NATIONALISM IN INDIA
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
BY;
PRATHIMA HARISH .
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT1930-1932 .HOW DID
THE PARTICIPANTS SEE THE MOVEMENT ?
RICH PEASANTS
1.
2.
3.
GROUPS OF PEOP...
RICH PEASANTS
POOR PEASANTS
4. HOW THEY ORGANISED: RICH
5.
PEASANTS ENTHUSIASTIC
SUPPORTERS, ORGANISED
COMMUNITIES, FO...
INDUSTRIALISTS .
1.
2.
3.
4.
DURING I WORLD WAR INDIAN
MERCHANTS MADE HUGE
PROFITS & BECAME VERY
POWERFUL
THEY WANTE...
INDUSTRIALISTS .
INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
5 . LEADERS: G.D . BIRLA , PURSHOTTAMDAS
THAKURDAS & OTHER IMPORTANT
INDUSTRIALISTS...
LIMITS OF THE C.D.M.[WOMEN,
DALITS AND MUSLIMS].
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
WOMEN: WOMEN DURING THE N.C.M . PARTICIPATED IN
PROTE...
DALITS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
NOT ALL SOCIAL GROUPS WERE MOVED BY THE ABSTRACT
CONCEPT OF “ SWARAJ”.
ONE SUCH GROUP WAS T...
DALITS{CONTD}.
7. THE DALITS FELT THAT POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT WOULD
RESOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL DISABLITIES AND SO
DEM...
MUSLIMS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
THE MUSLIM POLITICAL ORGANISATION SHOWED A V. POOR
RESPONSE TOWARDS THE C.D.M.
AFTER THE DE...
Nationalism in india now
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Nationalism in india now

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Nationalism in india now

  • 1. NATIONALISM IN INDIA CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT BY; PRATHIMA HARISH .
  • 2. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT1930-1932 .HOW DID THE PARTICIPANTS SEE THE MOVEMENT ? RICH PEASANTS 1. 2. 3. GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO JOINED: PATIDARS OF GUJARAT 1. AND JATS OF UTTAR PRADESH – 2. ACTIVE IN C.D.M . PROBLEMS: a) AFFECTED BY TRADE DEPRESSION AND INCREASING PRICES AS THEY 3. WERE COMMERCIAL CROP PRODUCERS. b) CASH INCOME DISAPPEARED AND SO, 4. DIFFICULT TO PAY GOVT. REVENUE DEMANDS. c) GOVT.REFUSED TO REDUCE THE 5. REVENUE DEMANDS WHICH LED TO ANGER. SWARAJ: STRUGGLE AGAINST HIGH REVENUE . POOR PEASANTS GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO JOINED: POOR PEASANTS. SWARAJ: a)REDUCE REVENUE DEMANDS. b) WANTED UNPAID RENTS TO THE LAND LORD TO BE REMITTED. JOINED BY RADICAL MOVEMENTS & LED BY SOCIALISTS & COMMUNISTS. CONGRESS UNWILLING TO SUPPORT “NO RENT “ CAMPAIGN IN MOST PLACES. SO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POOR PEASANTS AND THE CONGRESS REMAINED UNCERTAIN.
