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GAMBLING PREVALENCE OF THE RECIPIENTS
OF OLD AGE SOCIAL GRANT FROM THE
EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE
31 March 2015
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RESEARCH REPORT ON GAMBLING PREVALENCE OF THE RECIPIENTS OF OLD AGE SOCIAL GRANT
FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE
Prepared...
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Acknowledgements
South African Social Security Agency
Eastern Cape Department of Social Development
Gambling sector Lice...
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CONTENTS PAGE Pages
Research report on gambling prevalence of the recipients of Old age Social Grant
from the Easte...
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CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
3.1.1 Definition of prev...
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4.4 Exploring and establishing the older person’s attitudes, knowledge and skills
towards legal gambling participation...
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CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
6.1.1 The extent an...
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Sampling guide …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
Table 2: Gambling sites per researc...
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Survey Zones of the participants ………………………………………………………………………………… 43
Figure 2: No. of particip...
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ACRONYMS
BCMM: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality
CBO’s: Community Based Organisations
CEO: Chief Executive...
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DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Betting: is to stake any money or thing of value on behalf of any person, or expressly...
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Responsible gambling: Responsible gambling is knowing your limits and gambling within your means, as well
as gambling i...
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board (ECGBB), in partnership with South African Social Securit...
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An Interview Schedule was used to collect qualitative data from focus group discussions which were conducted
at Amathol...
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There are challenges around the image issue of ECGBB, secrecy and stigma around gambling. Further research
is therefore...
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FOREWORD BY THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
The Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board has made
significant leaps in going...
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While the latter is of significance, we are all also faced with another force of constitutional accessibility where
peo...
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND
BACKGROUND
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CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The National Gambling Act of 1996, repealed and replaced by the National Gamb...
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1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
ECGBB as a responsible regulator acknowledges that gambling can be an evasive act that requires u...
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• How do they get to gambling sites in order to participate in gambling activities.
• How often do they visit gambling ...
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• Additional source of income except the Old Age Social Grant or pension fund.
• Any support that is provided to older ...
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1.5.7 The Service Provider recruited, trained and orientated Data Collectors and afterwards fieldwork
commenced.
1.5....
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CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter outlines the methodology used in the study and it begins ...
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The quantitative sample of 1000 was supplemented by four focus group participants that were 64 in number,
therefore the...
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The focus group discussions were undertaken at Amathole District Municipality (Fort Beaufort); Joe Gqabi
District Munic...
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The following observations were made during the pilot: elderly people took time to respond to questions and
were easily...
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2.7.3 The actual fieldwork
• Survey
The data collection processes ran concurrently, i.e. whilst the Data Collectors wer...
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The coordinators were also able to mediate the issue of language during the interviews, e.g. in the case of Joe
Gqabi (...
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• Non-use of certain gambling sites by elderly people
It was shared by site managers that elderly people do not use cer...
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Prior to the actual fieldwork the coordinator and Data Collectors visited the gambling sites in order to
familiarise th...
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2.9 DATA ANALYSIS
This study had two sets of data, quantitative and qualitative. In MMR, the data is interpreted after ...
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It was clearly articulated to participants that they were under no obligation to participate and their identities
were ...
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CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE
REVIEW
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CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.1.1 Definition of prevalence
The Oxford Advance Dictionary (2014) notes...
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3.1.3 Gambling prevalence with regard to elderly people
Ensor and Esterhuizen (2013) note that in comparison to other A...
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• They seek to relieve boredom and to escape loneliness and loss
National Gambling Board Research Study conducted in 20...
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• violence due to excessive gambling
• financial devastation
• selling of assets such as vehicles and houses
• as well ...
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3.1.9. Intervention measures to address problem gambling
Seggie (2011) notes that NRGP has three main divisions that wo...
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CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION
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CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the analysis and the interpretation ...
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Figure 1: Survey Zones of the participants
4.2 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA
4.2.1 Distribution of participants by Gender
Gambling ...
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Figure 2: No. of participants per Gender
Figure 3: Gender by Zones
4.2.2 Distribution of participants by Marital Status...
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Table 6: Marital Status of the participants
Figure 4: Marital Status of the participants
Marital Status Gambler Non-Gam...
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4.2.3 Distribution of participants by Age Group
As it is known that the qualifying age for the Old Age Social Grant is ...
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Figure 5: No. of participants per Age Group
4.2.4 Distribution of participants by Nationality
Out of the total responde...
48
Table 9: No. of participants according to Race
Figure 6: No. of participants according to Race
4.2.6 Distribution of pa...
49
Table 10: No. of Dependants per participants
4.2.7 Distribution of participants by Income
The following table shows tha...
