Published by
The Department of Environmental Affairs
Republic of South Africa
Department of Environmental Affairs: Ocea...
“The overall goal of Integrated Coastal Management is to improve
the quality of life of human communities who depend on c...
E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y
page iii
Executive Summary
This document presents South Africa’s National Coastal Manag...
E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y
achieved by ensuring that the development and use of natural resources in the coastal zon...
E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y
 Activity-based management programmes, involving the management specific activities, oft...
E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y
The national vision sets out the desired future for South Africa’s coast and the people u...
E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y
Priority 3: Integrating the management of estuaries
Goal: Ensure that all estuaries alon...
E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y
Priority 8: Strengthening awareness, education and training to build capacity
Goal: Ensu...
A c r o n y m s
page ix
Acronyms
ASCLME Agulhas Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem
A&E Awareness and Education
AET...
A c r o n y m s
Energy Act National Energy Act (Act No. 34 of 2008)
ERR Environmental Risk Report
EFZ Estuarine functio...
A c r o n y m s
MLRA Marine Living Resources Act (Act No. 18 of 1998, amended 2000)
MPRD Act Mineral and Petroleum Resou...
A c r o n y m s
SAHRA South African Heritage Resources Agency
SALGA South African Local Government Association
SAMSA So...
C o n t e n t
page xiii
Contents
Acknowledgements ........................................................................
C o n t e n t
3.1.3 Local government........................................................................................
L i s t o f F i g u r e s
page xv
List of Figures
Figure 1: Conceptual illustration depicting the context of coastal ma...
L i s t o f T a b l e s
page xvi
List of Tables
Table 1: Important coastal management boundaries relevant to the NCMP ....
S t r u c t u r e o f D o c u m e n t
Structure of Document
This document presents South Africa’s National Coastal Manag...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
1. Introduction
page 1
I n t r o d u c t i o n
page 2
1.1 Background
“The overall goal of Integrated Coastal Management is to improve the qual...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
According to the White Paper, past coastal management efforts did not recognise the value of coas...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
1.2 Value of our Coast
South Africa’s coastal environment is a rich and diverse national asset, ...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
1.3 Context of Coastal Management Programmes
While the promulgation of the ICM Act, for the firs...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
For example, provincial CMPs address strategic planning and implementation in the coastal zone in...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
1.5 NCMP Development Process
The development of this NCMP did not happen within a coastal manage...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
finding of the draft situation analysis. Further, the aim was to gauge stakeholders’ priorities f...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
but also the key opportunities for sustainable coastal development (i.e. social, cultural and eco...
I n t r o d u c t i o n
Figure 4: Generic Illustration of coastal management units at various tiers within which respecti...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
2. Situation Analysis
page 11
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
This chapter presents a situation analysis related to coastal management in South Afric...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
The coastal environment of South Africa spans two of the 64 large marine ecosystems (LM...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Figure 6: Bioregions within South Africa’s coastal environment
In broad terms, plants ...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Figure 7: Ecosystem threat status of marine and coastal benthic (top figure) and pelagi...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Figure 8: Number of coastal and marine habitat types in each ecosystem threat status ca...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Figure 10: Different perspectives arising when the National Health Assessment is presen...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Climate change results in environmental changes in the coastal zone such as:
 Changes...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
 Exploring opportunities for development of ports and harbours;
 Identifying opportu...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Geographical boundary DESCRIPTION
Territorial waters The sea within a distance of twel...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Geographical boundary DESCRIPTION
mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (h) that is owned by ...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
The jurisdiction of various other Act and international conventions is depicted in Figu...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
Important is the confirmation of the location of the HWM, as other coastal boundaries s...
S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s
PLANNING PROCESS KEY LEGISLATION/PLAN LEAD AUTHORITY
in the Garden Route and south coa...
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National Coastal Management Programme

The national vision sets out the desired future for South Africa’s coast and the people using this valuable resource as follows: We, the people of South Africa, celebrate the diversity, beauty and richness of our coast and seek an equitable balance of opportunities and benefits throughout it We strive for sustainable coastal development – involving a balance between material prosperity, social development, cultural values, spiritual fulfilment and ecological integrity, in the interests of all South Africans We strive for a time when all South Africans recognise that the coast is ours to enjoy in a spirit of community We look forward to a time when all South Africans assume shared responsibility for maintaining the health, diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems in a spirit of stewardship and caring We seek to guide the management of our coast in a way that benefits current and future generations, and honours our obligations and undertakings from local to global levels. The NCMP framework, including the framework for cooperative governance, provided the template for the detailed Situation Analysis related to coastal management in South Africa, as well as providing a structured approach to engage with the stakeholders. Following a detailed situational analysis and a key stakeholder consultation process, nine key priorities for coastal management was identified, that is key issues that are currently preventing South Africa from achieving the Vision for our coast. For each of the key priorities the NCMP then set out a series of national goals and associated management objectives specifically aimed at areas which coastal management efforts at national government level must address. Priority 1: Effective planning for coastal vulnerability to global change (including climate page vi change) Goal: Ensuring that all planning and decision-making tools applied by all organs of state within the coast zone address coastal vulnerability by taking into account the dynamic nature of our coast, sensitive coastal environments, health and safety of people, illegal structures within coastal public property, and appropriate placement of infra-structure not to compromise investment by the state, as well as the rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems Management Objective
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Transcripts - National Coastal Management Programme

  • 1. Published by The Department of Environmental Affairs Republic of South Africa Department of Environmental Affairs: Oceans and Coasts page i PO Box 52126 Victoria and Alfred (V&A) Waterfront CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA 8002 2 East Pier Shed East Pier Road, Victoria and Alfred (V&A) Waterfront CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA 8001 Tel: +27 21 819 2498 Website: http://www.environment.gov.za DISCLAIMER This document does not in any way have legal authority or take precedence over the National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act (Act No. 24 of 2008) (ICM Act) nor does it purport to stand in the place of or substitute any of the wording of the ICM Act but rather serves as a guideline to the development of coastal management programmes, expanding on the provisions of such contained in the Act and should at all times be read in conjunction with the ICM Act. The ICM Act remains the final and legal authority on integrated coastal management in South Africa. However, please note that Acts of Parliament are occasionally amended and the reader is advised to consider the latest version of any Act referred to in this guide. COPYRIGHT All rights reserved. This information may be freely used and copied for educational and other non-commercial purposes, provided that any reproduction of data is accompanied by an acknowledgement of The Department of Environmental Affairs as the source. This report should be cited as: Department of Environmental Affairs (2014) South Africa’s National Coastal Management Programme. Cape Town.
  • 2. “The overall goal of Integrated Coastal Management is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems. . . . It is a process that unites government and the community, science and management, sectoral and public interests in preparing and implementing an integrated plan for the protection and development of coastal ecosystems and resources.” Report on fundamental goals of coastal management via deliberations of the Group of page ii Experts of Marine Protection (1996)
  • 3. E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y page iii Executive Summary This document presents South Africa’s National Coastal Management Programme (NCMP) under the National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act (Act No. 24 of 2008) (ICM Act) for the period 2013 to 2017. Coastal zones throughout the world have historically been among the most heavily exploited areas because of their rich resources. In coastal countries today, an estimated half of the total population live in coastal zones, and migration from inland areas to the coast is increasing. Not surprisingly, there is also a rising conflict between the need for immediate consumption or use of coastal resources and the need to ensure the long-term supply of those resources. The enjoyment of the coastal zone by a wide variety of users and the view of the coast as a national asset and legacy for future generations is of the utmost importance for the promotion of its current and future sustainable use. South Africa’s coastal environment is a rich and diverse national asset, providing important economic and social opportunities for the human population. The estimated total contribution of coastal resources (without regulatory services) to the South African economy is in the order of some R 57 billion (US$5.7 billion). The direct economic benefits from coastal resources in South Africa are estimated to be approximately 35% of the country’s annual gross domestic product (GDP) (referring to the “White Paper”). Direct economic benefits include the marine fishing industry, port and harbour development and attractive lifestyles, and recreational and tourism opportunities offered by a coastal location. Furthermore, the coast provides indirect economic benefits such as the erosion control provided by coastal features such as dunes and high cliffs which protect built and natural features along the coast (including roads, buildings and farmlands) from the damaging effects of waves and wind, and it allows waste assimilation, detoxification and recycling through coastal wetlands, forests and grasslands. These indirect benefits account for an additional 28% of the country’s GDP. The ICM Act has been promulgated to establish the statutory requirements for integrated coastal and estuarine management in South Africa. The Act also prescribes the inclusion of norms, standards and policies for further elaboration and guidance on coastal management provisions within legislation and specific scenarios and/or issues. One of the many reasons for the adoption of this form of management is to promote the conservation of the coastal environment, and to maintain the natural character of coastal landscapes. Among the myriad of implementation tools that are available within the ICM Act, Coastal Management Programmes (CMPs) are arguably the most powerful integrating instruments in an ICM toolbox. A CMP is a policy directive for the management of the coastal zone, inclusive of strategies and plans for the effective implementation of the ICM Act that will enable organs of state to plan accordingly, to set a course for the environmental future of a nation by addressing the resolution of current management problems and user-conflicts (due to the wide variety of activities and uses of the coast), as well as the long-term development and management of the coastline. CMPs also play the vital role of bringing together the various spheres and sectors of government, private sector activities and community activities on the coast for the effective implementation of ICM over a projected period of time. This is