  • 3. RICH PEASANTS POOR PEASANTS 4. HOW THEY ORGANISED: RICH 5. PEASANTS ENTHUSIASTIC SUPPORTERS, ORGANISED COMMUNITIES, FORCED MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN BOYCOTT PROGS. RESULT : DISAPPOINTED WHEN C.D.M WAS CALLED OFF IN 1931 WITHOUT REVENUE RATES BEING REVISED.BUT WHEN IT BEGAN AGAIN IN 1932 MANY REFUSED TO TAKE PART.  --------------
  • 4. INDUSTRIALISTS . 1. 2. 3. 4. DURING I WORLD WAR INDIAN MERCHANTS MADE HUGE PROFITS & BECAME VERY POWERFUL THEY WANTED TO FURTHER EXPAND THEIR TRADE BUT THE BRITISH RESTRICTED THEIR TRADE ACTIVITIES. SWARAJ: a) PROTECTION AGAINST IMPORT OF FOREIGN GOODS. b) RUPEE – STERLING FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATIO DISCOURAGED IMPORTS/ TRADE. ORGANISED- INDIAN INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL CONGRESS( IICC)IN 1920,FEDERATION OF THE INDIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES (FICCI)IN 1927. INDUSTRIAL WORKERS. 1. NOT MANY PARTICIPATED EXCEPT IN NAGPUR REGION. 2. INDUSTRIALISTS BECAME CLOSE TO CONGRESS, SO WORKERS KEPT ALOOF. 3. SWARAJ: BETTERMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS & HIGHER WAGES. 4. FEW JOINED & THEY ADOPTED GANDHIAN IDEAS. 5. USED BOYCOTT MOVEMENTS. 6. STRIKE BY RAILWAY WORKERS IN 1920 & DOCK WORKERS IN 1932. 7. CHOTANAGPUR TIN MINE WORKERS WORE GANDHI CAPS& TOOK PART IN CDM. 8. BUT CONGRESS RELUCTANT TO SUPPORT THE DEMANDS‟ OF THE WORKERS…FELT THAT INDUSTRIALISTS WOULD ALIENATE THEM AS THEY GAVE FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO ALL THEIR MOVEMENTS.
  • 5. INDUSTRIALISTS . INDUSTRIAL WORKERS 5 . LEADERS: G.D . BIRLA , PURSHOTTAMDAS THAKURDAS & OTHER IMPORTANT INDUSTRIALISTS. 6. THEY GAVE FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE & REFUSSED TO BUY/ SELL IMPORTED GOODS . 7. THOUGHT THAT ALL CONSTRAINTS WOULD GO WITH THE ATTAINMENT OF „SWARAJ‟ AND FREE TRADE WOULD EVOLVE,. 8. BUT AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE 3 RTCs, THEY LOST HOPE & WERE APPREHENSIVE OF MILITANT ACTIVITIES WHICH WOULD DISRUPT BUSINESS & WOULD HAVE TO SHUT DOWN FACTORIES & ALSO FEARED THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIALISM. 9. HENCE, THEY WITHDREW FROM THE CDM. ------
  • 6. LIMITS OF THE C.D.M.[WOMEN, DALITS AND MUSLIMS]. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WOMEN: WOMEN DURING THE N.C.M . PARTICIPATED IN PROTEST MARCHES , PICKETED LIQUOR SHOPS, BOYCOTTED FOREIGN GOODS ETC. i.e. THEY GAVE A TOUGH SUPPORT AGAINST THE INDIANS… MANY WERE ALSO IMPRISONED. IN URBANS AREAS … SUPPORTED BY WOMEN FROM THE HIGH CASTE SOCIETY AND IN THE RURAL AREAS… BY THE WOMEN OF THE RICH PEASANTS HOUSEHOLDS. MOVED BY THE CALL OF GANDHI , THEY THOUGHT THAT SERVICE TO THE NATION WAS THEIR SACRED DUTY , BUT INSPITE OF THEIR INCREASED PARTICIPATION THERE WAS NO CHANGE IN THEIR STATUS. DURING THE DANDI MARCH , MAHATMA GANDHI DISCOURAGED WOMEN AND SAID THAT A WOMAN‟S DUTY WAS TO TAKE CARE OF THE “ HOME “ AND THE “HEARTH” AND BE GOOD WIVES AND GOOD MOTHERS. THE CONGRESS WAS RELUCTANT TO ALLOW WOMEN TO HOLD ANY POLITICAL POSITION BUT WAS KEEN ONLY ON THEIR “ SYMBOLIC PRESENCE”.