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Table 11: Monthly Source of Income of participants
Figure 7: Monthly Source of Income of participants
4.3. EXTENT AND G...
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District Gambler Non-Gambler Total (Observed)
OR Tambo
BCMM
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
105
A...
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Table 13: Participants’ Area of Residence
4.3.3 Distribution of participants by Reasons for Gambling
The following tabl...
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Table 14: Reasons for Participating in Gambling Activities
Figure 8: Reasons for participating in Gambling Activities
4...
54
Table 15: Mode of transport to Gambling Sites
4.3.5 Distribution of participants by Frequency of Visits to gambling sit...
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
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Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
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Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
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Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
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Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants
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Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants

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Transcripts - Prevalence of Gambling among older persons on Social Grants

  • 1. 1 GAMBLING PREVALENCE OF THE RECIPIENTS OF OLD AGE SOCIAL GRANT FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE 31 March 2015
  • 2. 1 RESEARCH REPORT ON GAMBLING PREVALENCE OF THE RECIPIENTS OF OLD AGE SOCIAL GRANT FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE Prepared for: By Solid Uloyiso Joint Venture (JV) This research project was conducted under the leadership and guidance of the Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board (ECGBB) and its partners, i.e. South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) and Eastern Cape Department of Social Development (ECDSD). ECGBB as the leading entity was represented by: Mr. Luvuyo Tshoko Head: Strategic Management Services Mrs. Pumeza George Communication, Marketing and Research Specialist Solid Uloyiso JV team: Mrs. Nomhle Gwanya Research Project Co-ordinator Mrs. Zoliswa Benya Research Specialist Dr. Noncedo Khewu (PhD) Educationist, Ethicist and Researcher Specialised Services and Acknowledgements Specialised Services: Prof. Emmanuel Olusola Adu (PhD) Data Analyst Mrs. Nothemba Ndawo Educationist and Social Facilitator Mr. Litha Mpiyakhe Graphic Designer Prof. N Duku (PhD) Validator Mr. B. Carlson Editor
  • 3. 2 Acknowledgements South African Social Security Agency Eastern Cape Department of Social Development Gambling sector Licensees: Casinos, Bingos, Tabs, V slots, Pioneer Slots offices Older Persons Forums Youth Groups Community Leaders Community Based Organisations (CBO’s) Faith Based Organisations (FBO’s) Institutions of Higher Learning Gambling Participants Data Collectors
  • 4. 3 CONTENTS PAGE Pages Research report on gambling prevalence of the recipients of Old age Social Grant from the Eastern Cape Province…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 List of tables ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 List of figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 Acronyms ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Definition of terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 Executive Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Foreword by the CEO …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 Introduction and Background ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18 1.2 Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 1.3 Purpose of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 1.4 Significance of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 1.5 Processes followed to conduct research …………………………………………………………………… 21 1.6. Chapter outline…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 2.2 Research Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 2.3 Population …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 2.4 Sample and Sampling Technique ………………………………………………………………………………… 25 2.5 Research Instruments ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26 2.6 Piloting of Instruments (Survey and Interview Schedule) ………………………………………… 26 2.7 Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27 2.7.1 Recruitment and Appointment of Data Collectors……………………………………………………… 27 2.7.2 Training of Data Collectors ………………………………………………………………………………………… 27 2.7.3 The actual fieldwork …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28 2.7.4 Highlights of the fieldwork ………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 2.7.5 Challenges and remedial measures …………………………………………………………………………… 29 2.8 Data Quality Control …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30 2.9 Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 2.10 Delimitations of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 2.11 Limitations of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 2.12 Ethical considerations ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 2.13 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
