A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning with an emphasis on
Information Technology in Teaching-Learning Mathematics

Published on: **Mar 4, 2016**

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Education Technology

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- 1. Dissertation Defense Preservice Mathematics Teachers’Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technologyas a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning with an emphasis on Information Technology in Teaching-Learning Mathematics by Md. Mokter Hossain University of Nevada, Reno April 27, 2012 1
- 2. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course OVERVIEW The Organization of this Presentation INTRODUCTION SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 2
- 3. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course FOR THE GUESTS What is a Web 2.0 Technology? A collaborative Web Development Platform. Allows users to develop user-centered, participatory Web applications. Example: Blogs, Wikis, LinkedIn, MySpace, Facebook, YouTube are successful applications of Web 2.0 technology. Interactive Features of Web 2.0 Technologies Users can add, control, and share information interactively and simultaneously on the Web, mostly for free. Creating and editing most Web 2.0 applications is free, fast, and requires only basic computing knowledge. 3
- 4. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Introduction Technology use is emphasized in the NCTM (2000) Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, in the United States However, use of technology is not available and effective at all levels; especially in teacher education programs Increasing demand of mathematics teaching-learning software and web-based programs High cost/annual license fee; and high configuration computers Young students’ trends on social networking sites Expectation of free, anywhere, anytime and easy to use programs Web 2.0 technology has a great potential to meet these demands 4
- 5. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Technology is playing an increasingly important role in teaching- learning mathematics at all levels in the United States However, U.S. students’ performance in math is not satisfactory Young students and teachers spend considerable time on social networking sites Statement of the Problem Traditional mathematics programs and websites are costly and are not accessible to many students/teachers worldwide Web 2.0 technology has a great potential to solve this problem As a standard and easy Web 2.0 tool, use of blogs should be examined in a mathematics course as a teaching-learning tool 5
- 6. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study Examine preservice secondary mathematics teachers’ perceptions (in terms of their attitudes toward, and perceived effectiveness of) a blogging activity used as a supportive teaching-learning tool in a college Euclidean Geometry Course Significance of the Study As a standard example of Web 2.0 application, Blog was Selected as a supportive Teaching-Learning Tool Use of a Blog might be a new dimension of using technology Most of the Participants were Preservice Mathematics Teachers Results may be useful for Math Students, Teachers, & Educators 6
- 7. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Theoretical Framework Collaboration, constructivism, and motivational features of Web 2.0Rationale of Selecting the Independent Variables Males and females use Internet very differently There is a strong positive correlation between time spent on the Internet and time spent on social network sites More time spent on Internet practice may increase adult learners’ Internet self-efficacy Rationale of correlating perceptions with quiz scores Students who are strong in math might have different perceptions of using a new teaching-learning tool 7
- 8. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Research QuestionsQuantitative Research Questions Research question 1a. Are there significant differences by gender with regard to preservice mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward the blogging activity in a college Euclidean Geometry Course? Research question 1b. Are there significant differences by gender with regard to preservice mathematics teachers’ perceived effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry? 8
- 9. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Research QuestionsQuantitative Research Questions… Research question 2a. Do preservice teachers who report spending more time on the Internet differ significantly from those who report spending less time on the Internet with regard to their attitudes toward the blogging activity in a college Euclidean Geometry Course? Research question 2b. Do preservice teachers who report spending more time on the Internet differ significantly from those who report spending less time on the Internet with regard to their perceived effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry? 9
- 10. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Research QuestionsQuantitative Research Questions… Research question 3a. Is there a relationship between the cumulative quiz scores attained by preservice mathematics teachers enrolled in a college Euclidean Geometry Course and their attitudes toward the blogging activity in a college Euclidean Geometry Course? Research question 3b. Is there a relationship between the cumulative quiz scores attained by preservice mathematics teachers enrolled in a college Euclidean Geometry Course and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry? 10
- 11. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course INTRODUCTION Research QuestionsQualitative Research Questions… Research question 4. What do preservice secondary mathematics teachers perceive as the advantages and disadvantages of using a blog as a supportive tool in a Euclidean Geometry course? Research question 5. What trends emerge in the analysis of student contributions to an online discussion board on a blog used in a college Euclidean Geometry course? 11
