www.nacacconference.orgSlide 1
D409
College Access: How Is It Structured and Why Is It
Unequal?
Dr. Fay M. Butler
Senior D...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 2
This workshop will be
presented in four parts
I. The Importance of College Access
II. The s...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 3
Theoretical Basis For this
Workshop
Theoretical Models used in support of this paper were:
...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 4
•For this workshop, historically underrepresented groups in education
will be defined as Bl...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 5
•In 2004, noted researcher Dr. Patricia McDonough wrote about the
challenges and prospects ...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 6
Why College Access Is Important
The great increase in the importance of college has coincid...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 7
Why College Access is
Important
•Transition from high school to college is particularly dif...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 8
Why College Access is
Important
•Access to higher education has taken on crucial importance...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 9
Why College Access is
Important
Summary
Access to Higher Education is important
•Better Edu...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 10
Structure of College
Access
How do Students get to college?
•Students aspire to, apply to ...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 11
Structure of College
Access
•Models of student college choice have been developed to demon...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 12
Models of College Choice
Traditional College Choice Theory
•Predisposition refers to the p...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 13
Models of College Choice
Traditional College Choice Theory
•The search stage includes stud...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 14
Models of College Choice
•Dr. Kassie Freeman’s alternate model of college choice called th...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 15
Models of College Choice
•Her model is meant to address the culturally diverse perspective...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 16
Models of College Choice
•Further, Freeman presents a dynamic model where multiple, inters...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 17
Structure of College
Access Summary
Summary
•Hossler and Gallagher’s traditional three sta...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 18
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 19
Unequal Access
•Socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity are considered causal or
backgro...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 20
Unequal Access
•These inequalities are summarized best by reviewing Cabera and La
Nasa thr...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 21
Unequal Access
•Completing these tasks, which are embedded within the college choice
model...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 22
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 23
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 24
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 25
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 26
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages
of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 27
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students faces as they progress through
the stages of col...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 28
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through
the stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 29
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 30
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through
the stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 31
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through
the stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 32
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through
the stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 33
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through the
stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 34
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through
the stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 35
Unequal Access
What obstacles do students face as they progress through
the stages of coll...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 36
Conclusion Solutions to
Access
•Thus far, this workshop has suggested that certain groups ...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 37
Conclusion Solutions to
Access
THIS IS NOT A CONCLUSIVE LIST!!!!!!
•There are many solutio...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 38
References
•Cabrera, A.F & La Nasa, S.M. (2001). On the path to college: Three
critical ta...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 39
References
•Education Commission of the States. (2001). Postsecondary
Options:dual/concurr...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 40
References
•Kirst, M.W. & Venezia, A. (2004). From high school to college: Improving
oppor...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 41
References
•McDonough, P. (1997). Choosing Colleges: How social class and How
social class...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 42
References
•National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Choosing A Post
Secondary Ins...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 43
References
•Perna, L.W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among
Africa...
www.nacacconference.orgSlide 44
References
•Venezia, A., Kirst, M.W., & Antonio, A.L. (2003). Betraying the college
dream:...
of 44

Nacac Presentation

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nacac Presentation

  • 1. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 1 D409 College Access: How Is It Structured and Why Is It Unequal? Dr. Fay M. Butler Senior Director of Enrollment Management LaGuardia Community College/CUNY Fbutler@lagcc.cuny.edu And Beryl S. Jeffers, Ed.M. Director of the Center for Student Recruitment beryl.jeffers@suny.edu,
  • 2. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 2 This workshop will be presented in four parts I. The Importance of College Access II. The structure of College Access using College Choice Models III. Why College Access is Unequal-Inequalities of and Obstacles to Access IV. Conclusion – Some solutions to access issues, open discussion This Workshop will be presented in Four Parts
  • 3. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 3 Theoretical Basis For this Workshop Theoretical Models used in support of this paper were: •Hossler’s and Gallagher’s (1987) college choice model (College Choice Theory); •Freemans model of college predetermination •Cabrera and LaNasa three task process •Bourdieu and Passeron’s (1990) theory of cultural capital; •Ogbu’s (1992 ) theory of the role of community forces (Status Attainment Theory); Theoretical Basis For this Workshop
  • 4. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 4 •For this workshop, historically underrepresented groups in education will be defined as Black and Hispanic •In simplest terms, the concepts of cultural and social capital mean assets, in the form of behaviors, on which individuals and/or families can draw to meet a certain set of established values in a society.
  • 5. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 5 •In 2004, noted researcher Dr. Patricia McDonough wrote about the challenges and prospects for the school to college transition especially for underrepresented students. •Higher education, a luxury for a tiny minority just a century ago, has now taken center stage in achieving the American Dream. Why Is College Access Important?