  • 5. 4 CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 3.1.1 Definition of prevalence ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 3.1.2 Legal framework ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 3.1.3 Gambling prevalence with regard to elderly people…………………………………………………… 37 3.1.4 Reasons for gambling by elderly people ……………………………………………………………………… 37 3.1.5 Impact of gambling on the elderly people ………………………………………………………………… 38 3.1.6 Problem gambling ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39 3.1.7 Gambling stigmatisation and secrecy ………………………………………………………………………… 39 3.1.8 Online gambling …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39 3.1.9 Intervention measures to address problem gambling ………………………………………………… 40 3.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42 4.1.1 Distribution of participants by Survey zones ……………………………………………………………… 42 4.2 Biographical data ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 4.2.1 Distribution of participants by Gender ……………………………………………………………………… 43 4.2.2 Distribution of participants by Marital Status …………………………………………………………… 44 4.2.3 Distribution of participants by Age Group …………………………………………………………………… 46 4.2.4 Distribution of participants by Nationality ………………………………………………………………… 47 4.2.5 Distribution of participants by Race …………………………………………………………………………… 47 4.2.6 Distribution of participants by Dependants ………………………………………………………………… 48 4.2.7 Distribution of participants by Income ……………………………………………………………………… 49 4.3 Extent and geographic spread of older persons in the Eastern Cape Province that actively participate in gambling sites that the ECGBB regulates or has licensed ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50 4.3.1 Distribution of participants by District ……………………………………………………………………… 51 4.3.2 Distribution of participants by Area of Residence ……………………………………………………… 51 4.3.3 Distribution of participants by Reasons for Gambling ………………………………………………… 52 4.3.4 Distribution of participants by Mode of Transport ……………………………………………………… 53 4.3.5 Distribution of participants by Frequency of Visits to gambling sites ……………………… 54 4.3.6 Distribution of participants by Preferred Gambling Site …………………………………………… 55 4.3.7 Distribution of participants by Reasons for choosing the preferred Gambling Site …… 56 4.3.8 Distribution of participants by Time taken to get to gambling site ………………………… 56 4.3.9 Distribution of participants by Amount of Money spent on gambling activities ……… 57 4.3.10 Distribution of participants by Source of Income Used for Gambling ……………………… 58 4.3.11 Distribution of participants by gambling Activities when visiting a gambling site …… 59 4.3.12 Distribution of participants by Other Activities engaged in whilst in a gambling site ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
  • 6. 5 4.4 Exploring and establishing the older person’s attitudes, knowledge and skills towards legal gambling participation and activities …………………………………………………… 62 4.4.1 Distribution of participants by Attitude ……………………………………………………………………… 62 4.4.2 Distribution of participants by Knowledge about Legal Gambling……………………………… 64 4.4.3 Distribution of participants by Knowledge about how most slot machines operate and function ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65 4.4.4 Distribution of participants by Amount of money usually won after a good play……… 66 4.4.5 Distribution of participants by Frequency of Winning ………………………………………………… 66 4.4.6 Distribution of participants by Highest Amount ever lost in a gambling site …………… 67 4.4.7 Distribution of participants by Effect of Excessive gambling on someone who participates in gambling activities ……………………………………………………………………………… 68 4.4.8 Distribution of participants by Mechanisms available to assist someone who happens to participate excessively in gambling activities ………………………………………… 69 4.4.9 Distribution of participants by Awareness of ECGBB …………………………………………………… 71 4.5 Determination of Positive or Negative Socio-economic impact of gambling participation by older persons in the Eastern Cape Province …………………………………… 71 4.5.1 Distribution of participants by Effect of losing on participants’ health …………………… 71 4.5.2 Distribution of participants by Effect of losing on family relations……………………………… 72 4.5.3 Distribution of participants by Need of Support when gambling at the gambling site 74 4.6 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74 CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76 5.1.1 The extent of gambling by persons who are 60 years of age and above, and are recipients of Old Age Social Grant……………………………………………………………………………… 76 5.1.2 The skills, level of knowledge and attitude towards gambling of persons who are 60 years of age and above, and are recipients of Old Age Social Grant………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78 5.1.3 The positive and/or negative socio-economic impact of gambling participation by older persons who are 60 years of age and above and are recipients of Old Age Social Grant ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80 5.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • 7. 6 CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86 6.1.1 The extent and the geographic spread of older persons in the Eastern Cape Province………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86 6.1.2 Older persons’ attitudes, knowledge and skills towards legal gambling participation and activities…………………………………………………………………………………………… 87 6.1.3 The positive or negative socio economic impact of gambling participation by older persons in the Eastern Cape Province…………………………………………………………………………… 87 6.2 Concluding remarks and field of further research……………………………………………………… 87 7 REFERENCES References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92 8 ANNEXURES Annexure A: Survey Questionnaire ……………………………………………………………………………… 99 Annexure B: Interview Schedule ………………………………………………………………………………… 117