  • 4. E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y achieved by ensuring that the development and use of natural resources in the coastal zone is done with the best interests of the public and economy, while being ecologically sustainable. The overall structure of the NCMP comprises the following: The framework for coastal management for South Africa identified key components or elements of an integrated coastal management programme presenting the structure – the integrated, coordinated and uniform approach to coastal management. The framework is presented in a cyclic context where environmental management – including ICM – has an iterative, adaptive approach where the system in incrementally improved as new information and knowledge is made available:  A Vision which reflects ecosystem protection (i.e. ecological aspects) and key opportunities for sustainable coastal development (i.e. social, cultural and economic aspects), as well as objectives direct the focus of coastal management effort in order to achieve the vision;  Coastal area management units, which boundaries can be delineated at the regional, national, page iv provincial and municipal (local) level;  Ocean and coastal spatial planning (i.e. strategic planning and mapping of coastal and ocean use), as an integral component within the larger integrated coastal management framework, including a spatial data infrastructure;
  • 5. E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y  Activity-based management programmes, involving the management specific activities, often show a stronger sectoral focus (i.e. activities are managed by different governing authorities through activity-specific page v statutory systems);  Monitoring and evaluation using appropriate performance indicators to measure progress in achieving the vision and strategic objectives; and  Status reporting (e.g. State of Coast reporting) evaluates the findings of monitoring programmes to inform subsequent reviews and to inform future strategic planning processes. Overarching and intrinsic to all of the above is an enabling Cooperative governance framework. While formal coastal management institutions (e.g. coastal management committees) remain central to a cooperative governance framework, a governance framework extends wider requiring additional partnerships with government, business, civil society, and the scientific and professional communities. Seven such “support elements” for effective cooperative governance are considered relevant to the South Africa:  Marginalised and previously disadvantaged communities;  Awareness and Education;  Training and capacity building;  Scientific research support;  Financing mechanisms;  Compliance and enforcement systems; and  Data and information systems. The process followed in the development of this NCMP included the development of a framework for coastal management, a detailed situation analysis, as well as national and provincial stakeholder consultation, are illustrated below:
  • 6. E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y The national vision sets out the desired future for South Africa’s coast and the people using this valuable resource as follows: We, the people of South Africa, celebrate the diversity, beauty and richness of our coast and seek an equitable balance of opportunities and benefits throughout it We strive for sustainable coastal development – involving a balance between material prosperity, social development, cultural values, spiritual fulfilment and ecological integrity, in the interests of all South Africans We strive for a time when all South Africans recognise that the coast is ours to enjoy in a spirit of community We look forward to a time when all South Africans assume shared responsibility for maintaining the health, diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems in a spirit of stewardship and caring We seek to guide the management of our coast in a way that benefits current and future generations, and honours our obligations and undertakings from local to global levels. The NCMP framework, including the framework for cooperative governance, provided the template for the detailed Situation Analysis related to coastal management in South Africa, as well as providing a structured approach to engage with the stakeholders. Following a detailed situational analysis and a key stakeholder consultation process, nine key priorities for coastal management was identified, that is key issues that are currently preventing South Africa from achieving the Vision for our coast. For each of the key priorities the NCMP then set out a series of national goals and associated management objectives specifically aimed at areas which coastal management efforts at national government level must address. Priority 1: Effective planning for coastal vulnerability to global change (including climate page vi change) Goal: Ensuring that all planning and decision-making tools applied by all organs of state within the coast zone address coastal vulnerability by taking into account the dynamic nature of our coast, sensitive coastal environments, health and safety of people, illegal structures within coastal public property, and appropriate placement of infra-structure not to compromise investment by the state, as well as the rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems Management Objective 1.1: Develop regulatory mechanisms (including norms and standards) to facilitate a uniform approach to assess coastal vulnerability and to establish conditions of use in the coastal zone Management Objective 1.2: Develop appropriate data and decision-support for the identification of vulnerable coast areas to dynamic coastal processes and the effects of global change Management Objective 1.3: Rehabilitation of areas along the coast that have been adversely effected Priority 2: Ensuring equitable public access in the coastal zone Goal: Ensuring that the public has safe and equitable access to coastal public property through the establishment of sufficient coastal access land that is cognisant of the sensitivity of coastal ecosystems, the needs and livelihoods of coastal communities or other socio-economic considerations, as well as the removal of inappropriate and unsafe coastal access points Management Objective 2.1: Provide a national commitment for the facilitation of safe and equitable access to coastal public property along South Africa’s coast Management Objective 2.2: Develop norms and standards to assist municipalities in carrying out their responsibilities with respect to coastal access Management Objective 2.3: Provide capacity strengthening mechanisms for municipalities to effectively implement, maintain and monitor coastal access
  • 7. E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y Priority 3: Integrating the management of estuaries Goal: Ensure that all estuaries along the South Africa coast are managed in an integrated, holistic manner in accordance with the National Estuarine Management Protocol and the extent to which activities within estuaries are consistent with the other key priorities for coastal management Management Objective 3.1: Develop and implement a national estuarine management protocol for a uniform approach to estuarine management, including individual estuary management plans that are tailored to suit the current and future requirements including social, economic and ecological considerations Management Objective 3.2: Establish appropriate institutional mechanisms for estuarine management to facilitate dialogue, collaboration and implementation of Estuarine Management Plans Priority 4: Managing pollution in the coastal zone Goal: Ensure the effective management of waste and wastewater into the coastal zone and minimizing adverse effects on the health of coastal communities, and on coastal ecosystems and their ability to support the sustainable uses of coastal resources in a manner that is socially, economically and ecologically justifiable Management Objective 4.1: Establish regulatory mechanisms for waste and wastewater disposal in the coastal zone Priority 5: Establishing coastal monitoring and reporting systems to inform decision-making Goal: Ensure the development and implementation of a dedicated, cooperative, co-ordinated and integrated coastal monitoring and reporting system that includes compliance monitoring and reporting in accordance with laws and policies, performance monitoring and reporting to measure progress in coastal management, and descriptive monitoring and reporting to measure variability and trends in biophysical, social and economic characteristics and processes in the coastal zone Management Objective 5.1: Establish a national commitment for an effective coastal monitoring system in accordance with the ICM Act and other legislation that has a bearing on the coastal zone Management Objective 5.2: Ensure that performance and status reporting on coastal management is conducted in accordance with the ICM Act and other legislation that has a bearing on coastal zone Priority 6: Establishing mechanisms for effective compliance and enforcement Goal: Establish a committed compliance and enforcement system for coastal management in alignment with related laws and policies, and inclusive of cooperation and coordination between organs of state with enforcement responsibilities and NGOs with appropriate capacity Management Objective 6.1: Ensure a coordinated, uniform approach to implementation of compliance and enforcement in the coastal zone across all spheres of government Management Objective 6.2: Ensure that the necessary capacity within all spheres of government is available to conduct compliance and enforcement under the ICM Act Priority 7: Provision of coastal information and research Goal: To have an effective national information system and research framework to support integrated coastal management, that is able to promote a dedicated, cooperative, coordinated and integrated planning management approach accessible to all stakeholders Management Objective 7.1: Ensure that information in support of integrated coastal management is collated, maintained and managed in a responsible manner, and made accessible to all stakeholders Management Objective 7.2: Conduct relevant research in support of coastal management in collaboration with various role players, nationally and international page vii
  • 8. E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y Priority 8: Strengthening awareness, education and training to build capacity Goal: Ensuring that the general public and decision-makers are appropriately aware, educated and trained, where applicable, so as to be able to take collective responsibility for managing and protecting the coastal environment in a manner that is socially, economically and ecologically justifiable Management Objective 8.1: Develop enabling mechanisms for the effective implementation of coastal awareness and education for South Africa, including empowerment of coastal communities Management Objective 8.2: Develop enabling mechanisms for effective training to build capacity in coastal management in South Africa Priority 9: Strengthening partnerships for ICM Goal: To ensure that institutional partnerships and mechanisms for ICM are established amongst all sectors and spheres of government, the private sector and civil society in a collaborative, problem-solving and consensus-building manner that promotes dialogue, cooperation, coordination and integration Management Objective 9.1: Develop enabling formal, institutional mechanisms for promotion and coordination of ICM Management Objective 9.2: Establish and strengthen collaborative partnerships with coastal local structures for empowerment, knowledge sharing and implementation of coastal management Management Objective 9.4: Facilitating partnerships towards the long-term integration of the principles of integrated coastal management in all sectors of South African economy The priorities, together with the national management objectives, as well as the various actions and performance indicators presented in this NCMP constitute national governments’ (DEA’s) commitment to implementing ICM in South Africa over the next five years (2013-2017). page viii
  • 9. A c r o n y m s page ix Acronyms ASCLME Agulhas Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem A&E Awareness and Education AET Awareness, Education and Training Air Quality Act National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act (Act No. 39 of 2004) AsgiSA Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa BCLME Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Biodiversity Act National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (Act No. 10 of 2004) BLSMS Boat Launch Site Monitoring System CAPE Cape Action for People and the Environment CARA Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (Act No. 43 of 1983) CERM Consortium for Estuarine Research and Management CMP Coastal management programme CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research DAFF Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries DEA Department of Environmental Affairs DEAT Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Defence Act Defence Act (Act No. 42 of 2002, amended 2010) DMR Department of Mineral Resources DoT Department of Transport DST Department of Science and Technology DPLG Department of Provincial and Local government and municipalities DPW Department of Public Works DWA Department of Water Affairs DWAF Department of Water Affairs and Forestry EAF Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EIA Environmental impact assessment EIF Environmental Integrity Framework EMPlans Environmental management plan EMProgrammes Environmental management programmes