  • 6. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 6 Why College Access Is Important The great increase in the importance of college has coincided with a huge increase in the percentage of U.S. students who come from historically excluded minority groups, which never had equal access to college and were concentrated in weak high schools, usually segregated by both race and poverty (Orfield, 2005)
  • 7. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 7 Why College Access is Important •Transition from high school to college is particularly difficult for historically underrepresented urban students who are not academically talented (Butler, 2005). •Black and Hispanic students are not obtaining postsecondary education degrees at the same rate as their White, non-Latino counterparts nor are they graduating from high school with the same level of academic skills (NCES, 2001a.) Why College Access is Important
  • 8. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 8 Why College Access is Important •Access to higher education has taken on crucial importance in debating about social mobility and equality because there is clear evidence that a college education is associated with significant economic and non economic benefits (Karen & Dougherty, 2005). •Economic benefits of higher education include higher pay and employment stability. •Plain and simple education pays: A college education is associated with better access to employment and high earning. (Education Commission of the States, 2003). Why College Access Is Important
  • 9. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 9 Why College Access is Important Summary Access to Higher Education is important •Better Educated Citizens •Significant economic and non economic benefits •Social mobility Why College Access Is Important
  • 10. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 10 Structure of College Access How do Students get to college? •Students aspire to, apply to and then enroll in college through a complex, longitudinal, interactive process involving individual aspiration and achievement, learning opportunities and intervention programs in high school and institutional admissions (McDonough, 2004). •What is college choice ? How do students make decisions to participate or not to participate in Higher Education? Structure of College Access
  • 11. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 11 Structure of College Access •Models of student college choice have been developed to demonstrate how traditional- age students go about realizing their educational aspirations (Hossler, Schmit, & Vesper, 1999). •Hossler and Gallagher (1987) created a three-stage model of college choice: predisposition, search, and choice. Structure of College Access Models of College Choice
  • 12. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 12 Models of College Choice Traditional College Choice Theory •Predisposition refers to the plans students develop for education or work after they graduate from high school (Hossler, Schmit, & Vesper, 1999). In this stage, a students’ family background, academic achievements, and peers influence the development of post-high school plans. In this stage, Hossler et al. found that most high school students formalize their educational plans between eighth and tenth grade. •They also found that parents and other family members and, to a lesser extent, peers had the largest effect on students’ college aspirations. Structure of College Access Models of College Choice
  • 13. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 13 Models of College Choice Traditional College Choice Theory •The search stage includes students’ discovering and evaluating possible colleges in which to enroll. In their study on going to college, Hossler et al. (1999) discovered that during the search stage of college choice, students’ educational aspirations tended to remain steady or increased during sophomore and junior years. •In the choice stage students choose a school from among those they have considered. Structure of College Access Models of College Choice
  • 14. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 14 Models of College Choice •Dr. Kassie Freeman’s alternate model of college choice called the model of predetermination focuses primarily on the decision making process of underrepresented groups •Freeman created her model based on the following questions: a) Are the influences that determine the choice to go to college the same for different cultural groups? b) At what age does the process to choose higher education begin? c) What role does economics and secondary school play in the process for underrepresented groups? Structure of College Access Models of college Choice
  • 15. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 15 Models of College Choice •Her model is meant to address the culturally diverse perspectives not captured by Hossler and others (Smith, 2008). •Freeman, states that students are bound together by fate to pursue certain postsecondary options as a result of their exposure to values about college in their neighborhood and ethnic environment. •Cultural and societal forces combine with influence of people, circumstances, or any number of situations to “channel” Black students into different postsecondary directions. Structure of college Access Models of College Choice
  • 16. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 16 Models of College Choice •Further, Freeman presents a dynamic model where multiple, intersecting influences such as school context, economic, outlook, gender and psychological make up of the individual (knowers, seekers and dreamers) result in either college attendance or the exploration of other postsecondary options. •In contrast to Hossler and Gallagher’s discrete three stage model, Freemans model instead describes a fluid process that begins with kinship/family influences that intersect with school characteristics to create student cultural characteristics that shape college predetermination. Structure of College Access Models of College Choice
  • 17. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 17 Structure of College Access Summary Summary •Hossler and Gallagher’s traditional three stage model •Freeman’s Fluid model of predetermination Structure of College Access Models of college Choice
  • 18. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 18 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models •Unequal educational expectations •Unequal academic qualifications •Inequalities of information in the College Search Process •Inadequate Financial Assistance •There will be a review of each Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 19. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 19 Unequal Access •Socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity are considered causal or background variables because of how they affect educational expectations, aspirations, and information resources for students about college. The effects of these background variables are direct (Butler, 2005). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented Students
