Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D
Department of Pharmaceutics
KLE University College of Pharmacy
BELGAUM-59...
Nanotechnology
 Nanotechnology breakthrough research in
Neutraceutical and Cosmetic Industry.
 Nanotechnology, a field o...
Neutraceuticals
 Neutraceutical, a term combining the words
"nutrition" and "pharmaceutical", is a food or
food product t...
Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals
 Nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals are related in
that both are types of compound tha...
514/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
Nutraceuticals
Nutraceuticals
 Nutraceuticals are food extracts that have been
demonstrated to produce a physiological benefit or
provid...
Nutraceuticals Market
714/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
Nano-Particle
 Nutraceutical compounds do not yet fall under the
same regulatory guidelines and control known to the
phar...
Particle Characterization
914/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
1014/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
Particle Characterization
Nano-Techniques
 Nutraceutical researchers working to improve the
bioavailability, biocompatibility, and stability of var...
Neutraceuticals
 Essential fatty acids such as omega-3 oils
 Probiotics
 Prebiotics
 Plant stanols and sterols
 Botan...
Essential fatty acids such as omega-3 oils
 Omega-3 fats are found in flaxseed oil, walnut oil, and
marine plankton and f...
Probiotics
 Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can be found in
various foods.
 When you eat probiotics, you will ad...
Prebiotics
 Prebiotics are non-digestible foods that make
their way through our digestive system and
help good bacteria g...
Plant stanols and sterols
 Plant sterols and stanols are naturally occurring
substances found in plants.
 They are prese...
Botanicals
 Range of substances which is covered by
‘Botanicals’.
 Extracts from non-gmo, live plants & seeds
 All plan...
Superfruit extracts and antioxidants
 Fruit which combines exceptional nutrient
richness and antioxidant quality with app...
Carotenoid antioxidants
 Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid organic pigments that
are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts...
Soy protein isoflavones
 Soy protein and isoflavones (phytoestrogens) have
gained considerable attention for their potent...
Cosmetic
 Many cosmetic products include particulate
material or emulsions.
 Some examples of cosmetic products consisti...
Facial Powders
 Face powders may include talc, kaolin, iron oxide, zinc
oxide, titanium dioxide.
 In addition to appeara...
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 23
Facial Powders
Moisturizers
 Moisturizers are applied to the skin to improve hydration,
protect from drying, and improve appearances.
 ...
Nanoemulsion
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 25
Lipstick
 The selection of pigments used for lipstick plays an
important role in the final appearance.
 Many pigments us...
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 27
Lipstick
Patents for Nanotechnolog in Cosmetics
Company Application
Title
Key
Language/Abstract
(relevant claim in
bold
Date of
Fil...
Nanotechnology Based Cosmetic Product
 Moisturisers
 Hair care products
 Make up and suncreen
2914/12/2011 Birla Instit...
Main Uses of Nanotechnology
1. Use of nanoparticles as UV filters
2. Use of nanotechnology for delivery
3014/12/2011 Birla...
Use of nanoparticles as UV filters
 Titanium dioxide (Tio2) and zinc oxide (Zno) are
the main compounds used in these app...
Use of nanotechnology for delivery
 Nanoliposomes and Nanoniosomes are used in the
cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles...
Nanotechnology R&D in Cosmetics
 Vesicular Delivery Systems (Nanoliposome & Nanoniosome)
 Nanoemulsions
 Solid Lipid Na...
Vesicular Delivery Systems
 Nanoliposomes
 Nanoniosomes
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 34
Nanoliposomes
 Liposomes are vesicular structures with an aqueous core
surrounded by a hydrophobic lipid bilayer, created...
Nanoliposomes
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 36
Nanoniosomes
 Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant based vesicles that have a
similar structure to that of phospholipid vesi...
Nanoniosomes
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 38
Nanoemulsions
 Nanoemulsions are dispersions of nanoscale droplets of one
liquid within another.
 These emulsions are me...
Nanoemulsion
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 40
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
 Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are nanometre sized
particles with a solid lipid matrix.
 Th...
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 42
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
Nanostructured Lipid Carriers
 Lipid particles have been developed by mixing solid
lipids with liquid lipids (Nanostructu...
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 44
Nanostructured Lipid Carriers
Dendrimers
 Dendrimers considered for use in the cosmetic industry.
 Dendrimers are unimolecular, monodisperse, micellar...
Dendrimers
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 46
Hyperbranched Polymers
 Hyperbranched polymers are effectively
disorganised, unsymmetrical dendrimers that are
prepared i...
Hyperbranched Polymers
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 48
Nanocrystals
 Nanocrystals have been used in the cosmetic industry for the
delivery of poorly soluble actives.

 They a...
