What do we talk about when we talk about
Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution?
Comparing ‘Smartness’
in Scotland,...
Geo
 `Economics’
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Geo
 `Poli)cs’
 
 
 
 ...
Calzada,
 I.
 &
 Cobo,
 C.
 (2015),
 Unplugging:
 Deconstruc)ng
 the
 Smart
 City,
 Journal
 of
...
Calzada,
 I.
 (2015),
 Benchmarking
 Future
 City-­‐Regions
 beyond
 Na9on-­‐States,
 
RSRS
 Regional
...
Calzada, I. (2015), Benchmarking Future City-Regions beyond Nation-States,
RSRS Regional Studies Regional Science, 2:1, 35...
OUTLINE
1. Research Question:
What do we talk about when we talk about Political Innovation in
the Age of Devolution?
2. R...
1. Research Question:
What do we talk about when we talk
about Political Innovation in the Age of
Devolution?
1.  Poli1cal
 Innova1on
 in
 the
 Age
 of
 Devolu1on:
 
 
City-­‐Regions
 Beyond
 Na1on-­‐States
 
...
Calzada,
 I.
 &
 Bildarratz,
 J.
 (Ed.)(2015),
 
Poli9cal
 Innova9on:
 Cons9tu9onal
 Change,
 Self-­‐G...
1.  Poli1cal
 Innova1on
 in
 the
 Age
 of
 Devolu1on:
 
 
City-­‐Regions
 Beyond
 Na1on-­‐States.
 
...
1.  Poli1cal
 Innova1on
 in
 the
 Age
 of
 Devolu1on:
 
 
City-­‐Regions
 Beyond
 Na1on-­‐States
 
...
1.  Poli1cal
 Innova1on
 in
 the
 Age
 of
 Devolu1on:
 
 
City-­‐Regions
 Beyond
 Na1on-­‐States
 
...
1.  Poli1cal
 Innova1on
 in
 the
 Age
 of
 Devolu1on:
 
 
City-­‐Regions
 Beyond
 Na1on-­‐States
 
•...
www.politicalinnovation.net
www.cityregions.org
www.postindependence.org
Independence
 
Recentralisa)on
 
Devolu)on?
...
2. Research Question:
Comparing ‘Smartness’ in Scotland,
Catalonia and the Basque Country.
2.-­‐
 Comparing
 ‘Smartness’
 
 
in
 Scotland,
 Catalonia
 and
 the
 Basque
 Country.
 
www.politic...
2.-­‐
 Comparing
 ‘Smartness’
 
 
in
 Scotland,
 Catalonia
 and
 the
 Basque
 Country.
 
Calzada,
...
www.cityregions.org
www.postindependence.org
City-Region Basque Scotland Catalonia
Nation-States SP & FR UK SP
Network of ...
CITY-
REGIONAL
SMALL
NATIONS
Political Innovation processes in three city-regional small nations
benchmarked by the ‘5-Sys...
!
!
!
!
Map
 by
 @icalzada
 
#COMPLEX
 
 
 #DIVERSITY
 
Photos
 by
 @icalzada
 &
 @flickr
 
3. Preliminary Conclusion/
Pending Work-In-Progress Question:
Towards an Age of Devolution in the
EU?
“Independen)sm
 
nowadays
 
 
is
 a
 colossal
 
blunder”
 
UK
 ≠
 Spain
 
 
The
 preferences
 for
 future
 models
 of
 territorial
 devolu1on
 (Source:
 CIS
 2012/2956,
 extrac...
3.
 Preliminary
 conclusions:
 
 
Towards
 an
 age
 of
 devolu1on
 in
 the
 EU?
 
 
Q1:
 Gove...
3.
 Preliminary
 conclusions:
 
 
Towards
 an
 age
 of
 devolu1on
 in
 the
 EU?
 
 
Q2:
 Pote...
3.
 Preliminary
 conclusions:
 
 
Towards
 an
 age
 of
 devolu1on
 in
 the
 EU?
 