  • 10. A c r o n y m s Energy Act National Energy Act (Act No. 34 of 2008) ERR Environmental Risk Report EFZ Estuarine functional zone FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations GIAMA Government Immovable Asset Management Act (Act No. 19 of 2007) GIS Geographic information system GPA Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities page x ha Hectare HCDS Human Capital Development Strategy HWM Highwater mark ICM Integrated coastal management ICM Act National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act (Act No. 24 of 2008) IDP Integrated development plan IMMS International Marine Mining Society IP Implementation Plan IUCN The World Conservation Union KZN KwaZulu-Natal LME Large marine ecosystem Marine Traffic Act Marine Traffic Act (Act No. 2 of 1981) Maritimes Zones Act Maritimes Zones Act (Act No. 15 of 1994) MARPOL Act International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships Act (Act No. 2 of 1986) MEC Member of the Executive Council of a coastal province responsible for designated provincial lead agency in terms of the ICM Act Merchant Shipping Act Merchant Shipping Act (Act No. 57 of 1951) MINMEC Standing intergovernmental body consisting of the Minister of Environmental Affairs, members of the provincial Executive Councils (MECs) responsible for environmental management functions and South African Local Government Association (SALGA) MINTEC Standing intergovernmental body that provides technical input into the MINMEC. The MINTEC consists of the Director-General of the DEA, the heads of the provincial departments responsible for environmental management functions, and SALGA
  • 11. A c r o n y m s MLRA Marine Living Resources Act (Act No. 18 of 1998, amended 2000) MPRD Act Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (Act No. 28 of 2002) page xi MSL Mean sea level MSP Marine spatial planning Municipal Systems Act Municipal Systems Act (Act No. 32 of 2000) NBSAP National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan National Building Regulations and Standard Act National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act (Act No. 103 of 1977 amended 1982, 1984, 1989, 1995, 1996) National Health Act National Health Act (Act No.61 of 2003) NBA 2011 National Biodiversity Assessment 2011 (South Africa) NCMP National Coastal Management Programme NEMA National Environmental Management Act (Act No. 107 of 1998) NMMU Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University NPAES National Protected Area Expansion Strategy NPC National Planning Commission NPoA National Programme of Action to protect the marine environment from land-based activities (South Africa) NQF National Qualifications Framework NRF National Research Foundation NSDI National Spatial Data Infrastructure NSDP National Spatial Development Perspective NSSD 1 National Strategy for Sustainable Development and Action Plan 2011–2014 NWA National Water Act (Act No. 36 of 1998) NWMS National Waste Management Strategy OCSDI Ocean and Coastal Spatial Data Infrastructure PAI Act Promotion of Access to Information Act (Act No. 2 of 2000, amended Act No. 54 of 2002) PAR Performance Assessment Report Protected Areas Act National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (Act No. 57 of 2003) SABS South African Bureau of Standards SADCO Southern African Data Centre for Oceanography SAEO South Africa Environment Outlook
  • 12. A c r o n y m s SAHRA South African Heritage Resources Agency SALGA South African Local Government Association SAMSA South African Maritime Safety Authority SAMSA Act South Africa Maritime Safety Authority Act (Act No. 5 of 1998) SAMSM&CP South African Molluscan Shellfish Monitoring and Control Programme SANBI South African National biodiversity Institute SANCOR South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic Research SANParks South African National Parks SASSI South African Sustainable Seafood Initiative SDF Spatial development framework SDI Act Spatial Data Infrastructure Act (Act No. 54 of 2003) Seashore Act Seashore Act (Act No. 21 of 1935, as amended 1984, 1993) Sea Fishery Act Sea Fishery Act (Act No. 12 of 1988) SIPS Port Expansion Strategies SOP Standard Operating Procedures SPUMLA Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act (Act No. 16 of 2013) TAC Total Allowable Catch (TAC) TAE Total Allowable Effort (TAE) The Constitution The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act (Act No. 108 of 1996) Transnet NPA Transnet National Ports Authority Waste Act National Environmental Management: Waste Act (Act No. 59 of 2008) WESSA Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa WG8 Working Group 8 (Oceans and Coasts) of MINTEC WRC Water Research Commission page xii WWF World Wildlife Fund
  • 13. C o n t e n t page xiii Contents Acknowledgements .......................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................ iii Acronyms ........................................................................................................................................................ ix List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................ xv List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................................xvi Structure of Document ................................................................................................................................. xvii 1. Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................................ 2 1.2 Value of our Coast ............................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 Context of Coastal Management Programmes ................................................................................. 5 1.4 Purpose of NCMP............................................................................................................................... 6 1.5 NCMP Development Process ............................................................................................................. 7 1.6 Framework for Integrated Coastal Management .............................................................................. 8 2. Situation Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 11 2.1 Natural Coastal Environment .......................................................................................................... 12 2.1.1 Brief description .......................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Health Status of Coastal Ecosystems ......................................................................................... 14 2.2 Vision and Objectives ...................................................................................................................... 18 2.3 Status of Coastal Management Units and Boundaries .................................................................... 19 2.4 Coastal Spatial Planning and Condition of Use ................................................................................ 23 2.5 Status of Activity-based Management Programmes ....................................................................... 27 2.5.1 Activities governed primarily under the ICM Act ................................................................... 29 2.5.2 Activities governed by DEA under other Acts ......................................................................... 33 2.5.3 Activities governed by other departments/authorities under other Acts ........................... 38 2.6 Monitoring for Coastal Management .............................................................................................. 44 2.7 State of Coast Reporting .................................................................................................................. 46 2.8 Progress in Cooperative Governance .............................................................................................. 46 2.8.1 Formal institutional structures ................................................................................................... 47 2.8.2 Marginalised or previously disadvantaged communities ........................................................... 48 2.8.3 Data and information management systems.............................................................................. 49 2.8.4 Awareness and education ........................................................................................................... 50 2.8.5 Training and capacity building .................................................................................................... 51 2.8.6 Financing mechanisms ................................................................................................................ 52 2.8.7 Scientific research support.......................................................................................................... 53 2.8.8 Coordinated compliance and enforcement systems .................................................................. 54 3. Roles and Responsibilities for Coastal Management ........................................................................... 55 3.1 Mandatory Roles and Responsibilities ............................................................................................ 56 3.1.1 National government .................................................................................................................. 56 3.1.2 Provincial government ................................................................................................................ 57
  • 14. C o n t e n t 3.1.3 Local government........................................................................................................................ 58 3.2 Collaborative Partnerships for Coastal Management ..................................................................... 59 4. Vision and Priorities for Coast Management ....................................................................................... 61 4.1 Vision ............................................................................................................................................... 62 4.2 Priorities for Coastal Management .................................................................................................. 63 4.2.1 Priority 1: Effective planning for coastal vulnerability to global change .................................... 64 4.2.2 Priority 2: Ensuring equitable public access in the coastal zone................................................. 65 4.2.3 Priority 3: Integrating management in estuaries ........................................................................ 65 4.2.4 Priority 4: Managing pollution in the coastal zone ..................................................................... 65 4.2.5 Priority 5: Establishing coastal monitoring and reporting systems to inform decision- making page xiv 65 4.2.6 Priority 6: Mechanisms for effective compliance and enforcement .......................................... 66 4.2.7 Priority 7: Provision of coastal information and research .......................................................... 66 4.2.8 Priority 8: Strengthening awareness, education and training to build capacity ......................... 66 4.2.9 Priority 9: Strengthening partnerships for ICM ........................................................................... 67 5. National Management Objectives and Actions ......................................................................................... 68 5.1 Priority 1: Coastal vulnerability ....................................................................................................... 69 5.2 Priority 2: Public access ................................................................................................................... 70 5.3 Priority 3: Estuaries .......................................................................................................................... 71 5.4 Priority 4: Pollution .......................................................................................................................... 71 5.5 Priority 5: Coastal monitoring and reporting................................................................................... 72 5.6 Priority 6: Compliance and enforcement ........................................................................................ 72 5.7 Priority 7: Coastal information and research .................................................................................. 73 5.8 Priority 8: Awareness, education and training ................................................................................ 73 5.9 Priority 9: Strengthening partnerships ............................................................................................ 74 6. Process towards Implementation ............................................................................................................. 76 References ..................................................................................................................................................... 79 Appendices .................................................................................................................................................... 87 Appendix A: Stakeholder participated in the development of the NCMP .................................................. 88 Appendix B: Summary of Key International Obligations and Agreements applicable to the Coastal Zone of South Africa ............................................................................................................................ 92 Appendix C: Proposed Focus Areas for Offshore Biodiversity Protection ................................................... 97 Appendix D: Proposed Biodiversity Targets for Estuaries as per National Estuary Biodiversity Plan (NBA 2011) ..................................................................................................................................... 100 Appendix E: Potential Indicators for State of Coast Reporting ................................................................. 108