  • 20. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 20 Unequal Access •These inequalities are summarized best by reviewing Cabera and La Nasa three critical tasks underrepresented students must complete •Using college choice theory and the framework of the three stages, Cabrera and La Nasa (2001) identified three tasks that underrepresented students must overcome if they are to gain access to postsecondary education •The three tasks are: a) Acquiring college qualifications b) Graduating from high school c) Applying to college Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 21. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 21 Unequal Access •Completing these tasks, which are embedded within the college choice model, is crucial for underrepresented students •As a pre condition of the choice stage, students must complete the first two tasks, i.e., securing college qualifications and graduating from high school •In specifically considering the lack of support needed to complete the initial stage, Cabrera and La Nasa characterized underrepresented students progression through the college choice model as hazardous Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access Underrepresented
  • 22. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 22 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations •Educational aspirations and plans are important predictors of college enrollment (Perna, 2000b) •Parental encouragement is a pivotal force in the emergence of occupational and educational aspirations •The amount of support and encouragement that parents give to their children influences both their decision to enroll in postsecondary education and their actual postsecondary enrollment behavior (Perna, 2000a) Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 23. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 23 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations •Parental involvement or the lack thereof is an obstacle to access •Family/kinship involvement for lack thereof is an obstacle to access Unequal Access Obstacles to and inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 24. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 24 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations •Educational expectations are also affected by High school counselors, teachers, and peers (Perna, 20001). •Within the educational system students face challenges based on educator beliefs (Butler, 2005). •Support or lack thereof from counselors and teachers may shape students’ actual postsecondary education decisions Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 25. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 25 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models Unequal educational expectations •Martinez and Klopott (2003) report that research n the relationship between teachers’ expectations and student performance indicate that teacher’s judgments and expectations of students’ ability clearly influences students . “Underrepresented students are provided less encouragement by teachers who may harbor doubts about their abilities and thereby contribute to a self-fulfilling prophecy of underachievement”. Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented Students
  • 26. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 26 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal academic qualifications •Poor academic preparation is another obstacle for many students. •Students who secure college qualifications while in high school have a higher chance of enrolling in college than those who do not •Black and Hispanic high school graduates are less likely to be well- prepared academically to attend a four- year college (NCES, 1997a) Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 27. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 27 Unequal Access What obstacles do students faces as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal academic qualifications •Underrepresented students are more likely to attend crowded, inner-city public schools, where the quality of counseling is poor and students are neither adequately informed of their postsecondary options nor helped to achieve their goals (NCES, 2001b). •Venezia, Kirst and Antonio (2002) found that “underrepresented students are especially likely to be hampered by insufficient access to college preparatory courses, and a lack of early and high quality college counseling” (p.8). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 28. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 28 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inequalities of information in the College Search Process •Research shows that students are particularly less likely to enroll in college when their parents lack accurate information and knowledge about college (Perna, 2000a). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access For Underrepresented students
  • 29. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 29 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inequalities of information in the College Search Process •Access to information about college varies by class more than by race (NCES, 1998; Terenzini et. al, 2001). •For three decades, socioeconomic factors have also impacted students’ access to information about college (Terenzini et al.). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented Students
  • 30. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 30 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inequalities of information in the College Search Process •Lowest SES students had few information sources that upper-level students and also relied on high school counselors as the single-most likely source of information about college (Cabrera & LaNasa, 2001) •Many families misunderstand the costs associated with attending postsecondary education and many students are unsure about application requirements and financial aid options (LUMINA Foundation, 2003). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 31. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 31 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inequalities of information in the College Search Process •“Parental education also conditions the extent to which parents are knowledgeable about college qualification criteria and financial strategies to pay for college” (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001, p 125). •An informed public must understand the realities of college prices, financial aid and the range of postsecondary options (Price, 2002). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 32. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 32 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inadequate financial assistance •Another obstacle to access is inadequate financial assistance. Who pays for college and what is affordable are specific concerns of underrepresented students Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 33. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 33 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inadequate financial assistance •Black and Hispanic students and their parents are more likely to be concerned about affordability than their Asian or White counterparts (NCES, 1997a). Freeman (1997) reported that for African American students, “The issue of lack of money to attend college was also a concern expressed by students across cities and school types” (p.536). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 34. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 34 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inadequate financial assistance •An Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance estimated that four million college qualified students from low and moderate income families would be denied access to four year colleges in the first decade of the 21st century because remaining costs of college after loans and grants would be higher than the students could afford (St. John, Musoba, Simmons & Chung, 2002). Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 35. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 35 Unequal Access What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Summary •In summary, SES, race and ethnicity, academic preparation, educational expectations, the lack of information about college and the amount of financial assistance available affect the postsecondary attendance plans of underrepresented students. Unequal Access Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented students
  • 36. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 36 Conclusion Solutions to Access •Thus far, this workshop has suggested that certain groups like low-income students and underrepresented students have difficulty completing high school and going to college. •However, in reviewing the literature many solutions emerged to improve access to higher education, especially for underrepresented groups. Conclusion Solutions to Access
  • 37. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 37 Conclusion Solutions to Access THIS IS NOT A CONCLUSIVE LIST!!!!!! •There are many solutions to improve access for underrepresented students Some Suggestions •Increase Educational Expectations, Improve Academic Preparation, Improve College Knowledge Improve Social Supports, Increase Financial Assistance •Early Intervention Programs (I have A Dream, GEAR UP.etc) •High School Dual Enrollment Programs (College Now, Running Start,) •Personal Commitment Conclusion Solutions to Access
  • 38. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 38 References •Cabrera, A.F & La Nasa, S.M. (2001). On the path to college: Three critical tasks facing America’s disadvantaged. Research in Higher Education, 42 (2) 119-148. •Cabrera, A.F., Prabhu, R., Deil-Amen, R., Terenzini, P.T., Lee, C. & Franklin, R.E. (Eds.). (2003). Paper presented at the 2003 ASHE meeting: Increasing the college preparedness of at-risk students, Portland, Or. •Cabrera, A.F.,Burkum, K.R. & La Nasa, S.M. (2003). Pathways to a four year degree: Determinants of transfer & degree completion among socioeconomically disadvantaged students. In A. Seidman (Ed.) College student retention: A formula for student success. (pp.161). ACE/Praeger series on Higher Education. References
  • 39. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 39 References •Education Commission of the States. (2001). Postsecondary Options:dual/concurrent enrollment. •Freeman, K. (1997). Increasing African Americans participation in higher education. Journal of higher education, 68, 523-550 •Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to College. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press •Kezar, A. (2000a). Access to higher education. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 2-3 •Kezar, A. (2000). Does it work? Research on early intervention. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 9-12. References
  • 40. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 40 References •Kirst, M.W. & Venezia, A. (2004). From high school to college: Improving opportunities for success in postsecondary San Francisco, CA Jossey Bass •LUMINA Foundation (2003). Restricted access. Lumina Foundation for Education New Agenda series. Indianapolis, In. •Martinez, M. & Klopott, S (2003). Improving college access for minority, low-income, and first generation students. Pathway to College Network. Boston, Ma. •McDonough, P (2004). The school to college transition: Challenges and Prospects American Council on Education: Center: for Policy Analysis. References
  • 41. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 41 References •McDonough, P. (1997). Choosing Colleges: How social class and How social class and schools structure opportunity Albany. N.Y. State University of New York Press. •National Center for Education Statistics (1996), National education longitudinal study: 1988-1994, Descriptive summary report Washington, D.C.:U.S, Department of Education. •National Center for Education Statistics (1997), Confronting the Odds; students at risk and the pipeline to higher education, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. •National Center for Education Statistics (1997) Access to postsecondary education fro the 1992 high school graduates. Washington, D.C.,U.S. Department of Education. References
  • 42. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 42 References •National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Choosing A Post Secondary Institution, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. •National Center for Education Statistics (2001), Educational Achievement in black-White Inequality, Washington , D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. •Ogbu, J. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb. Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum Associates. •Perna, L.W. (2000). Promoting college enrollment through early intervention. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 4-8. References
  • 43. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 43 References •Perna, L.W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African American, Hispanics and Whites. The Journal of Higher Education, 71 (2), 117-141 •Price, D.V. (2002). What we know about access and success in postsecondary education. Lumina Foundation for Education, Indianapolis, In. •Roscigno, V.J. (1998).Race and the reproduction of educational disadvantage. Social forces, 76 (3), 1033-1061. •St. John, E.P., Chung, C.G. Musoba, G.D., Simmons, A.B, & Wooden, O.S. & Medndez, J.P, (2204. Expanding college access: The impact of state finance strategies. Lumina Foundation for Education New Agenda Series. References
  • 44. www.nacacconference.orgSlide 44 References •Venezia, A., Kirst, M.W., & Antonio, A.L. (2003). Betraying the college dream: How disconnected K-12 and postsecondary education systems undermine student aspirations. Stanford University Bridge Project. References

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