 
Q3:
 Stra...
3.
 Preliminary
 conclusions:
 
 
Towards
 an
 age
 of
 devolu1on
 in
 the
 EU?
 
www.politicalinn...
3.
 Preliminary
 conclusions:
 
 
Towards
 an
 age
 of
 devolu1on
 in
 the
 EU?
 
•  Smartness
 ...
3.
 Preliminary
 conclusions:
 
 
Towards
 an
 age
 of
 devolu1on
 in
 the
 EU?
 
Smartness
 as	...
REFERENCE
 LIST:
 
•  Calzada,
 I.
 (2015),
 Benchmarking
 Future
 City-­‐Regions
 beyond
 Na9on-­‐State...
Thanks
 for
 your
 aren)on
 
 
 
Dr
 Igor
 Calzada
 MBA
 
igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk
 
 
hrp:...
'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrusse...
'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrusse...
'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrusse...
'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrusse...
'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrusse...
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'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrussels Dr Igor Calzada MBA.pptx

Here is the paper Dr Calzada presented on 8th October at the 'Smart City-Regional Governance' International Conference at the University of Vrije, Centre for Urban Studies/Research, in Brussels.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Government & Nonprofit      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - 'Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution: Comparing Smartness' Smart City Regional Governance BCUS 8Oct2015 bBBrussels Dr Igor Calzada MBA.pptx