  • 8. 7 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Sampling guide …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 Table 2: Gambling sites per research site ………………………………………………………………………………… 25 Table 3: Focus group participants per research site ………………………………………………………………… 28 Table 4: Survey Zones of the participants ………………………………………………………………………………… 42 Table 5: No. of participants per Gender …………………………………………………………………………………… 43 Table 6: Marital Status of the participants ……………………………………………………………………………… 45 Table 7: No. of participants per Age Group ……………………………………………………………………………… 46 Table 8: Nationality of participants …………………………………………………………………………………………… 47 Table 9: No. of participants according to Race ………………………………………………………………………… 48 Table 10: Number of Dependants per participant …………………………………………………………………… 49 Table 11: Monthly Source of Income of participants ………………………………………………………………… 50 Table 12: No. of participants per District …………………………………………………………………………………… 51 Table 13: Participants’ Area of Residence ………………………………………………………………………………… 52 Table 14: Reasons for Participating in Gambling Activities ……………………………………………………… 53 Table 15: Mode of transport to Gambling Sites ………………………………………………………………………… 54 Table 16: Frequency of Visits to Gambling Sites ………………………………………………………………………… 55 Table 17: Preference of site for undertaking gambling activities ……………………………………………… 55 Table 18: Reasons for choosing the preferred gambling site …………………………………………………… 56 Table 19: Time taken to get to gambling site …………………………………………………………………………… 57 Table 20: Amount of money spent on gambling activities ………………………………………………………… 58 Table 21: Source of Income Used for Gambling ………………………………………………………………………… 59 Table 22: Gambling Activities undertaken when visiting a gambling site ………………………………… 60 Table 23: Activities engaged in whilst at a gambling site (apart from gambling) …………………… 61 Table 24: Older Persons’ Attitude to Gambling ………………………………………………………………………… 63 Table 25: Older Persons’ Knowledge about Legal Gambling ……………………………………………………… 64 Table 26: Knowledge about how most slot machines operate and function……………………………… 65 Table 27: Amount of money usually won after a good play ……………………………………………………… 66 Table 28: Frequency of Winning ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67 Table 29: Highest amount ever lost in a gambling site ……………………………………………………………… 68 Table 30: Effect of excessive gambling on gambling participants ……………………………………………… 69 Table 31: Mechanisms to assist participants who gamble excessively ……………………………………… 70 Table 32: Awareness of an organization called ECGBB ……………………………………………………………… 71 Table 33: Effect of losing on participants’ health ……………………………………………………………………… 72 Table 34: Effect of losing on family relations …………………………………………………………………………… 73 Table 35: Need for Support when gambling at the gambling site……………………………………………… 74 Table 36: Summary of Extent and Geographic spread responses ……………………………………………… 76 Table 37: Summary of Skills, level of Knowledge and Attitude towards gambling ……………………… 78 Table 38: Summary of participants’ Attitudes towards gambling ……………………………………………… 79 Table 39: Summary of level of Positive or Negative Socio-economic impact of gambling………… 81
  • 9. 8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Survey Zones of the participants ………………………………………………………………………………… 43 Figure 2: No. of participants per Gender …………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Figure 3: Gender by Zones ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Figure 4: Marital Status of the participants ……………………………………………………………………………… 45 Figure 5: No. of participants per Age Group ……………………………………………………………………………… 47 Figure 6: No. of participants according to Race ………………………………………………………………………… 48 Figure 7: Monthly source of Income of participants by Zone …………………………………………………… 50 Figure 8: Reasons for Participating in Gambling Activities ………………………………………………………… 53 Figure 9: Reasons for choosing the preferred gambling site ……………………………………………………… 56 Figure 10: Time taken to get to gambling site …………………………………………………………………………… 57 Figure 11: Amount of money spent on gambling activities ………………………………………………………… 58 Figure 12: Source of Income Used for Gambling ………………………………………………………………………… 59 Figure 13: Gambling activities undertaken when visiting a gambling site ………………………………… 60 Figure 14: Activities engaged in whilst at a gambling site (apart from gambling) …………………… 61 Figure 15: Older Persons’ Attitude to Gambling ………………………………………………………………………… 63 Figure 16: Older Persons’ Knowledge about Legal Gambling ……………………………………………………… 65 Figure 17: Knowledge about how slot machines operate and function ……………………………………… 65 Figure 18: Average Return after a good play ……………………………………………………………………………… 66 Figure 19: Frequency of winning ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67 Figure 20: Highest amount ever lost in a gambling site ……………………………………………………………… 68 Figure 21: Effect of excessive gambling on gambling participants ……………………………………………… 69 Figure 22: Mechanisms to assist participants who gamble excessively ……………………………………… 70 Figure 23: Awareness of an organization called ECGBB ……………………………………………………………… 71 Figure 24: Effect of losing on participants’ health ……………………………………………………………………… 72 Figure 25: Effect of losing on family relations …………………………………………………………………………… 73 Figure 26: Need for Support when gambling at the gambling site……………………………………………… 74
  • 10. 9 ACRONYMS BCMM: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality CBO’s: Community Based Organisations CEO: Chief Executive Officer CSI: Corporate Social Investment COSATU: Congress of South African Trade Unions ECDSD: Eastern Cape Department of Social Development DoW: Department of Women in the Presidency ECSECC: Eastern Cape Socio-Economic Consultative Council ECGBB: Eastern Cape Gambling & Betting Board FBO’s: Faith Based Organisations GEPF: Government Employees’ Pension Fund JV: Joint Venture MEC: Member of the Executive Committee MMR: Mixed Methods Research NGB: National Gambling Board NMMM: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality NRGP: National Responsible Gambling Programme SLA: Service Level Agreement SARGF: South African Responsible Gambling Foundation SASSA: South African Social Security Agency Soc Dev EC: Eastern Cape Department of Social Development ToR: Terms of Reference USA: United States of America