  • 7. DALITS. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. NOT ALL SOCIAL GROUPS WERE MOVED BY THE ABSTRACT CONCEPT OF “ SWARAJ”. ONE SUCH GROUP WAS THE GROUP OF THE “ UNTOUCHABLES” WHO BY 1930s‟ WERE CALLED AS THE DALITS OR THE “OPPRESSED CLASS.” THEY WERE IGNORED BY THE CONGRESS FOR A PROLONGED PERIOD AS THE CONG. FEARED THAT THEY WOULD OFFEND THE SENTIMENTS OF THE SANTANIS OR THE CONSERVATIVES OF THE HIGH CASTE HINDUS. BUT MAHATMA GANDHI FELT THAT “ SWARAJ” WOULD NOT BE ACHIEVED AT THE EARLIEST IF UNTOUCHABILITY WAS NOT ELIMINATED. M.G . CALLED THEM AS “HARIJANS / CHILDREN OF GOD AND ORGANISED SATYAGRAHAS TO SECURE THEM A POSITION AND AN ENTRY INTO PUBLIC PLACES. M.G. CLEANED THE TOILETS, DIGNIFIED THE WORK OF THE” BHANGIS” AND FORCED THE UPPER CASTES TO ACCEPT THEM AND GIVE UP THE “ SINS OF UNTOUCHABILITY”.
  • 8. DALITS{CONTD}. 7. THE DALITS FELT THAT POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT WOULD RESOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL DISABLITIES AND SO DEMANDED A SEPARATE ELECTORATE. 8. Dr. B.R. AMBEDKAR THEIR LEADER ORGANISED THE DALITS AS THE “ DEPRESSED CLASSES ASSOCIATION “ IN 1930 AND CLASHED AGAINST M.G. IN THE 2nd RTC. BUT THE BRITISH CONCEDED HIS DEMANDED AS GANDHIJI BEGAN TO FAST UNTO DEATH AS A SEPARATE ELECTORATE WOULD SLOW DOWN THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION. 9. HENCE, ACCORDING TO THE POONA PACT OF SEPTEMBER 1932, Dr. B.R. AMBEDKAR ACCEPTED THE OFFER AND SEATS WERE RESERVED THEM IN THE PROVINCIAL AND LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS AND LATER CALLED THEM AS THE SCHEDULED CASTES. 10. INSPITE OF ALL THESE, THE DALITS WERE STILL APPREHENSIVE OF THE CONGRESS LED C.D.M. AND DID NOT SHOW MUCH INVOLVEMENT IN IT AND KEPT AWAY.
  • 9. MUSLIMS. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. THE MUSLIM POLITICAL ORGANISATION SHOWED A V. POOR RESPONSE TOWARDS THE C.D.M. AFTER THE DECLINE OF THE N.C.K.M. THE MUSLIMS FELT ALIENATED FROM THE CONGRESS. BY THE MID 1920s, THE CONGRESS ALSO HOSTED MOST OF ITS SESSIONS ON HINDU FESTIVALS AND MOVED TOWARDS THE HINDU RELIGIOUS GROUPS LIKE THE HINDU MAHASABHA. THE RELATIONSHIPS WERE STRAINED WHICH LED TO COMMUNAL CLASHES AND RIOTS AND EACH RIOT DEEPENED THE DISTANCE AMONGST THEM. THE MUSLIM LEADERS WHO WERE DEMANDING FOR SEPARATE ELECTORATES WERE READY TO GIVE THEIR DEMANDS , BUT THE NEGOTIATIONS FAILED AS M.R. JAYAKAR OF THE HINDU MAHASABHA STRONGLY OPPOSED THE COMPROMISE. THE MUSLIMS ALSO FEARED THAT THEIR CULTURE AND IDENTITY WOULD BE SUBMERGED UNDER THE DOMINANCE OF THE HINDU MAJORITY AND HENCE….. KEPT AWAY FROM THE C.D.M. THERFORE WE CONCLUDE THAT THE C.D.M WAS SHORT LIVED AND WAS A TOTAL FAILURE UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF MAHATMA GANDHI AND MANY LOST HOPE IN THIS MOVEMENT AS IT WAS INTERMITTENT AND ABRUPT.

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