Nanocrystals
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 50
Nanopowder
 Nanopowder are solid particles that measure on the nanoscale,
usually comprised of three to five molecules to...
Nanopowder
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 52
Nanoencapsulation and controlled release
 Such nanosized particles which have a shell and an
interior space that can be u...
Nanoencapsulation and controlled release
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 54
Cubosomes
 Cubosomes are nanostructured particles of bicontinuous cubic
liquid crystalline phase.
 Bicontinuous cubic li...
Cubosomes
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 56
Nanotechnology for UV protection
 Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles
have been widely used for many y...
ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 58
Nanomechanical and Nanotribological
study of hair
 Nanotechnology has been used to study the mechanical
characteristics o...
Fullerenes
 A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of
carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or
tube.
...
Fullerenes
14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 61
6214/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
Contact No: 00919742431000
E-mail: bknanjwade@yahoo.co.in
of 62

Nanotechnology in nutraceuticals and cosmetics

Nanotechnology in nutraceuticals and cosmetics, Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade, KLE University College of Pharmacy, Belgavi/Belgaum, Karnataka, India.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Healthcare      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanotechnology in nutraceuticals and cosmetics

  • 1. Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE University College of Pharmacy BELGAUM-590010, Karnataka, India 14/12/2011 1Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 2. Nanotechnology  Nanotechnology breakthrough research in Neutraceutical and Cosmetic Industry.  Nanotechnology, a field of science and technology that aims to control matter at the atomic and molecular level. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 2
  • 3. Neutraceuticals  Neutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical", is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. 314/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 4. Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals  Nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals are related in that both are types of compound that demonstrate bioactive properties.  Nutraceuticals are substances that are extracted from foods and are used either to fortify other food products in order to enhance their nutritional properties as dietary supplements in the form of pills, capsules of soft-gels. 414/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 5. 514/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. Nutraceuticals
  • 6. Nutraceuticals  Nutraceuticals are food extracts that have been demonstrated to produce a physiological benefit or provide some protection against chronic disease.  Nutraceuticals are the intersection of nutrition and pharmaceutical and is an umbrella term that can also include functional foods and dietary supplements.  Eg. Omega-3 fatty acids that are both biocompatible and bioavailable. 614/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 7. Nutraceuticals Market 714/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 8. Nano-Particle  Nutraceutical compounds do not yet fall under the same regulatory guidelines and control known to the pharmaceutical industry, but many of the same analytical studies are conducted.  Quantitative particle size, particle shape, and zeta potential analysis provides information that has either a direct effect or correlation to issues such as bioavailability, solubility, formulation stability, and quality control. 814/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 9. Particle Characterization 914/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 10. 1014/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. Particle Characterization
  • 11. Nano-Techniques  Nutraceutical researchers working to improve the bioavailability, biocompatibility, and stability of various formulations measure particle size, particle shape, and zeta potential.  Measuring particle size in the nanometer  The SZ-100 dynamic light scattering nanoparticle size analyzer provides size information for nano scale suspensions and emulsions through a simple, robust user interface. 1114/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 12. Neutraceuticals  Essential fatty acids such as omega-3 oils  Probiotics  Prebiotics  Plant stanols and sterols  Botanicals  Superfruit extracts and antioxidants  Carotenoid antioxidants  Soy protein isoflavones 1214/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 13. Essential fatty acids such as omega-3 oils  Omega-3 fats are found in flaxseed oil, walnut oil, and marine plankton and fatty fish.  The main sources of omega-6 fats are vegetable oils such as corn oil and soy oil that contain a high proportion of linoleic acid.  The dense composition of the oil, it can sometime prove difficult to formulate with other ingredients  Eg. Nanoemulsion 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 13
  • 14. Probiotics  Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can be found in various foods.  When you eat probiotics, you will add these healthy bacteria to your intestinal tract.  Common strains include Lactobacillis and Bifidobacterium families of bacteria.  Eg. Nanoliposomes and Nanoniosomes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 14
  • 15. Prebiotics  Prebiotics are non-digestible foods that make their way through our digestive system and help good bacteria grow and flourish.  Prebiotics keep beneficial bacteria healthy.  Eg. Nanoencapsulation 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 15
  • 16. Plant stanols and sterols  Plant sterols and stanols are naturally occurring substances found in plants.  They are present in small quantities in many fruits, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, cereals and legumes.  Eg. Enhance aqueous solubility 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 16
  • 17. Botanicals  Range of substances which is covered by ‘Botanicals’.  Extracts from non-gmo, live plants & seeds  All plant derived substances which occur in nature 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 17