  • 11. 10 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS Betting: is to stake any money or thing of value on behalf of any person, or expressly or implied, to undertake, promise or agree to stake on behalf of any person, any money or thing of value on any event or contingency other than the contingency involved in a gambling game (ECGBB Research Report, March 2014). Bingo: means the gambling game known as bingo and any similar gaming game which is played with cards (including electronic screens) on which appear sets of numbers or symbols and in the course of which each player attempts to match for money, property, cheques or anything of value, all or a specified set of numbers or symbols on his or her cards to calls made by the operator and includes any similar gambling game operated in whole or in part by electronic means (ECGBB Research Report, March 2014).  Casino: means any premises in or on which gambling is conducted under casino licence (ECGBB Research Report, March 2014). Fixed-odds bet: means a bet on one or more contingencies in which odds are agreed at the time the bet is placed ( National Gambling Act No. 7 of 2004). Gambling: is the betting or staking of something of value, with consciousness of risk and hope of gain, on the outcome of a game, a contest, or an uncertain event whose result may be determined by chance or accident or have an unexpected result by reason of the bettor’s miscalculation (Gauteng Gambling Board Research Study, 2010). Grant recipient: refers to an adult who receives a grant in respect of him or herself or on behalf of a beneficiary. Non-gamblers: are those who don’t gamble at all on any form of gambling. Problem/irresponsible gambling: a gambling behaviour that creates negative consequences for those who gamble and for others in their circle of friends and family, or for the community. Old Age Social Grant: refers to a social grant paid to an aged person in terms of Section 10 of the Social Assistance Act of 2004 (Act No 13 of 2004). Older Person: refers to any person who has, according to the Social Assistance Act of 2004 (Act No 13 of 2004) attained the prescribed age (60 years) in accordance to Sections 10 (a) or (b). Pay point: Is a place where SASSA Old Age Social Grant recipients receive their grants. Recreational gambling: is a harmless recreation where those who gamble do not spend more time or money on gambling than they can comfortably afford - their gambling activities cause little or no harm to themselves or their loved ones and their behaviour is associated with minimal guilt.
  • 12. 11 Responsible gambling: Responsible gambling is knowing your limits and gambling within your means, as well as gambling in a way whereby the potential for harm associated with gambling is minimised (Jonkheid & Mango : 2008). Site A or Type A site: is a gambling site that has 3 - 5 slot machines. (The Straight Bet: Vol. 1, 2012/13). Site B or Type site: is a gambling site that has 20 - 40 slot machines. (The Straight Bet: Vol. 1, 2012/13).
  • 13. 12 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board (ECGBB), in partnership with South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) and the Eastern Cape Department of Social Development (ECDSD), undertook an assigment to investigate the gambling prevalence of the recipients of Old Age Social Grant from the Eastern Cape Province. ECGBB commissioned Solid Uloyiso Joint Venture to undertake a research study in this regard. The purpose of the research study was to: • Investigate the extent and geographic spread of older persons in the Eastern Cape Province that actively participate in gambling sites that the ECGBB regulates or has licensed. • Explore and establish their attitudes, knowledge and skills towards legal gambling participation and activities. • Determine positive or negative socio-economic impact of gambling participation by older persons in the Eastern Cape Province. The research designs used were survey and case studies (focus groups), and this approach allowed for triangulation. When triangulating, quantitative statistical results were compared and contrasted against the qualitative findings to validate or expand quantitative results with the qualitative data. Document analysis was done in order to interrogate related studies, policies and any relevant information in order to identify trends and patterns; and propose new questions or corroborate qualitative data. The population of this study, comprised of Old Age Social Grant recipients in the Eastern Cape, a total of 330 000 as per information received from SASSA. Stratified, Convenience and Snowballing sampling methods were used to sample participants. Due to financial and time constraints, the 5% of 330 000 was a very big sample, therefore it was agreed that 1000 Old Age Social Grant Recipients comprising of 250 from each of the Zones where the 4 casinos in the Eastern Cape are located (East London, Mbizana Queenstown and Port Elizabeth) be sampled. This sample size (0.3%) was considered not compromising representation of the population as it is acceptable as per sample guide according to Stoker (1985) quoted by Leboea (2014). Research instruments (survey questionnaire and focus groups interview schedules) were designed and piloted in East London (conveniently) and validated for reliability (see Annexure A and B). A questionnaire was used to collect data in a survey that was conducted in the following municipalities: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality [BCMM] (East London); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality [NMMM] (Port Elizabeth); Alfred Nzo District Municipality (Mbizana); Chris Hani (Queenstown); Sara Baartman District Municipality formally called Cacadu (Jeffrey’s Bay) and OR Tambo District Municipality (Mthatha). Research sites comprised of Casinos, Bingos, Site A’s, Site B’s, Tabs, house visits and pay points.