  • 15. L i s t o f F i g u r e s page xv List of Figures Figure 1: Conceptual illustration depicting the context of coastal management programmes in relation to other national, provincial and municipal strategic planning ................................................. 5 Figure 2: The NCMP development process .............................................................................................. 7 Figure 3: A framework for integrated coastal management in South Africa ............................................ 9 Figure 4: Generic Illustration of coastal management units at various tiers within which respective coastal management programmes may apply ........................................................................ 10 Figure 5: Biogeographical regions and currents along the South African coast ..................................... 12 Figure 6: Bioregions within South Africa’s coastal environment ........................................................... 14 Figure 7: Ecosystem threat status of marine and coastal benthic (top figure) and pelagic (bottom figure) in South Africa .............................................................................................................. 15 Figure 8: Number of coastal and marine habitat types in each ecosystem threat status category in South Africa (Cr - critically endangered; En – endangered; Vu – vulnerable; LT - least threatened) .............................................................................................................................. 16 Figure 9: Health status of South African estuaries ................................................................................. 16 Figure 10: Different perspectives arising when the National Health Assessment is presented as “Percentage of estuaries” or “Percentage Area” .................................................................... 17 Figure 11: Important geographical boundaries in the coastal zone ......................................................... 22 Figure 12: Important jurisdiction of other Act and international conventions ........................................ 22 Figure 13: Generic approach proposed for the development of specific strategies as part of the NCMP ................................................................................................................................................. 77
  • 16. L i s t o f T a b l e s page xvi List of Tables Table 1: Important coastal management boundaries relevant to the NCMP ............................................ 19 Table 2: Important spatial planning (or demarcation of use area) processes occurring/overlapping in the coastal zone .................................................................................................................................. 23 Table 3: National acts, regulations, protocols and gazetted notices (norms and standards), as well as national plans and guidelines expressing conditions of use in the coastal zone in South Africa . 26 Table 4: Key activities in the coastal zone including the key Act/s governing such activities .................... 28 Table 5: Summary of mandatory roles and responsibilities of national government in coastal management in terms of the ICM Act ........................................................................................... 56 Table 6: Summary of mandatory roles and responsibilities of provincial government in coastal management in terms of the ICM Act ........................................................................................... 57 Table 7: Summary of mandatory roles and responsibilities of local government in coastal management in terms of the ICM Act ..................................................................................................................... 58
  • 17. S t r u c t u r e o f D o c u m e n t Structure of Document This document presents South Africa’s National Coastal Management Programme (NCMP) under the National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act (Act No. 24 of 2008) (ICM Act) for the period 2013 to 2017 and is intended to be used by coastal provinces, coastal municipalities, coastal practitioners and decision-makers, as well as professionals working in non-government organisations and other organisations and institutions that have a bearing on coastal management. The Introduction (Chapter 1) sets the scene explaining the background to the NCMP and valuing the importance of our coastal resources. The context of coastal management programmes in terms of other national, provincial and municipal planning programmes and frameworks are then illustrated followed by the specific purpose of the NCMP. The chapter continues with a short overview of the process that was followed in the preparation of the NCMP. Finally a logical framework for coastal management in South Africa is presented. Chapter 2 presents a Situational Analysis related to coastal management in South Africa. A brief overview of the coastal environment and the status of coastal ecosystems are provided. Thereafter, the status of coastal management is assessed using the framework for coastal management as a template. Specifically future needs are identified taking into account the status of coastal ecosystems, feed-back from the stakeholder consultation process, as well as outstanding statutory requirements. This knowledge is then considered in the definition of environmental objectives and priorities for this NCMP. Chapter 3 highlights the roles and responsibilities in coastal management in the context of the ICM Act, providing an overview of the roles and responsibilities assigned to each of the three spheres of government, as well as collaborative partnership with other role players. Chapter 4 presents the national Vision for South Africa’s coast, as well as the underpinning principles providing departure points for translating the vision into practice. Also the key priorities, and associated goals, for coastal management are presented here, informed by stakeholder consultation process. This is followed, in Chapter 5, by the national management objectives with respect to the priorities for coastal management focusing on the national mandate in terms of the ICM Act. Chapter 5 also lists specific actions that will be undertaken by national government - as part of the NCMP - to achieve the national management objectives largely informed by the Situation Analysis, considering needs expressed by municipal, provincial and national stakeholders. Finally, the NCMP concludes (Chapter 6) with detailing the process that will be followed towards implementation of the National management objectives and actions over the next five year (2013-2017). Defining important terminology used in this document: page xvii Vision A vision answers the following question How do we (the people of South Africa) envisage our future coast (considering the ecological, heritage and socio-economic environment)? Priority A issue related to coastal management currently preventing us from achieving the vision Management Objective A clearly defined objective – linked to a specific priority - which coastal management must be directed at towards achieving the vision Strategy A plan of actions or a policy designed towards achieving the vision, a priority or a management objective Norms and standards According to the ICM Act (Section83(f)), norms and standards include systems, guidelines, protocols, procedures, standards and methods
  • 18. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. Introduction page 1
  • 19. I n t r o d u c t i o n page 2 1.1 Background “The overall goal of Integrated Coastal Management is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems. . . . It is a process that unites government and the community, science and management, sectoral and public interests in preparing and implementing an integrated plan for the protection and development of coastal ecosystems and resources.” Report on fundamental goals of coastal management via deliberations of the Group of Experts of Marine Protection (GESAMP, 1996) Almost half of the entire planet’s population is concentrated along the coast, placing an ever-increasing burden on coastal habitats and resources to meet the social and economic demands of a growing human populace. Coastal zones throughout the world have historically been among the most heavily exploited areas because of their rich resources. In coastal countries today, an estimated half of the total population live in coastal zones, and migration from inland areas to the coast is increasing. Not surprisingly, there is also a rising conflict between the need for immediate consumption or use of coastal resources and the need to ensure the long-term supply of those resources. In many countries this conflict has already reached a critical stage, with large parts of the coastal zone polluted from local or inland sources, wetlands drained, estuarine ecosystem health compromised and beaches long since ruined for human enjoyment. Notwithstanding these impacts, the enjoyment of the coastal zone by a wide variety of users and the view of the coast as a national asset and legacy for future generations is of the utmost importance for the promotion of its current and future sustainable use. The right to an environment that is protected for the benefit of both present and future generations of South Africans – which ensures the perpetuation of their health and well-being – is enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996). Section 24 of the Constitution requires the promulgation of legislation and appropriate instruments that promotes conservation, prevents pollution and ecological degradation, and ensures that the social and economic growth of our nation progresses with due consideration of the need to secure ecologically sustainable development and natural resources. In answer to this need, the National Environmental Management Act (No. 107 of 1998) (NEMA) was promulgated in 1998. Acting as a broad “umbrella” legislative instrument, NEMA’s primary objectives include the promotion of a co-ordinated approach to matters affecting the environment by ensuring that co-operative governance as well as co-ordinating mechanisms and institutions are implemented as key principles for the effective management of the environment of South Africa. These principles, translated within the context of coastal management, were captured in the White Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development in South Africa (DEAT, 2000) (White Paper), which signified the first fundamental shift in thinking, ushering in a new era for adopting an integrated approach to matters pertaining to the coast.
  • 20. I n t r o d u c t i o n According to the White Paper, past coastal management efforts did not recognise the value of coastal ecosystems as a cornerstone for development. Coastal management was also resource-centred rather than people-centred, and attempted to control, rather than promote the sustainable use of coastal resources, with a lack of recognition of the diversity of our coast. Furthermore, management of the coastal area was fragmented and uncoordinated, and was undertaken largely on a sector-specific basis, with an emphasis on maximising coastal resource use on a single sector basis and the exclusive use of areas and resources. In recognition of these shortcomings the government of South Africa elected to embrace a holistic approach, known as Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). The purpose of ICM is to maximize the benefits provided by the coastal zone and to minimize the conflicts and harmful effects of activities upon each other, on resources and on the environment. It starts with an analytical process to set objectives for the development and management of the coastal zone. All of the historical challenges mentioned above are contradictory to the objectives of ICM and therefore the Integrated Coastal Management Act (No. 24 of 2008) (hereafter referred to as the “ICM Act”) has been promulgated, to establish the statutory requirements for integrated coastal and estuarine management in South Africa. ICM also prescribes the inclusion of norms, standards and policies for further elaboration and guidance on coastal management provisions within legislation and specific scenarios and/or issues. One of the many reasons for the adoption of this form of management is to promote the conservation of the coastal environment, and to maintain the natural character of coastal landscapes and seascapes. The purpose of ICM is to ensure that the development and use of natural resources in the coastal zone is socially and economically justifiable, as well as being ecologically sustainable. The ICM Act contains a variety of tools that can be used as important tools to ensure that: page 3  The coastal zone is conserved;  Development is conducted in an environmentally sustainable manner; and  Transgressions by individuals or groups are dealt with through appropriate measures and/or fines. Amongst these tools, Coastal Management Programmes (CMPs) are arguably the most powerful integrating instruments. A CMP is a policy directive for the management of the coastal zone, inclusive of strategies and plans for the effective implementation of the ICM Act that will enable organs of state to plan accordingly, to set a course for the environmental future of a nation by addressing the resolution of current management problems and user-conflicts (due to the wide variety of activities and uses of the coast), as well as the long-term development and management of the coastline. CMPs also play the vital role of bringing together the various spheres and sectors of government, private sector activities and community activities on the coast for the effective implementation of ICM over a projected period of time. This is achieved by ensuring that the development and use of natural resources in the coastal zone is done with the best interests of the public and economy, while being ecologically sustainable.