  • 1. What do we talk about when we talk about Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution? Comparing ‘Smartness’ in Scotland, Catalonia and the Basque Country. Dr Igor Calzada MBA Smart City-Regional Governance: ‘Smartness’ in Reconciling Internationality, Competitiveness and Cohesion? Brussels Centre for Urban Studies (BCUS) Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels (Belgium). 15:30-16:30 8th October 2015 University of Oxford. Future of Cities – COMPAS (UK – England) University of Strathclyde. Institute for Future Cities (UK – Scotland) Research Fellow 2016 Brussels Centre for Urban Studies (BCUS). Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB). (Belgium) RSA Regional Studies Association 2014-2015 Early Career Grant http://www.igorcalzada.com/about www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org
  • 2. Geo  `Economics’                            Geo  `Poli)cs’                                            Geo  `Democra)cs’
  • 3. Calzada,  I.  &  Cobo,  C.  (2015),  Unplugging:  Deconstruc)ng  the  Smart  City,  Journal  of  Urban   Technology.  DOI:  10.1080/10630732.2014.971535.  <  Accessed  www.unplugging.eu  August  31,   2015  >
  • 4. Calzada,  I.  (2015),  Benchmarking  Future  City-­‐Regions  beyond  Na9on-­‐States,   RSRS  Regional  Studies  Regional  Science,  2:1,  350-­‐361,  DOI:  10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908.  <   Accessed  www.cityregions.org  August  31,  2015  >
  • 5. Calzada, I. (2015), Benchmarking Future City-Regions beyond Nation-States, RSRS Regional Studies Regional Science, 2:1, 350-361, DOI: 10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908. < Accessed www.cityregions.org August 31, 2015 Independence  Recentralisa)on   Devolu)on?
  • 6. OUTLINE 1. Research Question: What do we talk about when we talk about Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution? 2. Research Question: Comparing ‘Smartness’ in Scotland, Catalonia and the Basque Country. 3. Preliminary Conclusion/Pending Work-In-Progress Question: Towards an Age of Devolution in the EU?
  • 7. 1. Research Question: What do we talk about when we talk about Political Innovation in the Age of Devolution?
  • 8. 1.  Poli1cal  Innova1on  in  the  Age  of  Devolu1on:     City-­‐Regions  Beyond  Na1on-­‐States     •  The  year  2014  was  remarkable  for  the  European  Union  with   regards   to   how   city-­‐regional   'small   na9ons'   (Kea9ng,   2014)   engaged  in  democra1c  experimenta1on  on  the  right  to  decide   their  future  beyond  their  referen1al  na1on-­‐states.     •  Key   examples   include   Scotland's   and   Catalonia's   pursuits   of   independence   from   the   United   Kingdom   and   Spain,   respec)vely.   •  A   similar   situa)on   occurred   in   the   Basque   Country   as   a   consequence  of  the  region  increasingly  overcoming  the  poli)cal   violence  that  dominated  the  previous  era.  There,  a  democra)c   debate   regarding   devolu)on,   cons)tu)onal   change,   independence,   and   new   poli)cal   rela)onship   with   na)on-­‐state   Spain  has  arisen  (Calzada  &  Bildarratz,  2015).
  • 9. Calzada,  I.  &  Bildarratz,  J.  (Ed.)(2015),   Poli9cal  Innova9on:  Cons9tu9onal  Change,  Self-­‐Government,  The  Right  To  Decide  &   Independence,  TransLoKal  –  Academic  Entrepreneurship  for  Policy  Making  –  Publishing,  Donos)a   <  Accessed  www.poli)calinnova)on.net  August  31,  2015  >
  • 10. 1.  Poli1cal  Innova1on  in  the  Age  of  Devolu1on:     City-­‐Regions  Beyond  Na1on-­‐States.     •  Regardless  the  poli)cal  outcomes,  consequences,  and  meanings   in   the   three   aforemen)oned   small   na)ons,   the   differences   in   each  case's  poli1cal  culture  and  history  are  noteworthy.     •  Even  more  notable  are  their  different  means  of  accommoda)ng   a   new   strategic   city-­‐regional   governance   pathway   (Herrschel,   2014)  through  implicit  poli1cal  innova1on  processes:   •  Q1:  To  what  extent  is  the  star)ng  point  of  the  devolu)on  for   each   city-­‐regional   small   na)on   similar   according   to   its   governance,  history,  and  policies?     •  Q2:  What  are  the  poten1al  poli1cal  scenarios  for  each  city-­‐ regional   small   na)on   as   a   result   of   the   de/recentralisa)on   aitude  of  its  referen)al  na)on-­‐states?     •  Q3:   What   are   the   most   relevant   strategic   poli1cal   innova1on  processes  occurring  in  each  case?