  • 14. 13 An Interview Schedule was used to collect qualitative data from focus group discussions which were conducted at Amathole District Municipality (Fort Beaufort); Joe Gqabi District Municipality (Aliwal North); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (Port Elizabeth) and OR Tambo (Mthatha). The quantitative data was captured and analysed on the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) by experienced analysts. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. As far as the key research question is concerned: ‘Gambling prevalence of the recipients of Old Age Social grants from the Eastern Cape Province’, it is clear from these research findings that gambling is prevalent at 76.1% amongst older persons who are Old Age Social Grant recipients. The three key research questions also revealed the following, with regard to: The extent and the geographic spread of older persons in the Eastern Cape Province Gambling prevalence is evident in all the Zones with East London showing the highest rate. BCMM as a district shows most prevalence of gambling compared to other districts. Gambling is actually more prevalent amongst males than females, and this is true across all Zones except for Port Elizabeth. The major source of income for gambling seems to be other income (selling, extra jobs, etc.), yet there is also evidence of pension pay funds and borrowed funds being used. The main source of transport used is taxis and other gambling participants drive themselves. Most participants spend between R100 and R500 and there is a preference for casino games. Therefore, the discovery that elderly people on Old Age Social Grant who: borrow money to gamble, gamble every day and are spending about 37% of their grants necessitates a study to determine if these groups are gambling irresponsibly or not and if so, what help can they be provided with to address the problem. Older persons’ attitudes, knowledge and skills towards legal gambling participation and activities Most gambling participants know how slot machines function and are operated. There is a balancing view between those who say there is a need to support participants at the gambling sites and those who say there is no need for such. In terms of knowledge and attitude, firstly, gambling participants are aware that excessive gambling can have negative impact leading to addiction. Most gambling participants do not know ECGBB and they however, do know about the legalities in the gambling sector through ECGBB. Most Gambling participants reported that they have self-control yet they claimed that at times they gambled longer than planned and some felt they had to come back to win their losses. The positive or negative socio economic impact of gambling participation by older persons in the Eastern Cape Province Most participants indicated that losing money whilst gambling has no negative effect on their health and family relations. More in-depth research studies would help to determine if Old Age Social Grant recipients of the Eastern Cape are gambling responsibly/irresponsibly and the impact thereof, and if problems are discovered they can be addressed by using strategies that would directly talk to the contextual issues in the Eastern Cape Province.
  • 15. 14 There are challenges around the image issue of ECGBB, secrecy and stigma around gambling. Further research is therefore needed in the area of improving the image of ECGBB, social responsibility projects and their impact. The issue of secrecy and stigma needs further investigation, to establish/investigate the reasons for the stigma and secrecy around gambling and the lessons learnt from that study could inform the programmes designed to address this challenge. The research study processes, data analysis and interpretation as well as findings and recommendations have been explored in the ensuing chapters.
