could be financed for implementing a number of preventive and promotive health actions that are to be implemented at the level of the community.
  • 99. Addressing Fiduciary Risks: The four most important processes where the State should be asked to create rules that conform to good governance standards as laid out by the Center and then comply with them would be a) Procurement and logistics for drugs and devices b) Transfers and postings c) Appointment of a regular district chief health and medical officer or equivalent by due process – since most funds are given to or spent by district health society d) Selection of partners and timely payments to them in public private partnerships and similarly grant-in-aid mechanisms for NGOs.
  • 100. Improving Accountability: • The policy would be to increase horizontal accountability, by providing a greater role and participation of local bodies and encouraging community monitoring and better vertical accountability through better monitoring, grievance redressal systems and programme evaluation. Involving Communities: • In the process of engagement with communities and empowering them to contribute, non-governmental organizations with a tradition of working for community health have an important contribution to make.
  • 101. Professionalizing Management, Incentivizing Performance: • Competence requires formal training for the requisite management and leadership skills. • It also requires bringing in at the leadership level, on a regular basis or through consultancies and partnerships, the mix of professional knowledge and skills that are needed.
  • 102. Legal Framework for Health Care and the Right to Health: • Mental Health Bill • The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act • The bill regulating surrogate pregnancy and assisted reproductive technologies • Food Safety Act • Drugs and Cosmetics Act and the Clinical Establishments Act.
  • 103. • Health rights bill making health a fundamental right- • Brazil and Thailand • The policy question is whether we have reached the level of economic and health systems development as to make this a justiciable right- implying that its denial is an offense.
  • 104. • And whether when health care is a State subject, it is desirable or useful to make a central law? • And whether such a law should mainly focus on the enforcement of public health standards on water, sanitation, food safety, air pollution etc, or on health rights- access to health care and quality of health care – i.e on what the state enforces on citizens or on what the citizen demands of the state? • Or does the health policy take the position that given the existence of a large number of laws including the clinical establishments Act, and the track record on adopting them and implementing them, a Central law is neither essential nor feasible.
  • 105. Concluding Note: Implementation Framework and the Way Forward. • The National Health Policy therefore envisages that an implementation framework be put in place to deliver on these policy commitments. • Such an implementation framework would specify approved financial allocations and linked to this measurable numerical output targets and time schedules.
  • 106. • The implementation framework would also reflect learning from past experience • Identify administrative reforms required for more appropriate rules and regulations to governs public financing, institutional design, human resource policies for this sector, re-structuring of institutions required for better governance and management at national, state and district levels • Measures for improving institutional capacity to deliver, and most important the division of powers, functions and accountability between Center and States with respect to health sector performance
  • 107. COMMENTS: 1. High level of absenteeism of doctors in public health facilities especially in rural and tribal areas 2. Lack of utilisation of available HRH qualified in alternate systems of medicine with a strong bias against practitioners of thesesystems of medicine compared to allopathy Suggestions 1. Improve the availability of essential facilities 2. Provide an incentive for every year served in a difficult area. 3. MBBS and post graduate degree courses can be administered free of cost to students with a legal provision for compulsory rural service for 10 years
  • 108. 4. The pay-scale of government doctors needs to be improved so as to prevent them from turning to private practice. 5.There should be a diploma course to develop medical practitioners who can serve as a first line of care in rural areas 6.There is a need to increase availability of nurses and allied health professionals through establishment of a separate regulatory authority to ensure standards in education for the allied health professionals 7.There should be reservation of seats for rural students in Medical colleges whose parents live in villages so that after studying there would be interest to stay close to village and work in those areas
  • 109. Access, Continuum and Organization of Care Perceived problems: • Rural areas require the establishment and running of functional health care facilities. • Existing public sector health facilities are not equipped to provide services to the population for lack of resources. Services are therefore unavailable to the poor. • Available public health facilities do not have capacity for the large number of patients seeking healthcare services.
  • 110. • A well established network of health facilities from village to higher levels must be setup ,as per geographical and population density norms, with adequate resources of infrastructure, human resources and drugs and equipment, providing appropriate levels of health services (primary, secondary and tertiary) • The capacity of existing health facilities requires to be expanded to accommodate the large number of patients and reduce waiting times • The basic unit of health services i.e.primary health centres and anganwadi centres must be strengthened first in order to develop a strong health care system.