- 12. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Review of Literature Focuses on … Web 1.0-Based Virtual Learning Systems Understanding Web 2.0 Technologies What are Web 2.0 Technologies? Some Web 2.0-Based Applications Interactive Features of Web 2.0 Technologies Rapid Growth of Internet and Mobile Web Usage Young Students’ Trends on Web 2.0 Technologies Use and Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies for Teaching- Learning Purposes Current State of Math Education in the United States Potential Use of Web 2.0 in Promoting Math Education 12
- 13. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course METHODOLOGY Research Questions Both Quantitative and QualitativeResearch Design A Mixed-Methods StudyInstrumentation Validity and Reliability of the Instrument Selection of Participants Students who agreed to participate in the Blogging Activity Data Collection From the Survey: Demographics, Likert-type & Open-ended From the Discussion Page on the Blog 13
- 14. METHODOLOGYThe Blogging Activity 14
- 15. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course METHODOLOGY Working Definitions Independent Variables: (1) Participants’ gender –two categories: male and female; (2) Participants’ time spent on the Internet – divided into two categories using a median split. Dependent Variables: (6)Participants’ attitudes scores – measured by calculating the median response to the 16 Likert-type items on a six-point scale; (7)Participants’ perceived effectiveness scores– measured by calculating the median response to another 18 Likert-type scale items on a six-point scale; and (8)Participants’ cumulative quiz scores attained on eight in-class quizzes. 15
- 16. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course METHODOLOGY Analyses of Data Quantitative Data – Using SPSS for Windows •For RQs 1a & 1b - W-M-W U test on median attitude and perceived effectiveness scores, respectively with gender as an independent variable; •For RQs 2a & 2b - W-M-W U test on median attitude and perceived effectiveness scores, respectively with time spent on the Internet as an independent variable; •For RQs 3a & 3b - Spearman correlation r was calculated for cumulative quiz scores with the median attitudes and perceived effectiveness scores, respectively. Qualitative Data – Using MAXQDA •For RQs 4 & 5 - Descriptive Analysis 16
- 17. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Demographic Information of Sample Table 9 Descriptive Statistics of Participants’ Age and Weekly Time Spent on the Internet Age Time Spent on the Internet N Male 12 Female 16 Total 28 Mean 26.43 22.43 Std. Error of Mean 1.918 2.045 Median 22.00 20.50 Mode 20a 10a Std. Deviation 10.149 10.823 Range 41 55 a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown Median of the total time spent on the Internet/week = 20.50 17
- 18. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Overall Attitudes and Perceived Effectiveness Scores Table 16 Frequency Statistics of Median Attitude and Median Perceived Effectiveness Scores Median Attitude Scores Median Perceived Effectiveness Valid N 28 28 Missing N 0 0 Mean 4.1786 4.1250 Std. Error of Mean .18041 .17560 Median 4.0000 4.0000 Mode 4.00 4.00 Std. Deviation .95466 .92921 Implies that participants’ median response was at the strongly agree level in their attitudes toward and perceived effectiveness of using the blog 18
- 19. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 1a: Are there significant differences by gender with regard to preservice mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward the blogging activity in a college Euclidean Geometry Course?Results: Table 18 Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Attitude Scores on Participants’ Gender Median Attitudes Mann-Whitney U 68.000 Wilcoxon W 204.000 Z -1.377 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .169 Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)] .205a a. Not corrected for ties. (N = 28, U = 68.0, p = .169 > .05); Non-Significant 19
- 20. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 1b: Are there significant differences by gender with regard to preservice mathematics teachers’ perceived effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry?Results: Table 21 Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Perceived Effectiveness Scores on Participants’ Gender Median Effectiveness Mann-Whitney U 94.500 Wilcoxon W 172.500 Z -.073 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .942 Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)] .945a a. Not corrected for ties. (N = 28, U = 94.50, p = .942 > .05); Non-Significant 20
- 21. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 2a: Do preservice teachers who report spending more time on the Internet differ significantly from those who report spending less time on the Internet with regard to their attitudes toward the blogging activity in a college Euclidean Geometry Course?Results: Table 24 Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Median Attitude Scores on Time Spent on the Internet Median Attitudes Mann-Whitney U 61.500 Wilcoxon W 166.500 Z -1.777 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .076 Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)] .094a a. Not corrected for ties. (N = 28, U = 61.50, p = .076 > .05); Non-Significant 21