  • 11. 1.  Poli1cal  Innova1on  in  the  Age  of  Devolu1on:     City-­‐Regions  Beyond  Na1on-­‐States     •  Na1on-­‐states  are  facing  constant  re-­‐scaling  and  devolu)on   demands  from  the  strongest  city-­‐regional  economies,  whereas   welfare  policies  are  weakening  due  to  the  austerity  policy   implemented  by  na)onal  governments.       •  However,  na)on-­‐states,  as  interna)onal  actors,  depict   difficul)es  to  cope  with  this  uncertain  equilibrium  between  self-­‐ determina1on  demands  from  the  na)onalists  and  a  clear   contesta)on  to  the  poli)cal  economic  severe  austerity  policy.       •  It  is  in  this  context  where  pervasive  but  disrup1ve  poli1cal   innova1ons  could  be  taking  place  in  some  city-­‐regional  small   na)ons.
  • 12. 1.  Poli1cal  Innova1on  in  the  Age  of  Devolu1on:     City-­‐Regions  Beyond  Na1on-­‐States     •  Generally  speaking,  the  nature  of  the  na)on-­‐states  has  been   understood  so  far  as  a  sta)c  and  presumably  homogeneous  en)ty,   which  requires  an  updated  ‘smart’  comprehensive  agenda  of  power   rela)onships,  shared  sovereignty  and  policy  implementa)on   between  na)on-­‐states  and  city-­‐regional  small  na)ons.     •  Such  ‘smartness’  now  involves  being  able  to  proceed  with   devolu1on  between  the  two  counterparts  that  play  in  the   interna)onal  arena.   •   As  a  general  trend,  devolu)on  is  being  increasingly  included  in  the   EU  mul1level  policy  agenda,  or  at  least,  in  the  poli)cal  debate  of   many  member  states,  such  as  the  UK,  Spain,  Belgium,  and  Germany,   among  others.
  • 13. 1.  Poli1cal  Innova1on  in  the  Age  of  Devolu1on:     City-­‐Regions  Beyond  Na1on-­‐States   •  Nevertheless,  there  are  remarkable  differences  not  only  in  the  way   na1on-­‐states  assume  this  current  geopoli)cal  trend,  but  also  the   strategies  of  city-­‐regions  aiming  for  more  autonomy,  devolu)on  and   independence.     •  Consequently,  some  city-­‐regions  are  embracing  recentralisa1on   within  their  na1on-­‐states  while,  by  contrast,  others  are  vigorously   claiming  for  devolu1on  or  even  independence  (secession  in  purely   poli)cal  terms  from  their  na)on-­‐states).       Hennig,  B.  D.  &  Calzada,  I.  (2015),   In  Focus:  Regions  between  Recentralisa9on  and  Independence.  Poli)cal  Insight.   Volume  6,  Issue  1,  pages  20-­‐21.  April  2015.  DOI:  10.1111/2041-­‐9066.12083.
  • 14. www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org Independence   Recentralisa)on   Devolu)on?   1.  Poli1cal  Innova1on  in  the  Age  of  Devolu1on:  City-­‐Regions  Beyond  Na1on-­‐States   Calzada,  I.  &  Hennig,  B.  D.  (2015),   In  Focus:  Regions  between  Recentralisa9on   and  Independence.  Poli)cal  Insight.  Volume   6,  Issue  1,  pages  20-­‐21.  April  2015.   DOI:  10.1111/2041-­‐9066.12083.
  • 15. 2. Research Question: Comparing ‘Smartness’ in Scotland, Catalonia and the Basque Country.
  • 16. 2.-­‐  Comparing  ‘Smartness’     in  Scotland,  Catalonia  and  the  Basque  Country.   www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org
  • 17. 2.-­‐  Comparing  ‘Smartness’     in  Scotland,  Catalonia  and  the  Basque  Country.   Calzada,  I.  (2014),   The  Right  to  Decide  in  Democracy  between  Recentralisa9on  and  Independence:  Scotland,   Catalonia  and  the  Basque  Country.  Regions,  no  296,  2014  Issue  4,  pp.    7-­‐8.   DOI:  10.1080/13673882.2014.11431613.   www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org