  • 21. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.2 Value of our Coast South Africa’s coastal environment is a rich and diverse national asset, providing important economic and social opportunities for the human population. As a result, coastal populations have developed a strong reliance on these resources for commercial opportunity and gain, food, recreation, and transport. Also, coastal resources have facilitated job creation and general economic upliftment in coastal regions. Historically, the industrial centre in South Africa was in the interior of the country near the gold mines along the Witwatersrand. However, over the years the country’s economy evolved from a strong dependence on primary extraction activities (e.g. mining) to increased manufacturing and service industries to lately becoming increasingly dependent on port facilities for the export of such processed products. Consequently, the coastal cities have developed and expanded rapidly. Since the 1980s the major coastal cities of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, and Richards Bay (Figure 1) have experienced the fastest economic growth of all cities in the country (DEAT, 2006). The coastal environment of South Africa is therefore:  An economic place where commercial, recreational and subsistence activities take place;  A social place where people enjoy themselves and come to relax and find spiritual peace; and  A biophysical place where land, sea and air meet and interact, and where beaches, sand dunes, rocky headlands and estuaries support a wide range of coastal biodiversity. Importantly, these three components are interrelated with the social and economic value of coastal systems, largely depending on the health and productivity of the biophysical component. The estimated contribution of coastal resources (without regulatory services) to the South African economy is in the order of some R 57 billion (US$5.7 billion) (UNOPS, 2011). The direct economic benefits from coastal resources in South Africa are estimated to be approximately 35% of the country’s annual gross domestic product (GDP). Direct economic benefits include the marine fishing industry, port and harbour development and attractive lifestyles, and recreational and tourism opportunities offered by a coastal location. Furthermore, the coast provides indirect economic benefits such as the erosion control provided by coastal features such as dunes and high cliffs which protect built and natural features along the coast (including roads, buildings and farmlands) from the damaging effects of waves and wind, and it allows waste assimilation, detoxification and recycling through coastal wetlands, forests and grasslands. These indirect benefits account for an additional 28% of the country’s GDP. In addition to the economic benefits, the coastal environment provides enormous social benefits that many people enjoy. For some people, the coast is a place of cultural or spiritual significance and many South Africans also see the coast as a place of recreation. It support coastal population livelihood, by providing building materials, food and other benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms. The coast also provides many educational and scientific opportunities which are not easily quantifiable in monetary value. Tourism, recreation and leisure activities have developed into a global growth industry and South Africa’s coast has particular value in this regard. page 4
  • 22. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.3 Context of Coastal Management Programmes While the promulgation of the ICM Act, for the first time mandated the development of coastal management programmes (CMPs) and institutions for cooperative coastal governance, South Africa already has several statutes governing aspects of coastal management. These include at least 19 international obligations and agreements, 11 national policies (other White Papers) and approximately 46 national acts (Taljaard, 2011). The most recent overviews on international and national legislation pertaining to South Africa’s coastal and marine environment are provided by Glavovic and Cullinan (2009) and McLean and Glazewski (2009). A summary of the key international obligations and agreements is provided in Appendix B. The ICM Act views CMPs as the most important tool for integrating coastal management in South Africa. All spheres of government – national, provincial and municipal - must establish and implement CMPs. Provincial CMP’s must be consistent with the NCMP, as well as the national estuarine management protocol. Municipal CMP’s, applying to a particular coastal municipality, must be consistent with the NCMP and that of the province in which they are located. Therefore, nested within the NCMP is the various provincial coastal management programmes (CMPs), and within these, the various municipal CMPs (developed at the district municipal level). These CMPs specifically apply to the coastal zone within the various jurisdictions (Figure 1). Figure 1: Conceptual illustration depicting the context of coastal management programmes in relation to other national, provincial and municipal strategic planning page 5
  • 23. I n t r o d u c t i o n For example, provincial CMPs address strategic planning and implementation in the coastal zone in the provinces, stretching from the HWM up to the landward boundary of the coastal zone. Municipal CMPs similarly address planning and implementation in the coastal zone within the district municipal boundaries, again stretching from the HWM up to the landward boundary of the coastal zone. Further, larger strategic planning processes at national, provincial and municipal levels, must embed CMPs for the coastal zone in order to address the legal requirements of the ICM Act (Figure 1). For example, the municipal integrated development plan, spatial planning framework and zoning schemes must take into account and incorporate the provisions of the municipal CMP. Similarly, provincial spatial and development planning must take into account and incorporate the provisions of the provincial CMP, which in turn must be aligned with the NCMP (including coastal planning schemes). 1.4 Purpose of NCMP With specific reference to the NCMP the ICM Act (Section 45) stipulates that the programme must – (a) “Be a policy directive on Integrated Coastal Management; (b) Provide for an integrated, coordinated and uniform approach to coastal management by organs of state, in all spheres of government, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and local communities”. More specifically the Act (Section 45) states that the NCMP must include the following components:  A national vision for coastal management, including sustainable use of coastal resources; page 6  National coastal management objectives;  Priorities and strategies to achieve the objectives;  Performance indicators to measure progress with achieving objectives;  Norms and standards for the management of the coastal zone or specific components thereof; and  A framework for cooperative governance in which the responsibilities of organs of state and other stakeholders (including previously disadvantages communities that rely on coastal resources for their livelihood) are identified. The framework should include mechanisms for coordination between these groups to enable integrated coastal management. In other words, the NCMP provides the direction and guidance towards a structured and standardised approach to coastal management in South Africa, including an appropriate cooperative governance framework – a critical element for effective implementation of integrated coastal management. However, the NCMP is an iterative, dynamic process where priorities for coastal management must be periodically evaluated to improve performance and revise strategies. As a result South Africa’s NCMP is not a once-off programme that is “cast in iron” Indeed, this NCMP identifies national strategies, and norms and standards still to be developed towards achieving the vision and management objectives. For this reason the ICM Act (Section 44) requires that the Minister of Environmental Affairs review the programme at least once every five years or, and, when necessary, amend the programme.
  • 24. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.5 NCMP Development Process The development of this NCMP did not happen within a coastal management void. Indeed, South Africa had several statutes, management programmes (e.g. DEAT, 2008) and initiatives in place that already addressed aspects of coastal management (these are dealt with in greater detail in the Situation Analysis chapter). In this light, the intention here was not to start completely afresh, but rather to consider existing management programmes and initiatives and to use those as basis for the development of the NCMP within the realm of the ICM Act. The process followed in the development of this NCMP is schematically illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2: The NCMP development process First a framework for coastal management in South Africa was proposed. This framework identifies key components or elements of an integrated coastal management programme presenting the structure – the integrated, coordinated and uniform approach to coastal management. The preparation of a draft situation analysis on coastal management in South Africa followed, including the identification of future needs. The proposed framework and draft situation analysis were then presented at stakeholder workshops in each of the four coastal provinces, as well as at a national stakeholder workshop. The aim of these workshops was to consult on the proposed framework for coastal management, as well as the page 7
  • 25. I n t r o d u c t i o n finding of the draft situation analysis. Further, the aim was to gauge stakeholders’ priorities for coastal management. The detailed findings of the stakeholder consultation process are documented in a supporting document to this NCMP (DEA, 2013a). Following the stakeholder consultation process, the framework for coastal management was refined; a national vision for coastal management in South Africa was derived, as well as the management objectives to achieve the vision. A list of priorities - linked to each of the management objectives – was then identified guided by results from the situation analysis and priorities emerging from the stakeholder workshops. A preliminary list of indicators for coastal management - in order to monitor progress in terms of achieving the management objectives, and ultimately, the vision for coastal management in South Africa - was also derived. This national vision, management objectives and the priorities, serve as the broad directive for coastal management in South Africa, giving guidance to provinces and municipalities in the development of their coastal management programmes - supporting a synchronised approach to coastal management. However, the specific foci of provincial and municipal management programmes may vary, as defined by the site-specific coastal management issues in various provinces and municipalities. Finally, specific actions for the NCMP 2013 were distilled for which DEA: Oceans and coasts will develop detailed implementation plans, in collaboration with others where appropriate. The above was compiled into a draft NCMP document and presented to MINTEC Working Group 8 (WG8) for review. WG8 deals with oceans and coasts and is attended by key national agencies, representatives from provincial lead agents for ICM, science councils, and conservations bodies amongst others. Pending the establishment of an official national institutional structure for coastal management, under the ICM Act, WG8 fulfilled the role. Comments from WG8 were incorporated into a final draft NCMP document that was gazetted for public comments. Finally, public comments were considered and, where appropriate, incorporated into the final NCMP for South Africa. 1.6 Framework for Integrated Coastal Management The framework for integrated coastal management represents the overarching components or elements to be addressed within an integrated coastal management programme - the integrated, coordinated and uniform approach to coastal management (Figure 3). It provides for a holistic and structure manner in which to conduct a situation analysis, and to identify issues and future needs. Management objectives and priorities within a coastal management programme are then typically directed at specific components or elements in the framework that is either lacking or needing improvement – working towards a comprehensive integrated coastal management programme. The framework is presented in a cyclic context as environmental management – including ICM – has an iterative, adaptive approach where the system in incrementally improved as new information and knowledge becomes available. The framework for ICM proposed here are informed by requirements stipulated in the ICM Act, (referring to Section 45), as well as international best practice. While it is widely recognised that ICM is contextual and place-based, commonalities have been distilled from the implementation of ICM worldwide (e.g. Stojanovic et page 8 al., 2004; Taljaard et al., 2011). In ecosystem-based management not only the ecological, but also the economic, social and cultural aspects of the resource become important (UNEP/GPA, 2006). All these aspects should be reflected in the vision for the coast. Thus, the vision should not only reflect ecosystem protection (i.e. ecological aspects)
  • 26. I n t r o d u c t i o n but also the key opportunities for sustainable coastal development (i.e. social, cultural and economic aspects). Objectives direct the focus of coastal management effort in order to achieve the vision. Elucidation of jurisdictional space (i.e. the applicable space within which the jurisdiction of coastal management and coastal management programmes must be applied) for management comprises another key component – specifically the delineation of coastal management units (Halpern et al. 2008). Figure 3: A framework for integrated coastal management in South Africa Coastal Management units can be delineated at regional and national scales, as well as at the provincial and municipal (local) level (see Figure 4). Demarcation of the coastal management units of the local/municipal area is challenging because most of the threats posed by intensifying human activities and ecosystem change cannot necessarily be dealt with by managing river basins, coastal zones and larger marine ecosystems in isolation (UNEP/GPA, 2006).However, it does make practical sense to limit the size of the local coastal management unit. The boundaries of a coastal management unit stipulate the geographical space at the core of the management programme. However, this does not imply that activities outsides these boundaries - which may impact on the geographical space – are excluded. These are typically addressed through the activity-based management programmes in the framework (e.g. stormwater runoff into the coastal zone but originating outside the geographical boundaries of the coastal zone). Due to a burgeoning demand for ocean and coastal space, ocean and coastal spatial planning (i.e. strategic planning and mapping of coastal and ocean use), is increasingly becoming a necessity (e.g. Ehler and Douvere, 2009). Spatial planning in the coastal zone, therefore, is not a separate process rather it is an integral component within the larger integrated coastal management framework. page 9
  • 27. I n t r o d u c t i o n Figure 4: Generic Illustration of coastal management units at various tiers within which respective coastal page 10 management programmes may apply In coastal environment activity-based management programmes, involving the management specific activities, often show a stronger sectoral focus (i.e. activities are managed by different governing authorities through activity-specific statutory systems) where the expertise to develop and manage these programmes typically resides. The framework, therefore, embeds activity-based management programmes but subservient to the vision, management objectives, and ocean and coastal spatial planning outcomes. The selection of indicators and implementation of monitoring programmes are fundamental to coastal management providing the means of continuously assessing progress toward achieving the vision and management objectives. Monitoring comprises “a continuous function that uses the systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds” (Kusek and Rist, 2004). Status reporting (e.g. State of Coast reporting) evaluates the findings of monitoring programmes to inform subsequent reviews and to inform future strategic planning processes (coastal management is an incremental, adaptive management process – “learning-by-doing”). Implementation of coastal management requires and enabling cooperative governance framework. While formal coastal management institutions (e.g. coastal management committees) remain central to a cooperative governance framework, a governance framework extends wider requiring additional partnerships with government, business, civil society, and the scientific and professional communities. Seven such “support elements” for effective cooperative governance are considered relevant to the South Africa situation as illustrated in Figure 3. Cicin-Sain and Knecht (1998) argue that integrated coastal management cannot survive over the long-term without the support of the public (i.e. society outside government) Further human capital development and empowerment are critical to enhance the capacity of institutions and individuals to undertake effective coastal management programmes.