  • 18. Superfruit extracts and antioxidants  Fruit which combines exceptional nutrient richness and antioxidant quality with appealing taste that can stimulate and retain loyalty for consumer products.  Some popular fruits like Apples, oranges, tomatoes, strawberries, blackcurrants, blackberries are not commonly mentioned as superfruits.  Eg. Nanosuspension, Capros® 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 18
  • 19. Carotenoid antioxidants  Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria, and some types of fungus.  Eye Formula combines distinctive flavonoids, carotenoids, and antioxidants known to nourish and protect the delicate cellular tissue of eyes, naturally 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 19
  • 20. Soy protein isoflavones  Soy protein and isoflavones (phytoestrogens) have gained considerable attention for their potential role in improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  Soy protien isoflavones for enteral, parenteral, or topical administration. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 20
  • 21. Cosmetic  Many cosmetic products include particulate material or emulsions.  Some examples of cosmetic products consisting of or including particulates include facial powders, moisturizers, lipstick etc. 2114/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 22. Facial Powders  Face powders may include talc, kaolin, iron oxide, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide.  In addition to appearance enhancement, face powders can also provide sunscreen protection with the inclusion of strong light scattering components such as zinc oxide.  The particle size distribution of these components effects appearance, stability, and sunscreen protection. 2214/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 23. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 23 Facial Powders
  • 24. Moisturizers  Moisturizers are applied to the skin to improve hydration, protect from drying, and improve appearances.  Most moisturizers are oil in water emulsions with additives to improve stability or provide additional benefits such as sun screening properties.  Formulating oil in water emulsions often requires knowledge of both the size distribution of the dispersed phase (oil) and the charge on the surface of the droplets (the zeta potential). 2414/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 25. Nanoemulsion 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 25
  • 26. Lipstick  The selection of pigments used for lipstick plays an important role in the final appearance.  Many pigments used in lipstick are particulate including effect pigments that add silk or pearlescent attributes.  Smaller particles create satin and silky effects while larger particle sizes create high luster effects such as sparkle.  Pearlescent pigments also add a shine to the appearance of the lipstick. 2614/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 27. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 27 Lipstick
  • 28. Patents for Nanotechnolog in Cosmetics Company Application Title Key Language/Abstract (relevant claim in bold Date of Filed Published Application/ Patent Number Colgate- Palmolive Deodorant with small particle zinc oxide This invention comprises a one phase cosmetic composition which can be made as a stick, gel or cream February 9, 2001 6358499 L’Oreal Cosmetic composition comprising a polyglycerolated silicone elastomer Nanoparticles are between 5 nm and 600 nm in size March 22, 2005 2005220728 2814/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 29. Nanotechnology Based Cosmetic Product  Moisturisers  Hair care products  Make up and suncreen 2914/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 30. Main Uses of Nanotechnology 1. Use of nanoparticles as UV filters 2. Use of nanotechnology for delivery 3014/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 31. Use of nanoparticles as UV filters  Titanium dioxide (Tio2) and zinc oxide (Zno) are the main compounds used in these applications.  Organic alternative to these have also been developed 3114/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.
  • 32. Use of nanotechnology for delivery  Nanoliposomes and Nanoniosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles.  Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been found to be better performers than liposomes  NLCs have been identified as a potential next generation cosmetic delivery agent that can provide enhanced skin hydration, bioavailability, stability of the agent and controlled occlusion 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 32
  • 33. Nanotechnology R&D in Cosmetics  Vesicular Delivery Systems (Nanoliposome & Nanoniosome)  Nanoemulsions  Solid Lipid Nanoparticles  Nanostructured Lipid Carriers  Dendrimers & Hyperbranched polymers  Nanocrystals & Nanopowder  Nanoencapsulation and controlled release  Cubosomes  Nanotechnology for UV protection  Nanomechanical and Nanotribological study of hair  Fullerenes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 33
  • 34. Vesicular Delivery Systems  Nanoliposomes  Nanoniosomes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 34
  • 35. Nanoliposomes  Liposomes are vesicular structures with an aqueous core surrounded by a hydrophobic lipid bilayer, created by the extrusion of phospholipids.  Phospholipids are GRAS (generally recognised as safe) ingredients, therefore minimising the potential for adverse effects.  The first liposomal cosmetic product to appear on the market was the anti-ageing cream ‘Capture’ launched by Dior in 1986. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 35
  • 36. Nanoliposomes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 36
  • 37. Nanoniosomes  Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant based vesicles that have a similar structure to that of phospholipid vesicles like liposomes.  They can be used to encapsulate aqueous solutes and act as drug and cosmetic carriers.   They are formed by the self-assembly of non-ionic surfactants in aqueous media.  The first product ‘Niosome’ was introduced in 1987 by L’Oréal company. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 37
  • 38. Nanoniosomes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 38
  • 39. Nanoemulsions  Nanoemulsions are dispersions of nanoscale droplets of one liquid within another.  These emulsions are metastable systems whose structure can be manipulated based on the method of preparation to give different types of product e.g. water-like fluids or gels.  Several companies supply ready to use emulsifiers for creating stable nanoemulsions for cosmetic applications.  L’Oreal own several patents on nanoemulsion based technologies. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 39