  • 16. 15 FOREWORD BY THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER The Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board has made significant leaps in going over and above its mandate which is primarily anchored in regulating the gaming industry in the Province. This is no more evident than the efforts it has made in the generation of reliable and valid research that assists executive management and the Board to make informed decisions in an ever evolving gaming industry. This research study strives to gauge the prevalence of gambling among old age social grant recipients in the Province. Having conducted the Prevalence of Gambling amongst Government Employees in the Eastern Cape in the previous financial year, the ECGBB partnered with the Eastern Cape Department of Social Development and the South African Social Security Agency “SASSA” to investigate a different cohort on prevalence of gambling. The ECGBB aimed to investigate the extent and the geographic spread of older persons on social grant in the Province that actively participate in gambling sites that the ECGBB regulates or has licensed. Secondly, the ECGBB wanted to explore and establish older person’s attitudes, knowledge and skills towards legal gambling participation and activities. Lastly, the aim of the regulator was to determine the positive or negative socio-economic impact of gambling participation by older persons in the Eastern Cape Province. While some of our observations were verified, it is concerning to note that of the sampled respondents, old age people receiving social grants have a high gambling prevalence at (76.1%). With that said, we did find that some of our observations were less close to the facts, for instance, we had initially adjudged women as higher attendees of gambling establishments, however, males edged the women in the four District Municipalities except for Port Elizabeth. There were more interesting or more worrisome findings that were not in our initial peripheral. For example, we had close to two-thirds (66%) of participants using money from other financial sources to gamble, in some cases pension pay funds were used and scarier is that money lenders were also sources of funding. While preference to gambling establishments was primarily (53.3%) due to proximity, it was interesting to also find out that many (78.5%) of the participants insisted they have self-control and some of them (65%) remained the same whether they lose or win. It was brought to our attention, through this study and previous studies, namely Licensee Satisfaction Survey (2013/14) and the Prevalence of Gambling amongst Government Employees in the Eastern Cape (2013/14), that the ECGBB needs to destigmatize gambling and its negative associations. Moreover, the ECGBB needs to profile its role and mandate and act as an agent that is there to protect and serve its constituencies. This research report uproots several key issues pertaining to social responsibility on behalf of our licensees as well as key role players in supporting designated and vulnerable groups and more importantly, the gaming regulator.
  • 17. 16 While the latter is of significance, we are all also faced with another force of constitutional accessibility where people are not discriminated on basis of the race, gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual preference, and I dare say their age. This research report should ignite robust discussions on how we need to work together to promote responsible gambling in the Eastern Cape. With that I thank everyone that contributed to the outcome of this Gambling Prevalence study. ……………………………….. Mr. Reuben Mabutho Zwane CEO, ECGBB
  • 18. 17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
  • 19. 18 CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The National Gambling Act of 1996, repealed and replaced by the National Gambling Act (Act No. 7 of 2004) emphasises the criticality of co-ordination with regard to concurrent national and provincial legislative competence on gambling and betting. Consequent to that, uniform norms and standards are established to safeguard people participating in gambling and their communities against the adverse effects of gambling. More importantly, the South African National Responsible Gambling Programme (NRGP), supervised by national and provincial governments through South African Responsible Gambling Trust (SARGT) carries out extensive campaigns to make people aware of the dangers of gambling and how to avoid those dangers. In line with the Gambling and Betting Act (Act No. 5 of 1997 as amended), the Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board (ECGBB) was established to oversee all gambling activities in the Eastern Cape Province. ECGBB is also responsible for advising the Member of the Executive Council (MEC) for Economic Affairs in the Eastern Cape Province with regard to gambling matters and to exercise certain further powers contemplated in the Act. In addition, included in its mandate, the ECGBB is responsible for issuing and revocation of gambling licences, exclusion of problem gamblers, and protection of the public against unscrupulous gambling practices and control of illegal gambling activities in the province (National Gambling Act (No. 7 of 2004). A research study by the Eastern Cape Socio-Economic Consultative Council (ECSSEC, 2011) reports that 79.5% of people 60 years and older, in the Eastern Cape Province receive an Old Age Social Grant compared to 66.2% country wide. There is an observation that a certain percentage of elderly people (as explained above) are involved in gambling activities. Research indicates that about 89% of people who participate in other formal types of gambling earned between R801 to R12 800 per month, with the majority of the same earning group engaging in sports betting gambling (Van Vuuren, Standish, Boting, Swing, Powell & Larsen, 2009); therefore Old Age Social Grant recipients may also be part of the latter percentage as their grants fall within the mentioned earning bracket. Due to the above mentioned observations and findings, one can justifiably assume that gambling may be prevalent among the recipients of Old Age Social Grant in the Eastern Cape Province. This is a cause for concern for ECGBB as it acknowledges that as much as gambling and betting can yield positive results, gambling can also produce negative results that can impact negatively on families and the broader communities (Van Vuuren et al., 2009). To respond to the latter problem and other related problems, ECGBB has prioritised research as one of the tools for intervention. Kothari (2009) defines research as a process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through systematic investigation, i.e. planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. ECGBB’s proactive approach is its Research and Development Strategy that is aimed at conducting evidence-based researches. The research findings are then used to inform gambling policies, practices and programmes (ECGBB Annual Report, 2013/2014). The realization that gambling may be prevalent amongst Old Age Social Grant recipients is the reason why ECGBB has commissioned a research study to validate or reject this opinion/observation.