  • 28. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s 2. Situation Analysis page 11
  • 29. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s This chapter presents a situation analysis related to coastal management in South Africa. A brief overview of the coastal environment and the status of coastal ecosystems are provided. Thereafter, the status of coastal management is assessed using the framework for coastal management (Chapter 1.6) as template. Specifically future needs are identified taking into account the status of coastal ecosystems, feed-back from the stakeholder consultation process, as well as outstanding statutory requirements. This knowledge is then considered in the definition of environmental objectives and priorities for this NCMP. 2.1 Natural Coastal Environment 2.1.1 Brief description South Africa’s coastline stretches from the Orange River on the west coast to Ponta do Ouro on the east coast, a distance of approximately 3 100 km (Figure 4). Figure 5: Biogeographical regions and currents along the South African coast Further there are nearly 300 river catchments draining into the coastal zone through functional estuaries. These estuaries constitute much of the sheltered marine habitat along South Africa’s coastline and consequently they are important for biodiversity as well as socio-economic development (Van Niekerk and Turpie, 2012). The coast spans three biogeographical regions (or coastal climatic zones), namely the cool temperate west coast, warm temperate south coast and subtropical east coast (Brown and Jarman, 1978). page 12
  • 30. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s The coastal environment of South Africa spans two of the 64 large marine ecosystems (LMEs) of the world, namely the Benguela Current large marine ecosystem (BCLME) and the Agulhas Somali Current (ASCLME) (NOAA, 2013). LMEs are relatively large areas of ocean space, approximately 200 000 km² or greater, adjacent to the continents where primary productivity in coastal waters is generally higher than in open ocean areas. The Benguela Current on the west coast comprises a general equator-ward flow of cold water in the South Atlantic gyre and dynamic wind-driven upwelling close inshore at certain active upwelling sites (Shannon, 1985). The temperature regime in the Benguela Current region is strongly seasonal, with average surface temperatures ranging between 21oC and 15oC in summer and between 17oC and 13oC in winter (Boyd and Agenbag, 1984), broadly reflecting changes in insolation, upwelling, vertical mixing and horizontal advection (Shannon, 1985). As a result of upwelling the west coast is characterised by high nutrient supplies to the upper layers resulting in high primary production (i.e. dense plankton blooms). Decay of large deposits of organic-rich matter along the west coast reduces the dissolved oxygen content of the bottom waters to extremely low levels in the mid and inner continental shelf (Lombard et al., 2004). The Agulhas Current flows strongly southward along the east coast. Sea surface temperatures in the region show a decline of about 2oC moving from north the south, with maximum average temperatures ranging from 28oC (summer) and 23oC (winter) in the north and from 25oC (summer) and 21oC (winter) in the south (Lutjeharms, 2006). Compared to the west coast, primary production is much lower owing to the warm, nutrient-poor tropical waters introduced from the equatorial region of the western Indian Ocean. Coastal waters, therefore, are typically blue and clear (Lombard et al., 2004), except in areas adjacent to larger, turbid river systems such as the larger systems located along South Africa’s east coast in the sub-tropical biogeographical region (Figure 1). Along the south coast, upwelling of nutrient-rich sub-photic water occurs along the shelf break and at promontories along the southern coastline, creating an intensive, dynamic mixing region, intermediate in terms of temperature and productivity between the BCLME and ASLME (Lombard et al., 2004). The coastal zone of South Africa comprises various types of benthic substate including several sandy, rocky and mixed substrata (Sink et al., 2012). The distribution of habitat types can be partly explained by geography, likely reflecting large-scale patterns in coastal geology. The west coast is characterised by very heterogeneous substrates with marked contrasts between rocky cliffs, long sandy beaches, extremely sheltered deep bays and highly exposed open coasts. The majority of South Africa’s long dissipative beaches are found in along this stretch of coast. The south coast comprises largely a series of log spiral bays (e.g. Mossel Bay, Plettenberg Bay and Algoa Bay) interspersed with cliffs or long stretches of rocky coastline (e.g. the Tsitsikamma coast). Along the south coast the Alexandria dune field is a unique feature and represents one of the largest active coastal dune fields in the world. Cliffs, rocky shores and intermediate estuarine pocket beaches dominate the transition zone into the east coast. Along the east coast rocky shores and sandy beaches dominate the south whereas beaches become more intermediate and dissipative-intermediate in the north. The strong oceanographic variability is reflected in the division of the marine biodiversity zones (Branch et al., 1994; Heemstra and Heemstra, 2004; Lombard et al., 2004) in the South African coastal environment depicted in Figure 5 (Source: Sink et al. 2012). Together with the complex interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere, combined with high variability in rainfall patterns and variety of biodiversity zones, it is not surprising that South Africa displays such high levels of marine biodiversity within such a small area. Some 10 000 species of plants and animals have been recorded, representing 15% of the global marine species diversity (DEAT, 2006). page 13
  • 31. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Figure 6: Bioregions within South Africa’s coastal environment In broad terms, plants and animals are distributed according to the distinctive physical characteristics of the different regions. Along the west coast is characterised by high primary productivity and low species diversity, but it supports large populations of some species. The south coast is a transition zone between the east and west coasts, showing characteristics of both areas. Its coastal environment has a high biological diversity and moderate productivity. Along the east coast becomes increasingly warm and tropical northward and is characterised by increasing species diversity but smaller populations (DEAT, 1998). 2.1.2 Health Status of Coastal Ecosystems The health status of South Africa’s coastal ecosystems - summarized here - was extracted from the National Biodiversity Assessment 2011 (NBA 2011) (Driver el al., 2012) and the yet unpublished 2012 Environmental Outlook and the reader is referred to the original documents for details. The NBA 2011 assessed the ecosystem threat status of status of South Africa’s marine and coastal ecosystems (Sink et al., 2012). The ecosystem threat status of 136 marine and coastal habitat types was assessed (Figure 6, Source: Sink et al., 2012) included 58 coastal, 62 offshore benthic and 16 offshore pelagic habitat types grouped into a total of 14 broad ecosystem groups. A total of 64 habitat types (47% of total amount of habitat types) are considered threatened. Seventeen percentage (17%) of these habitat types are critically endangered, 7% endangered, 23% vulnerable and 52% least threatened. Although 47% of habitat types are considered threatened (i.e. critically endangered, endangered and/or vulnerable), the overall area of threatened habitat is less than 30% of the marine and coastal environment considered (i.e. shaded areas in Figure 6). page 14
  • 32. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Figure 7: Ecosystem threat status of marine and coastal benthic (top figure) and pelagic (bottom figure) in page 15 South Africa This reflects the small spatial extent of many threatened habitat types whereas many of the deeper habitat types that have far greater extent are least threatened (Sink et al., 2012). A summary of the threat status of coastal and marine habitat types in South Africa is provided in Figure 7 (Source: Sink et al., 2012).