  • 40. Nanoemulsion 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 40
  • 41. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles  Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are nanometre sized particles with a solid lipid matrix.  They are oily droplets of lipids which are solid at body temperature and stabilised by surfactants.  Their production is a relatively simple process where the liquid lipid (oil) in a nanoemulsion is exchanged by solid lipids.  This process does not require organic solvents. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 41
  • 42. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 42 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
  • 43. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers  Lipid particles have been developed by mixing solid lipids with liquid lipids (Nanostructured Lipid Carriers- NLCs).  Compared to SLNs, NLCs have a distorted structure which makes the matrix structure imperfect and creates spaces to accommodate active compounds.  The high loading capacity and long term stability offered by the NLCs make them superior to SLNs in many cosmetic applications. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 43
  • 44. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 44 Nanostructured Lipid Carriers
  • 45. Dendrimers  Dendrimers considered for use in the cosmetic industry.  Dendrimers are unimolecular, monodisperse, micellar nanostructures, around 20 nm in size, with a well- defined, regularly branched symmetrical structure and a high density of functional end groups at their periphery.  They are prepared in a step-wise fashion, with an architecture like a tree branching out from a central point. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 45
  • 46. Dendrimers 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 46
  • 47. Hyperbranched Polymers  Hyperbranched polymers are effectively disorganised, unsymmetrical dendrimers that are prepared in a single synthetic polymerisation step, making them much more cost-effective than dendrimers.  The large number of external groups suitable for multifunctionalisation which is a requirement for its use as a cosmetic agent carrier. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 47
  • 48. Hyperbranched Polymers 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 48
  • 49. Nanocrystals  Nanocrystals have been used in the cosmetic industry for the delivery of poorly soluble actives.   They are aggregates comprising several hundred to tens of thousands of atoms that combine into a "cluster".  Typical sizes of these aggregates are between 10-400 nm and they exhibit physical and chemical properties somewhere between that of bulk solids and molecules.  The crystals must be stabilised to prevent larger aggregates from forming. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 49
  • 50. Nanocrystals 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 50
  • 51. Nanopowder  Nanopowder are solid particles that measure on the nanoscale, usually comprised of three to five molecules together.  Nanopowder have been of extreme interest in the Cosmetic field.  Smaller particles mean better absorption by the body therefore less drug is needed.  Because of a combination of these, side effects are lessened due to better use of cosmetics. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 51
  • 52. Nanopowder 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 52
  • 53. Nanoencapsulation and controlled release  Such nanosized particles which have a shell and an interior space that can be used to load drugs are called nanocapsules.  Different types of nanocapsules are required depending on the nature of the material (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) to be incorporated.  Polymers have been widely used to create nanocapsules which are then functionalised for various applications. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 53
  • 54. Nanoencapsulation and controlled release 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 54
  • 55. Cubosomes  Cubosomes are nanostructured particles of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase.  Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase is an optically clear, very viscous material that has a unique structure at the nanometer scale.  They have high heat stability and are capable of carrying hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules.  They are an attractive choice for cosmetic applications as well as for drug delivery. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 55
  • 56. Cubosomes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 56
  • 57. Nanotechnology for UV protection  Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles have been widely used for many years as UV filters in sunscreens.  Products using nanoparticles of ZnO or TiO2 are transparent so have increased aesthetic appeal, are less smelly, less greasy and more absorbable by the skin.  Many sunscreens and moisturisers available now use these nanoparticles, including products from Boots, Avon, The Body Shop, L’Oréal, Nivea and Unilever. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 57
  • 58. ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 58
  • 59. Nanomechanical and Nanotribological study of hair  Nanotechnology has been used to study the mechanical characteristics of hair.  Understanding the differences between hair types allows cosmetic companies to create products to suit individual hair types (e.g. ethnic differences between Caucasian, Asian and African hair) as these can respond differently to activities like shampooing, styling or colouring.   The hair care industry is also interested in the effect of water on the nanomechanical properties of hair. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 59
  • 60. Fullerenes  A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube.  Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and they resemble the balls used in association football.  Cylindrical ones are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 60
  • 61. Fullerenes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. 61
  • 62. 6214/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. Contact No: 00919742431000 E-mail: bknanjwade@yahoo.co.in

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