Lec. (1)
What is it?
1
Eigler et al. NATURE 363, 1993
Nanoscience and nanotechnology
are the study and application of
extremely small things a...
Richard Feynman is the father of nanotechnology.
with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the
Bottom” at an Ameri...
4
is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its
development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd
Binnig and...
DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology is the creation
of functional materials, devices,
and systems through contr...
Nano: The Middle Ground
? ? ?
UNIQUENESS OF NANOMATERIALS
• Grains, pores, interface thickness and defects are of
similar dimensions.
• Nanomaterials...
INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH REQUIRED
Engineering
NANOTECHNOLOGY
Bioscience Physical Sciences
nanotechnology were developed for many current
challenges facing the international community, including:
• Clean, secure...
FIELDS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology
Nanomedicine
Nanobiotechnology
Nanolithography
Nanoelectronics
Nanomagnetics...
Applications of Nanomaterial
Based Products
Automotive industry
Engineering
Medicine
Cosmetics
Textile
Sports...
Applications of Nanotechnology in industrial and technical fields:
13
• ExxonMobil is using zeolites, minerals with pore...
What is Nanotechnology?
The Space
Elevator?
Ultra high
strength
materials allow
tower to be
built into space
!(?) ...
What is Nanotechnology?
Tiny machines
in your body
curing cancer?
15
What is Nanotechnology?
DNA Computers in a beaker that
vastly outperform our fastest
supercomputers?
16
TECHNOLOGIES
Nanomaterials
Nanolithography
Scanning Probe
Microscopy
Self-Assembly
APPLICATIONS
Super fast/small co...
Materials Science: Nanomaterials
Human Made
Materials
Biologically
made materials
18
Silica Calcium Carbonate
Calcium phosphate
Hydroxyapatite
Calcite
19
Superhydrophobic Surfaces:
The Lotus Effect
20
NANO- TEXTILE APPLICATIONS
Nano Jacket
Nano tie and scarf
Student’s uniform
NANOTECHNOLOGY – FUEL CELL
Atlantic – Aprilia fuel cell bike
Photovoltaic cell
Hydrogen
Fuel Cell
Carbon
Nanotubes
CHIN WEE SHONG : AgS2 cubes
National University of Singapore
Department of Chemistry
Quantum dots
2...
Carbon Nanotubes
Buckminster Fullerene C60
Smalley, Curl, Kroto.
Nobel Prize
24
The Forms of Carbon
Diamond
Graphite
Graphein: (Greek) to write
Nanotube
Buckyball
25
What’s the big deal about carbon
nanotubes???
• Amazing Mechanical Properties
• Amazing Electrical Properties:
– Can b...
Applications:
Composite Materials
nanotubes poking out of fractured
edge of polymer composite
27
Applications: Field Emission 1
Samsung prototype carbon
nanotube display
28
Applications: Field Emission 2
Otto Zhou. UNC Physics
Cold Cathode X-ray machine
The potential advantages of the
futur...
Quantum Dots
30
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
31
Synthesis of Nanomaterials
Synthesis of
Nanomaterials
Top - down method
(Destruction)
Bottom-up method
(Construction...
Synthesis of Nanomaterials
Top - Down
method
High energy
Ball Milling Lithography
Gas
condensation
Severe plastic
...
SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS
Bottom
Up
method
Physical
Vapor
Deposition
Chemical
Vapor
Deposition
Plasma
Processe...
CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION
TECHNIQUES
• Essential requirements for the development, manufacturing and
commercializa...
HIGH DEPTH OF FIELD
NANOMATERIAL
Optical Microscope Scanning Electron
Microscope
transmission electron
microscope
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AFM
www.shef.ac.uk/~htsl/afm.htm
Atomic Force Microscope
Photo detector
Force
Laser Beam
Tip At...
of 37

Nanophysics lec (1)

Nanophysics
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanophysics lec (1)