  • 18. www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org City-Region Basque Scotland Catalonia Nation-States SP & FR UK SP Network of cities and their hinterland Bilbao San Sebastian Vitoria Pamplona Bayonne Glasgow Edinburgh Inverness Aberdeen Dundee Barcelona Tarragona Girona Lleida Driver Nation-state devolution processes Taxonomy Small nations Devolution dimensions · Fiscal · Policy · Political · Policy · Political · Political Devolution strategies Fixed by institutions Fuelled by the Government Driven by the civic society Political innovation processes Post-political violence Rationalised Dialectic Antagonistic Dialectic Strategies Politically driven nationalistic 2.-­‐  Comparing  ‘Smartness’  in  Scotland,  Catalonia  and  the  Basque   Country.
  • 19. CITY- REGIONAL SMALL NATIONS Political Innovation processes in three city-regional small nations benchmarked by the ‘5-System’ Framework URBS CYBER CIVITAS POLIS DEMOS Basque Polynuclear system: Social disconnectivity: >LAGGARD< Dispersed strategy: Peace but three separate administrative entities: <DRIVER> COMPLEX DIVERSITY Scotland North Sea Oil as the main natural resource: 6 hubs: No clear decision yet: >LAGGARD< Good governance public perception: <DRIVER> EUROBRIT CHALLENGE Catalonia Not a postcrisis political-economic alternative yet: >LAGGARD< Lack of bridging between Catalonia and Spain: Collective intelligence seeking regional real alternatives: <DRIVER> Failure of the Spanish federal political hypothesis: UNCERTAIN PATH Calzada,  I.  (2015),  Benchmarking  Future  City-­‐Regions  beyond  Na9on-­‐States,   RSRS  Regional  Studies  Regional  Science,  2:1,  350-­‐361,  DOI:  10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908.  <   Accessed  www.cityregions.org  August  31,  2015  >   2.-­‐  Comparing  ‘Smartness’  in  Scotland,  Catalonia  and  the  Basque   Country.   www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org
  • 20. !
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  • 22. !
  • 23. !
  • 24. Map  by  @icalzada
  • 25. #COMPLEX      #DIVERSITY   Photos  by  @icalzada  &  @flickr
  • 26. 3. Preliminary Conclusion/ Pending Work-In-Progress Question: Towards an Age of Devolution in the EU?
  • 27. “Independen)sm   nowadays     is  a  colossal   blunder”   UK  ≠  Spain
  • 28. The  preferences  for  future  models  of  territorial  devolu1on  (Source:  CIS  2012/2956,  extracted  from  the  Centre  on   Cons)tu)onal  Change).  hrp://centreoncons)tu)onalchange.ac.uk/blog/catalonia-­‐and-­‐spain-­‐conflic)ng-­‐majori)es
  • 29. 3.  Preliminary  conclusions:     Towards  an  age  of  devolu1on  in  the  EU?     Q1:  Governance,  history  and  policies
  • 30. 3.  Preliminary  conclusions:     Towards  an  age  of  devolu1on  in  the  EU?     Q2:  Poten1al  poli1cal  scenarios
  • 31. 3.  Preliminary  conclusions:     Towards  an  age  of  devolu1on  in  the  EU?     Q3:  Strategic  poli1cal  innova1on  processes
  • 32. 3.  Preliminary  conclusions:     Towards  an  age  of  devolu1on  in  the  EU?   www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org •  The  current  context  requires  the  adop)on  of  an  an1cipa1ve  and  ac1ve  role  of  the  EU.  This   posi)on  should  deal  with  the  ‘regional  poli)cal  tensions’  in  a  normal  way.   •  As  we  have  seen,  such  na1on-­‐states  depict  such  different  democra1c  ar1cula1ons  in  order   to  accommodate  territorial  diversity  (such  as  the  UK  and  Spain).  As  Connolly  (2013:  12)   pointed  out,  the  EU  will  play  a  leading  role  in  determining  the  outcome  of  Scoish,  Catalan,   and  Basque  na)onalist  claims.     •  However,  he  also  added  that  devolu)on  and  the  right  to  secession/self-­‐determina)on  as   currently  understood  in  interna1onal  law  provides  li`le  in  the  way  of  guidance  for   addressing  separa)st  claims  in  Europe’s  stateless  na)ons  or,  for  that  marer,  in  other  parts  of   the  world.   •  In  the  EU,  self-­‐determina)on  claims  will  increasingly  be  dealt  with  through  the  ins1tu1ons  of   the  EU  as  part  of  the  ongoing  push  and  pull  among  the  EU,  its  member  states  and  city-­‐ regions.     •  Whether  this  results  in  ‘Independence  in  the  EU’  or  some  form  of  accommoda)on  remains   to  be  seen.