- 22. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 2b: Do preservice teachers who report spending more time on the Internet differ significantly from those who report spending less time on the Internet with regard to their perceived effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry?Results: Table 27 Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Median Perceived Effectiveness Scores on Time Spent on the Internet Median Effectiveness Mann-Whitney U 53.000 Wilcoxon W 158.000 Z -2.155 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .031 Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)] .039a a. Not corrected for ties. (N = 28, U = 53.0, p = .031 < .05); Significant 22
- 23. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 2b: Do preservice teachers who report spending more time on the Internet differ significantly from those who report spending less time on the Internet with regard to their perceived effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry?Results…Mean Ranks of Median Effectiveness Scores by Internet Time Table 28 Mean Ranks of Median Effectiveness Scores by Time Spent on the Internet Group by Weekly Internet time N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks <21 hours per week 14 11.29 158.00 >=21 hours per week 14 17.71 248.00 Total 28 More time on the Internet => Better Perceived Effectiveness 23
- 24. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 3a: Is there a relationship between the cumulative quiz scores attained by preservice mathematics teachers enrolled in a college Euclidean Geometry Course and their attitudes toward the blogging activity in a college Euclidean Geometry Course?Results: Table 30 Spearman Correlation Test Results on Median Attitude Scores Spearmans rho Cumulative Quiz Score rs Cumulative Quiz 1.000 .145 Score orrelation Coefficient . 461 ig. (2-tailed) 28 8 Median Attitudes -.145 .000 orrelation Coefficient .461 ig. (2-tailed) 28 8 (N = 28, rs = -0.145, p = .461 >.05); Non-Significant 24
- 25. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 3b: Is there a relationship between the cumulative quiz scores attained by preservice mathematics teachers enrolled in a college Euclidean Geometry Course and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the blog for the learning of Euclidean Geometry?Results: Table 32 Spearman Correlation Test Results on Median Perceived Effectiveness Scores Spearmans rho Cumulative Quiz Score rs Cumulative Quiz Correlation Coefficient 1.000 -.232 Score Sig. (2-tailed) . .235 N 28 28 Median Correlation Coefficient -.232 1.000 Effectiveness Sig. (2-tailed) .235 . N 28 28 (N = 28, rs = -0.232, p = .235 >.05); Non-Significant 25
- 26. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 4: What do preservice secondary mathematics teachers perceive as the advantages and disadvantages of using a blog as a supportive tool in a Euclidean Geometry course?Findings: Advantages of the Blogging Activity 26
- 27. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 4: What do preservice secondary mathematics teachers perceive as the advantages and disadvantages of using a blog as a supportive tool in a Euclidean Geometry course?Findings: Disadvantages/Problems of the Blogging Activity 27
- 28. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION Research Question 5: What trends emerge in the analysis of student contributions to an online discussion board on a blog used in a college Euclidean Geometry course?Findings: Major Topics Raised on the Online Discussion 28
- 29. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry CourseIMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS Implications for Practice No unfair advantages to male or female participants Preservice teachers found it positive and effective New teaching-learning tool – could be included in the schools, and teacher education curricula Participants need sufficient access to the Internet A number of advantages; many of which match with the NCTM Principles and Standards No major disadvantages/Only a few minor problems Can develop collaborative teaching-learning environment A free and public forum for online discussion 29
- 30. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry CourseIMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS Limitations and Delimitations The study dealt with a single class of 28 students The study has only about 51% chance of finding a significant mean difference between the groups, if it really existed Non-parametric tests were used Euclidean Geometry problems that required participants using construction tools or uploading of images and graphs were avoided Participants were asked to type mathematical formulas in plain text format Did not use a control/experimental group Did not measure the instructor’s perceptions 30
- 31. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry CourseIMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS Recommendations for Further Research Replication of this study in another college Euclidean Geometry Course Replication of this study in a online college Euclidean Geometry Course Replication of this study in a high school Euclidean Geometry Course Conduct the quantitative and qualitative components in different ways Improve the instruments used in the present study. 31
- 32. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry CourseIMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS Conclusions Use of a blog in a College Euclidean Geometry Course is enjoyable and effective No significant difference in the measures of attitude and perceived effectiveness on Gender and Course assessment However, participants who spent more time on the Internet perceived better effectiveness Numerous advantages. No mentionable disadvantages - only a few minor difficulties Collaborative, motivational; anytime, anywhere, easy accessible Participants found blog as an open and public forum Numerous potential to improve teaching-learning mathematics 32
- 33. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course REFERENCES & APPENDICES References and Appendices are included on the print copy 33
- 34. Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course QUESTIONS & ANSWERS Thank You 34