  • 1. Lec. (1) What is it? 1
  • 2. Eigler et al. NATURE 363, 1993 Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. How is nanoscience different than •Chemistry •Biology •Physics What distinguishes nanoscience from other sciences? 2
  • 3. Richard Feynman is the father of nanotechnology. with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (at IBM Zürich), the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 For an STM, good resolution is considered to be 0.1 nm lateral resolution and 0.01 nm depth resolution.[3]With this resolution, individual atoms within materials are routinely imaged and manipulated. The STM can be used not only in ultra-high vacuum but also in air, water, and various other liquid or gas ambients, and at temperatures ranging from near zero kelvin to a few hundred degrees Celsius.[4] The STM is based on the concept of quantum tunneling. When a conducting tip is brought very near to the surface to be examined, abias (voltage difference) applied between the two can allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum between them. The resulting tunneling current is a function of tip position, applied voltage, and the local density of states (LDOS) of the sample.[4] Information is acquired by monitoring the current as the tip's position scans across the surface, and is usually displayed in image form. 5
  • 6. DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on an atomic or molecular scale. The creation and use of structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. PLAR - Nanotechnology
  • 7. Nano: The Middle Ground ? ? ?
  • 8. UNIQUENESS OF NANOMATERIALS • Grains, pores, interface thickness and defects are of similar dimensions. • Nanomaterials have a large surface area but their volume is very small. • Improve mechanical properties (increased strength, toughness etc.,) • High melting point compounds.
  • 9. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH REQUIRED Engineering NANOTECHNOLOGY Bioscience Physical Sciences
  • 10. nanotechnology were developed for many current challenges facing the international community, including: • Clean, secure, affordable energy; • Stronger, lighter, more durable materials; • Low-cost filters to provide clean drinking water; • Medical devices and drugs to detect and treat diseases more effectively with fewer side effects; • Lighting that uses a fraction of the energy associated with conventional systems; • Sensors to detect and identify harmful chemical and biological agents; andTechniques to clean up harmful chemicals in the environment. 10
  • 11. FIELDS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology Nanomedicine Nanobiotechnology Nanolithography Nanoelectronics Nanomagnetics Nano Biodevices Nano Biomimetic materials NEMS (nano electro mechanical sys) Nano Pulp & Paper Technology
  • 12. Applications of Nanomaterial Based Products Automotive industry Engineering Medicine Cosmetics Textile Sports Chemical industry Electronic industry
  • 13. Applications of Nanotechnology in industrial and technical fields: 13 • ExxonMobil is using zeolites, minerals with pore sizes of less than 1 nm, as a more efficient catalyst to break down or crack large hydrocarbon molecules to form gasoline. • IBM has added nanoscale layering to disk drives, thus exploiting the giant magnetoresistive effect to attain highly dense data storage. • Gilead Sciences is using nanotechnology in the form of lipid spheres, also known as liposomes, which measure about 100 nm in diameter, to encase an anticancer drug to treat the AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. • Carbon Nanotechnologies, a company co-founded by buckyball discoverer Richard E. Smalley, is making carbon nanotubes more affordable by using a new and more efficient manufacturing process. • Nanophase Technologies is utilizing nanocrystalline particles, incorporated into other materials, to produce tough ceramics, transparent sun blocks, and catalysts for environmental uses, among other applications.
  • 14. What is Nanotechnology? The Space Elevator? Ultra high strength materials allow tower to be built into space !(?) 14
  • 15. What is Nanotechnology? Tiny machines in your body curing cancer? 15
  • 16. What is Nanotechnology? DNA Computers in a beaker that vastly outperform our fastest supercomputers? 16
  • 17. TECHNOLOGIES Nanomaterials Nanolithography Scanning Probe Microscopy Self-Assembly APPLICATIONS Super fast/small computers Super strong materials Super Slippery Materials Tissue Engineering Drug Delivery Sensors 17
  • 18. Materials Science: Nanomaterials Human Made Materials Biologically made materials 18
  • 19. Silica Calcium Carbonate Calcium phosphate Hydroxyapatite Calcite 19
  • 20. Superhydrophobic Surfaces: The Lotus Effect 20
  • 21. NANO- TEXTILE APPLICATIONS Nano Jacket Nano tie and scarf Student’s uniform
  • 22. NANOTECHNOLOGY – FUEL CELL Atlantic – Aprilia fuel cell bike Photovoltaic cell Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  • 23. Carbon Nanotubes CHIN WEE SHONG : AgS2 cubes National University of Singapore Department of Chemistry Quantum dots 23
  • 24. Carbon Nanotubes Buckminster Fullerene C60 Smalley, Curl, Kroto. Nobel Prize 24
  • 25. The Forms of Carbon Diamond Graphite Graphein: (Greek) to write Nanotube Buckyball 25
  • 26. What’s the big deal about carbon nanotubes??? • Amazing Mechanical Properties • Amazing Electrical Properties: – Can be conductors or semiconductors – Could be the building block of nanocomputing 26
  • 27. Applications: Composite Materials nanotubes poking out of fractured edge of polymer composite 27
  • 28. Applications: Field Emission 1 Samsung prototype carbon nanotube display 28
  • 29. Applications: Field Emission 2 Otto Zhou. UNC Physics Cold Cathode X-ray machine The potential advantages of the future CNT X-ray devices are fast response time, programmable xray intensity, programmable spatial distribution (Figure 3), ultra-fine focal spot, rapid pulsation capacity, long lifetime, low energy consumption, miniaturization, and low cost. 29
  • 30. Quantum Dots 30
  • 31. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 31
  • 32. Synthesis of Nanomaterials Synthesis of Nanomaterials Top - down method (Destruction) Bottom-up method (Construction)
  • 33. Synthesis of Nanomaterials Top - Down method High energy Ball Milling Lithography Gas condensation Severe plastic deformation
  • 34. SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS Bottom Up method Physical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Plasma Processes Sol-gel Processing Soft- Lithography Self- Assembly
  • 35. CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION TECHNIQUES • Essential requirements for the development, manufacturing and commercialization of nanomaterials is their physical, chemical and biological properties on a nanoscale level • For determination of atomic structure and chemical composition of solid or liquid nanomaterials – spectroscopic methods, X-ray and Neutron diffraction • For determination of size and shape – Electron microcopies (SEM or TEM)
  • 36. HIGH DEPTH OF FIELD NANOMATERIAL Optical Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope transmission electron microscope
  • 37. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AFM www.shef.ac.uk/~htsl/afm.htm Atomic Force Microscope Photo detector Force Laser Beam Tip Atoms Surface Atoms Tip Cantilever Line Scan Surface