  • 33. 3.  Preliminary  conclusions:     Towards  an  age  of  devolu1on  in  the  EU?   •  Smartness  as  the  Age  of  Devolu)on  in  the  Age  means  that   •  We  should  set  up  a  new  policy  instrumentarium  regarding:   •  1  Diverse  history   •  2  Diverse  legal/ins)tu)onal  star)ng  point  between  na)on-­‐states  and  city-­‐regional  small   na)ons   •  3  Sovereign/loyalty  rela)onship   •  4  Diverse  poli)cal  aspira)ons   •  5  Diverse  poli)cal  culture  (internal  affairs)   •  6  Diverse  paradiploma)c  ac)vi)es  and  intensity  (external  affairs)     www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org
  • 34. 3.  Preliminary  conclusions:     Towards  an  age  of  devolu1on  in  the  EU?   Smartness  as  the  Age  of  Devolu)on  in  the  Age  means  that:       •  1  To  accept  devolu)on  as  a  natural  poli)cal/policy  process   •  2  To  empower  regions  in  order  to  leverage  devolu)on   •  3  To  set  up  flexible  and  democra)c  mechanisms  to  put  into  prac)ce  the  ‘right  to  decide’   inside  cons)tu)onal  fixed  seings.   •  4  To  design  inclusive  strategies   •  5  To  focus  on  causes  and  specific  content  of  the  claims  &  poten)al  consensus  and   delibera)on  outcome     www.politicalinnovation.net www.cityregions.org www.postindependence.org
  • 35. REFERENCE  LIST:   •  Calzada,  I.  (2015),  Benchmarking  Future  City-­‐Regions  beyond  Na9on-­‐States,   RSRS  Regional  Studies  Regional  Science,  2:1,  350-­‐361,  DOI:  10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908.  <   Accessed  www.cityregions.org  August  31,  2015  >   •  Calzada,  I.  &  Cobo,  C.  (2015),  Unplugging:  Deconstruc)ng  the  Smart  City,  Journal  of  Urban  Technology.   DOI:  10.1080/10630732.2014.971535.  <  Accessed  www.unplugging.eu  August  31,  2015  >   •  Calzada,  I.  (2014),   The  Right  to  Decide  in  Democracy  between  Recentralisa9on  and  Independence:  Scotland,  Catalonia   and  the  Basque  Country.  Regions,  no  296,  2014  Issue  4,  pp.    7-­‐8.   DOI:  10.1080/13673882.2014.11431613.   •  Calzada,  I.  &  Bildarratz,  J.  (Ed.)(2015),   Poli9cal  Innova9on:  Cons9tu9onal  Change,  Self-­‐Government,  The  Right  To  Decide  &  Independence,   TransLoKal  –  Academic  Entrepreneurship  for  Policy  Making  –  Publishing,  Donos)a.  ISBN  (paperback):   978-­‐84-­‐942752-­‐4-­‐1.  [Forthcoming]  <  Accessed  www.poli)calinnova)on.net  August  31,  2015  >   •  Calzada,  I.  (2015),  PostIndependence,   TransLoKal  –  Academic  Entrepreneurship  for  Policy  Making  –  Publishing,  Donos)a.  ISBN  (e-­‐book):   978-­‐84-­‐942752-­‐3-­‐4.  [Forthcoming]  <  Accessed  www.pos)ndependence.org    August  31,  2015  >   •  Hennig,  B.  D.  &  Calzada,  I.  (2015),   In  Focus:  Regions  between  Recentralisa9on  and  Independence.  Poli)cal  Insight.  Volume  6,  Issue  1,   pages  20-­‐21.  April  2015.  DOI:  10.1111/2041-­‐9066.12083.   •  Casado,  A.  &  Calzada,  I.  (2015),  Demos-­‐Ethos:  A  Framework  to  Study  the  Icelandic  and  Basque  Cases   through  Cri9cal  Social  Innova9on  and  Applied  Ethics.  Innova)on:  The  European  Journal  of  Social   Science  Research.  DOI:  10.1080/13511610.2015.1089472.  [In  print]
  • 36. Thanks  for  your  aren)on       Dr  Igor  Calzada  MBA   igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk     hrp://www.poli)calinnova)on.org     hrp://www.cityregions.org     hrp://www.pos)ndependence.org     hrp://www.igorcalzada.com/about     @icalzada

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