  • 33. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Figure 8: Number of coastal and marine habitat types in each ecosystem threat status category in South Africa (Cr - critically endangered; En – endangered; Vu – vulnerable; LT - least threatened) The health status of South Africa’s estuaries was also determined as part of the NBA 2011 (Van Niekerk and Turpie, 2012). This assessment found that a total of 17% of estuaries were considered to be in excellent state and another 41% were in a good state. About 35% were in a fair state and 7% were in a poor state (Figure 8, Source: Van Niekerk and Turpie, 2012). Figure 9: Health status of South African estuaries This relative optimistic picture changes dramatically if “total estuarine area” (expressed as hectares habitat) is used as the measure. Figure 9 provides a summary of the state of South Africa’s estuaries expressed as a percentage of estuaries, as well as percentage of the total habitat (ha) area. page 16
  • 34. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Figure 10: Different perspectives arising when the National Health Assessment is presented as “Percentage of page 17 estuaries” or “Percentage Area” From this analysis it is very clear that only a very small percentage of estuarine habitats are in an excellent condition, with most of these areas located in the Warm Temperate region (i.e. the numerous small, near-natural estuaries along the Wild Coast). Only about 1% of total estuarine habitat is in an excellent state and only 14% of the total estuarine habitat is in a good state, mostly represented by systems in the Warm Temperate biogeographical region. The 2006 SAEO concluded that the ocean and coastal environment of South Africa was in a moderately healthy state in relation to international trends at the time. Five years later, there has been considerable focus and investment in creating appropriate policy and legislative conditions, which has positively influenced several aspects of marine and coastal environments. These aspects over last five years have included, amongst others, the expansion of marine protected areas, the creation of operational estuarine management plans, the implementation of the Working for Coasts programmes, improved implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries, the establishment of water quality guidelines, the creation and implementation of species management plans and a significant increase in the spend of ocean and coasts research and monitoring. Real gains from these initiatives have been a decrease in seabird mortalities, increases in some island bird populations, improved management of sensitive estuarine habitats and species, and an increase in the understanding of marine ecosystem functioning and biodiversity distribution. Some aspects of the health of our oceans and coasts continue to experience apparent deterioration. Pressures on the oceans and coasts ecosystems are mostly as a result of increased anthropogenic pressures such as pollution from land-based sources and resultant decreases in water quality. Estuaries are examples of habitats that may be susceptible to such pressures. This includes the continuing trend of increased numbers of peoples residing in coastal areas. The growing importance of mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the coastal zone specifically aimed at reducing risks and impact needs to be addressed. The Climate Change Response White Paper (DEA, 2012d) recognises that climate change is one of the greatest threats to sustainable development and, if left unmitigated, will undo many positive advances in meeting development goals. It further highlights the important role of healthy intact ecosystems (including coastal ecosystems) in adapting to climate change. The White Paper acknowledges that the mandate for various spheres of government to take on various specific climate change-related issues is not always clear, and that it may be useful to assign specific powers for mitigation and adaptation actions.
  • 35. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Climate change results in environmental changes in the coastal zone such as:  Changes in ocean circulation patterns;  Sea level rise and increase storminess;  Changes in temperatures from both the land and sea;  Changes in precipitation and runoff; and  Changes in pH (referred to as ocean acidification). Response to climate change in coastal management, therefore, requires understanding of the influence of these environmental changes on other pressures and activities in the coastal zone. Climate change is not a separate pressure rather it is an anthropogenically-induced alteration acting as an accelerator of ecosystem change. It is necessary to understand the potential amplification of variability that climate change may have on the existing coastal system (and its use), together with the potential impact on production, as well as the harvesting of resources in the marine environments. Climate change should also be seen as a catalyst to fast track freshwater resource management, e.g. ecological water allocations. It is also essential that climate change, and the projected effects thereof, be integrated into ocean and coastal spatially planning, e.g. the demarcation of coastal set-back lines. In addition, adaptation includes adjusting to situations, developing coping strategies and impact responses. Adaptation may be behavioural or involve mitigation such as engineering solutions. Response to climate change in coastal management requires an adaptive management approach supported by monitoring and frequent review. 2.2 Vision and Objectives During the development of the “White Paper” (DEAT, 2000) the first shared vision for coastal management in South Africa was put forward through an extensive, consultative and participatory process. Subsequently, the National Development Plan 2030 (NPC, 2012), one of the most important strategic documents visioning South Africa’s development over the next 18 years also came to force that also applies to the coastal zone. The National Strategy for Sustainable Development and Action Plan 2011–2014 (NSSD 1) (DEA, 2011a) is another policy that visions South Africa’s future specifically related to sustainable development and also applies to the coastal zone. The “White Paper’s” vision (as a result of the progressive and democratic process adopted at the time) largely reflect the spirit of the National Development Plan 2030 and Sustainable Development and Action Plan 2011–2014 visions by acknowledging the three pillar of sustainable development, that is economic growth, social well-being and equity, and ecological integrity. The “White Paper” (DEAT, 2000) also put forward goals and objectives for coastal management. Also, the “White Paper” presented a list of priority issues that came to the fore over the period of development of the policy. At them time these included:  Diversifying coastal economies and optimising benefits for local coastal communities;  Promoting coastal tourism, leisure and recreational development;  Establishing “one-stop-shops” for development approvals;  Identifying supplementing and managing State coastal assets;  Identifying opportunities for improving public access to the coast and coastal resources;  Introducing effective planning and development mechanisms and incentives for effective coastal page 18 management;
  • 36. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s  Exploring opportunities for development of ports and harbours;  Identifying opportunities for mariculture and aquaculture development;  Developing and implementing a representative system of coastal protected areas;  Introducing mechanisms and incentives to avoid physical development in high risk coastal areas;  Creating incentives to promote better estuary and river mouth management practices;  Improving co-ordination and integration of coastal and marine resource management;  Improved co-ordination of monitoring and management of coastal pollution; and  Rehabilitating degraded coastal areas and resources. While many of the goals, management objectives and priorities for coastal management may still be relevant, these need to be updated and refined as part of this NCMP informed by this Situation Analysis, as well as priority issues identified by stakeholders during the provincial and national stakeholder workshops (DEA, 2013a). 2.3 Status of Coastal Management Units and Boundaries The ICM Act defines the coastal zone as the area comprising coastal public property, the coastal protection zone, coastal access land and coastal protected areas, the seashore, coastal waters and the exclusive economic zone and includes any aspect of the environment on, in, under and above such area. Important coastal management boundaries relevant to the NCMP is summarised in Table 3. The relevant boundaries are defined under the Maritime Zones Act, ICM Act and National Environmental Management Act (Act No. 107 of 1998) (NEMA). Various coastal boundaries are also schematically illustrated in Figure 10. This figure is sourced from a user-friendly guide to the Integrated Coastal Management Act of South Africa (Celliers et al., 2009) that also describes the demarcation of these boundaries in greater detail. Table 1: Important coastal management boundaries relevant to the NCMP Geographical boundary DESCRIPTION page 19 Maritime Zones Act Coastal baseline (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3) the low-water line shall be the baseline. (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) straight lines joining the grouped coordinates mentioned in Schedule 2 shall be the baselines of the relevant part of the coast. (3) Notwithstanding subsections (1) and (2) the outer limits prescribed or determined in accordance with subsection (4) or (5) shall be the baselines. (4) Outer limits of internal waters referred to in section 3(1) (b) shall be established in the prescribed manner. (5) In the absence of any outer limits of internal waters prescribed in accordance with subsection (4), the outer limits shall be the outermost harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system (Section 2). Continental shelf The continental shelf as defined in Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, adopted at Montego Bay on 10 December 1982 (Section 8) Exclusive Economic Zone The sea beyond the territorial waters referred to in section 4, but within a distance of two hundred nautical miles from the baselines (Section 7) Contiguous zone The sea beyond the territorial waters referred to in section 4, but within a distance of twenty four nautical miles from the baselines (Section 5)
  • 37. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Geographical boundary DESCRIPTION Territorial waters The sea within a distance of twelve nautical miles from the baselines (Section 4) page 20 ICM Act High water mark The highest line reached by coastal waters, but excluding any line reached as a result of exceptional or abnormal floods or storms that occur no more than once in ten years or an estuary being closed to the sea (Section 1) Seashore Subject to section 26, means the area between the low water mark and the high-water mark Admiralty reserve Any strip of land adjoining the inland side of the HWM which, when this Act look effect, was state land reserved or designated on an official plan, deed of grant, title deed or other document evidencing title or land-use rights as “admiralty reserve”, “government reserve”, “beach reserve”, “coastal forest reserve” or other similar reserve (Section 1: Definitions) Coastal access land Land designated as coastal access land in terms of section 18(1), read with section 26 Coastal protected areas A protected area that is situated wholly or partially within the coastal zone and that is managed by, or on behalf of an organ of state, but excludes any part of such a protected area that has been excised from the coastal zone in terms of section 22. Coastal waters Marine waters that form part of the internal waters or territorial waters of the Republic referred to in sections 3 and 4 of the Maritime Zones Act (Act No. 15 of 1994) (Maritime Zones Act), respectively, and, subject to section 26, any estuary Estuaries Estuarine functional zone (EFZ)1 as defined in the National Estuaries Layer (http://bgis.sanbi.org/estuaries/project.asp), available from the South African National Biodiversity Institute's BGIS website (http://bgis.sanbi.org) (Government Gazette No. 33306, Notice No. R 546, 10 June 2010) (National Estuary Management Protocol) Special management areas An area declared as such in terms of section 23 Coastal public property Coastal public property consists of - (a) coastal waters; (b) land submerged by coastal waters, including - (i) land flooded by coastal waters which subsequently becomes part of the bed of coastal waters; and (ii) the substrata beneath such land; (c) any island, whether natural or artificial, within coastal waters, but excluding - (i) any part of an island that was lawfully alienated before this Act commenced; or (ii) any part of an artificially created island (other than the seashore of that island) that is proclaimed by the Minister to be excluded from coastal public property; (d) the seashore, but excluding - (i) any portion of the seashore below the high-water mark which was lawfully alienated before the Sea-Shore Act (No. 21 of 1935), took effect or which was lawfully alienated in terms of that Act and which has not subsequently been re-incorporated into the seashore; and (ii) any portion of a coastal cliff that was lawfully alienated before this Act took effect and is not owned by the State; (e) the seashore of a privately owned island within coastal waters; (f) any admiralty reserve owned by the State; (g) any State-owned land declared under section 8 to be coastal public property; or (h) any natural resources on or in (i) any coastal public property of a category mentioned in paragraph (a) to (g); (ii) the exclusive economic zone, or in or on the continental shelf as contemplated in sections 7 and 8 of the Maritime Zones Act, 1994 (Act No. 15 of 1994), respectively; or (iii) any harbour, work or other installation on or in any coastal public property of a category 1 This layer maps the estuarine functional zone for South Africa’s estuaries. The estuarine functional zone is defined by the 5 m topographical contour (as indicative of 5 m above mean sea level). The estuarine functional zone includes: Open water area; Estuarine habitat (sand and mudflats, rock and plant communities); and Floodplain area http://bgis.sanbi.org/estuaries/project.asp.