  • 111. • A suggested method of involving private sector in the provision of universal health coverage is through the organization of private sector health facilities into similar provider networks (primary, secondary and tertiary) which must be a pre-requisite for empanelment in such as system. • Cost of care for patients is therefore at the level of the network and would similarly prevent irrational and excessive care and promote primary care and disease prevention.
  • 112. Tertiary and Emergency Care Perceived problems The condition of emergency wards in public hospitals is poor Suggestions: • Tertiary level hospitals (providing AIIMS-like services) must be available in all districts/States for access to tertiary care services. District hospitals must be strengthened for this purpose. Capacity and location of these facilities should be adequate as per population and geographical need • A two-wheeler mobile medical ambulance should be introduced equipped to provide emergency care to accident victims in busy cities until the patient is transferred to a hospital.
  • 113. Quality of Care Perceived problems • Patients do not have the right to quality of care at public health facilities/Quality of care in public health facilities is the most important concern Suggestions: • There should be a measurable standard for quality of care that includes components of patient safety, comfort, satisfaction and clinical outcomes. This must be coupled with systems to motivate providers and ensure adherence to the standards (incentives, capacity building, technical support and institutional arrangements for measurement and certification. • A ranking system should be developed for all health facilities and this information must be available in the public domain.
  • 114. Public Health Perceived problems • The diseases in rural are as are mainly because of lack of cleanliness Suggestions: • Health education and awareness programs and camps should be implemented • There should be a focus on population control which will help ineffective program implementation • There should be a focus on cleanliness and basic health amenities • The Municipal Corporations should provide bed nets at subsidized rates for prevention of mosquito-borne diseases
  • 115. HealthInformationsystems(HIS) Perceived problems • Existing telemedicine cannot scale upto entire rural India because of factors like connectivity and powerissues, infrastructure, field implementation and cultural acceptability • The lack of this single data standard prohibits interoperability between the many evolving information systems in the country Suggestions: • Information Communication Technology (ICT) should be effectively used to bridge the gap between performance and potential High speed broadband should be installed for use of these services in remote areas
  • 116. • There should be an integrated Health Management Information System for an area providing data such as: characteristics of area (number of villages, number of health facilities, population), different programmes (NRHM, RNTCP etc), health informatics on disease outbreak, health survey, inventory management, human resources • SMS alerts regarding vaccination, health camps should be sent to citizens • Hospitals should give a provision for obtaining online appointments • Rural telemedicine can be made effective by connecting villages to town doctors • There should be a National Database of blood donors, state and city wise
  • 117. Regulation of Drugs, Food and Medical Practice • There is an urgency to create public toilets • Self help groups should be made at Anganwadis to create health awareness • The quality of midday meals should be improved • Associated Ministries should work with the Ministry of Health to improve the condition of water and sanitation • There should be increased focus on horizontal integration of programmes with a shift away from vertical planning and implementation of programmes.
  • 118. IncreasingFinancialResources Perceived Problems: • Every year a significant number of people die due to financial scarcity for health • Existing health insurance schemes are limited in their use to the public.The insurance premiums are low just for sake of competition but the coverage is very limited. Hence there are no benefits to the Insured Suggestions: • Affordable health insurance should be provided to all the families especially in ruralareas where the poverty levels are high and health facilities weak • There is a need for a healthsavings account to decrease sudden out of pocket expenditure on health • A nominal amount can be deducted from JanDhan account for health
  • 119. • Public-private partnership model should be implemented for establishment of hospitals and other needs in health sector • The government should promote corporate social responsibility in various areas for increasing availability of resources.
  • 120. Availability of Drugs, Vaccines and Other Consumables Perceived Problems: • There are no dispensaries in remote locations Many medicines not available in government stores as per LogBooks. The pharmacies in public hospitals do not have all medicines, requiring patients to purchase drugs at higher cost from private medical stores Suggestions: • Medical equipments/healthcare products should be locally manufactured to decrease expenditure on these devices. There may be a provision for government medical shops for below poverty line population • There should be a provision to open medical shops providing generic medicines in rural areas • There should be provision for increased production of medicines and health products
  • 121. Using Finance as a Tool for Increasing Efficiency Suggestions: • NITI Aayog can play a catalytic role in designing incentives that the central government can offer to the states to allocate more resources to health • The center can also seek to maximize efficiencies of scale by focusing central resource spending on public goods in health that have cross-state value • The Government has set in motion the institutional changes necessary for implementing co-operative federalism, redesigning many of the centrally sponsored schemes

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