  • 38. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Geographical boundary DESCRIPTION mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (h) that is owned by an organ of State (Section 7). Section 8 allows the Minister to extend the boundaries of coastal public property under certain conditions. page 21 Coastal protection zone The coastal protection zone consists of - (a) land falling within an area declared in terms of the Environment Conservation Act, 1999 (Act No. 73 of 1989), as a sensitive coastal area within which activities identified in terms of section 21(1) of that Act may not be undertaken without an authorisation; (b) any part of the littoral active zone that is not coastal public property; (c) any coastal protection area, or part of such area, which is not coastal public property; (d) any land unit situated wholly or partially within one kilometre of the high-water mark which, when this Act came into force - (i) was zoned for agricultural or undetermined use; or (ii) was not zoned and was not part of a lawfully established township, urban area or other human settlement; (e) any land unit not referred to in paragraph (d) that is situated wholly or partially within 100 metres of the high-water mark; (f) any coastal wetland, lake, lagoon or dam which is situated wholly or partially within a land unit referred to in paragraph (d)(i) or (e); (g) any part of the seashore which is not coastal public property, including all privately owned land below the high-water mark; (h) any admiralty reserve which is not coastal public property; or (i) any land that would be inundated by a 1:50 year flood or storm event. An area forming part of the coastal protection zone, except an area referred to in subsection (1)(g) or (h), may be excised from the coastal protection zone in terms of section 26. NEMA Estuaries EFZ as defined in the National Estuaries Layer, available from the South African National Biodiversity Institute's BGIS website (http://bgis.sanbi.org) (Government Gazette No. 33306, Notice No. R 546, 10 June 2010) The ICM Act specifies the relevant spheres of government responsible for the determination or adjustment of various coastal boundaries, as well as the demarcation of as follows: Coastal public property Minister of Environmental Affairs in accordance with section 27 of the ICM Act by notice in the Gazette (the power of the Minister to determine or adjust the inland coastal boundary of coastal public property in terms of section 27, includes the power to make any consequential change to an adjoining coastal boundary of the coastal protection zone or coastal access land) Coastal protection zone MEC (Executive Council of a coastal province who is responsible for the designated provincial lead agency) in accordance with section 28 of the ICM Act by notice in the Gazette Special management area Minister of Environmental Affairs in accordance with section 23 of the ICM Act by notice in the Gazette Coastal access land Municipality in accordance with section 29 of the ICM Act by notice in the Gazette In addition to the coastal management boundaries listed in Table 1, the ICM Act also stipulates the geographical boundaries of coastal management units for the provincial and municipal CMPs as follows: Provincial CMP Managing the coastal zone in the province (Section 46), which may extend to 500 m seaward of the HWM Municipal CMP Managing the coastal zone or specific parts of the coastal zone in the municipality (Section 48), which may extend to 500 m seaward of the HWM
  • 39. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s The jurisdiction of various other Act and international conventions is depicted in Figure 11 (Source: DEAT, 2000). Figure 11: Important geographical boundaries in the coastal zone Figure 12: Important jurisdiction of other Act and international conventions page 22
  • 40. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s Important is the confirmation of the location of the HWM, as other coastal boundaries such as coastal public property and coastal protection zone are defined in terms of the HWM. National guidelines/norms and standards for the demarcation of coastal set-backlines is also required to ensure a standardised approach in the development of these lines across coastal provinces. This will be developed in collaboration with coastal provinces. A number of coastal provinces together with metropolitan and district municipalities within the provinces (e.g. in the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal) have already invested in the development of coastal set-back lines in their area of jurisdiction in accordance with the ICM Act (Section 25). During stakeholder consultation the need was expressed for practical guidelines on the interpretation, application and mapping of the geographical boundaries, specifically at the provincial and municipal (both local and district/metropolitan municipalities) levels. Reflecting on the situation analysis on boundaries for coastal management the following future needs emerged in terms of giving directives and guidance on coastal management in South Africa:  A standardised approach and method for the determination of the HWM, a critical geographical boundary Protected Areas Act (Act No. 57 of 2003) (Protected Areas Act) National Protected Area Strategy DEA page 23 in coastal management  National guidelines/norms and standards to determine coastal set-backlines/management lines  Guidelines to standardize the approach and methods for the demarcation of the coastal protection zone (CPZ), and a nationally consistent spatial layer indicating the position and extent of the CPZ  Practical guidance on the interpretation, application and mapping of geographical boundaries for coastal management directed at all three spheres of government. Specifically the guidelines should focus on the provincial and municipal levels differentiating local, district and metropolitan municipalities, where appropriate. 2.4 Coastal Spatial Planning and Condition of Use Legislation governing spatial planning either within the coastal zone, or overlapping with the coastal zone, is extensive. Spatial planning is already occurring in the coastal zone through an array of spatial planning processes as illustrated in Table 2. Table 2: Important spatial planning (or demarcation of use area) processes occurring/overlapping in the coastal zone PLANNING PROCESS KEY LEGISLATION/PLAN LEAD AUTHORITY National Spatial Development Perspective National Development Plan 2030 The Presidency: NPC National Spatial Development Perspective The Presidency (NSDP) 2006 Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Bill (Notice 280 of 2011) Department of Rural Development and Land Reform Biodiversity protection area as informed by biodiversity planning processes National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (No. 10 of 2004) DEA South African National biodiversity Institute (SANBI) SANParks Sensitive Coastal Areas Environmental Conservation Act (No. 73 of 1989) (areas specifically gazetted, namely areas DEA
  • 41. S i t u a t i o n A n a l y s i s PLANNING PROCESS KEY LEGISLATION/PLAN LEAD AUTHORITY in the Garden Route and south coast of KZN). page 24 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Protected Areas (PAs) Marine Living Resources Act (Act No. 18 of 1998) (MLRA) DAFF Protected Areas Act DEA National parks Protected Areas Act DEA/SANParks Fishing zones MLRA DAFF Mining and Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development exploration DMR Act (Act No. 28 of 2002) concessions Shipping and navigation routes Marine Traffic Act (Act No. 2 of 1981) DoT National Ports Act (Act No. 12 of 2005) Transnet NPA Port Expansion Strategies, e.g. Strategic Transnet NPA Infrastructure Projects (SIPS) National Water Resource Strategy National Water Act (Act No. 36 of 1998) DWA Agricultural spatial plans Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act) (Act No. 43 of 1983) DAFF Heritage areas National Heritage Resources Act (Act No. 25 of 1999) DEA through South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA) Estuary zoning plans (as part of estuary management plans) National Estuary Management Protocol (ICM Act) District Municipalities Coastal set-back lines/ Management lines ICM Act MEC Coastal planning schemes ICM Act DEA, Responsible provincial authority and municipalities Special management areas ICM Act DEA Provincial and municipal SDFs, land use plans and zoning schemes Municipal Systems Act (Act No. 32 of 2000), Relevant provincial authority Municipalities Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act (Act. No. 16 of 2013) (SPLUMA) Provincial Planning and Development Acts Spatial planning in the coastal zone landward of the HWM – the part of the coastal zone that fall within areas under the jurisdiction of provinces and municipalities - is assigned to the designated provincial and municipal authorities under legislation such as the Municipal Systems Act, Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act (Act. No. 16 of 2013) (SPLUMA), and provincial planning and development act (Table 2). Provincial and municipal spatial planning processes are consolidated in provincial and local spatial development frameworks, land-use plans and zoning schemes. Currently spatial planning in the coastal zone seaward of the HWM remains largely sector-based. In other words, the various spatial planning processes listed in Table 2 still largely occur independently from one another. Increasing demand for ocean and coastal space, however, necessitates greater coordination in ocean and coastal spatial planning, especially seaward of the HWM. One of the key aims of the Green Paper: National Environmental Management of the Ocean (DEA 2012b) is to address spatial planning in

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