  • 20. 19 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ECGBB as a responsible regulator acknowledges that gambling can be an evasive act that requires utmost care and awareness of the harms of problem gambling. As ECGBB does not have sufficient or appropriate knowledge about certain issues related to gambling, it also does not have information and data about the extent and prevalence of gambling among the recipients of Old Age Social Grant in the Eastern Cape Province. Interest in this study was also triggered by the following observations: • A number of older persons, particularly women attend and actively participate in gambling across gambling sites which the ECGBB regulates or has licensed in the Eastern Cape Province. • Older persons, especially women that gamble do so in groups than as individuals. • Older persons, especially women are assumed to be in receipt of social grants frequent and participate in gambling activities throughout the Province. • Older persons that gamble are retired and some are dependent on social grants as a primary source of income. • Older persons and the number of women that gamble are attempting to improve their finances, perhaps to sustain their livelihood. • Older persons that gamble appear not to be gambling for entertainment or leisure. • Older persons that gamble do so more as a monthly attempt to make a fortune. No research has been conducted in the Eastern Cape to determine gambling prevalence of the recipients of Old Age Social Grant from the Eastern Cape Province – therefore, there is a need to give this issue the attention it deserves. It is on this premise that ECGBB, in partnership with SASSA and ECDSD, undertook this assignment to investigate the gambling prevalence of Old Age Social Grant recipients from the Eastern Cape Province. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the research study was to: 1.3.1 Investigate the extent and geographic spread of older persons in the Eastern Cape Province that actively participate in gambling sites that the ECGBB regulates or has licensed. • Whether older persons who gamble are social grant recipients, and if so why do they gamble or participate in gambling activities.
  • 21. 20 • How do they get to gambling sites in order to participate in gambling activities. • How often do they visit gambling sites and reasons that they prefer to participate and gamble in those sites and the distance that they travel to those gambling sites. • How much money do they spend at those gambling sites in terms of rands and cents and the source of income that they utilise to spend for their gambling activities. • The kind or types of gambling activities that they prefer or participate at the gambling sites, whether football pools (Sports Stake), Bingo, Slot Machines, Fixed Odds Betting Terminals, Horse Races, Sports Betting, Betting on non-sports events, Casino Games, Poker at a pub/club, online slot machine style; and apart from gambling what other activities do they engage in whilst at those gambling sites. 1.3.2 Explore and establish their attitudes, knowledge and skills towards legal gambling participation and activities. In other words their understanding of: • How slot machines operate and function • Average return per player • Harm associated with excessive and irresponsible gambling • Mechanisms available to deal or overcome excessive and irresponsible gambling • The Eastern Cape Gambling and Betting Board as Regulator of Gambling activities in the Eastern Cape Province. 1.3.3 Determine positive or negative socio-economic impact of gambling participation by older persons in the Eastern Cape Province. • How gambling participation affects the health of older persons. • How the dependents, especially the grand children of the older persons are affected when they go and participate in gambling activities. • Interpersonal relations both at household and community level as a result of attending and participating in gambling sites as older persons. • Financial management responsibilities of the older persons in the household as a result of gambling participation. • Incidence of winning money in gambling participation and how many times and how the money is spent or utilized. Similarly with losing money, how many times has money been lost.
  • 22. 21 • Additional source of income except the Old Age Social Grant or pension fund. • Any support that is provided to older people when they participate in gambling activities at the gambling sites. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study will provide a theoretical background of what is entailed in gambling, especially in relation to older persons. It will also enable ECGBB and partners to reflect on their experiences as well as to share advice with regard to the phenomenon under study. As the findings will also outline issues about or linked to the extent of gambling prevalence amongst Old Age Social Grant recipients, including their attitudes, understanding and skills as well as its socio-economic impact, the findings can also be used, as aforementioned, to inform government policies, practices and programmes. 1.5 PROCESSES FOLLOWED TO CONDUCT RESEARCH Solid Uloyiso Joint Venture (JV) was appointed by ECGBB to conduct a study on the gambling prevalence of the recipients of Old Age Social Grant from the Eastern Cape Province. Following this appointment: 1.5.1 An Inception Meeting was held where the Service Provider submitted a Project Implementation Plan aligned to the study’s Terms of References (ToRs). The research methodology, research instruments and plans were also presented. Further matters attended also included: the finalisation of the Service Level Agreement (SLA); payment process; access letters to gambling sites; list of the OlderPersons’ Forums and logistics with regard to field work. 1.5.2 The Service Provider submitted an amended Project Implementation Plan; other research plans (piloting, communication & popularisation and field work) and revised research tools as per the recommendations of the Inception Meeting. ECGBB reviewed and approved the plans and tools, and the SLA was signed. 1.5.3 ECGBB informed the Site Operators about the research study and requested their support and participation. 1.5.4 The research instruments were piloted. Both instruments (questionnaire and interview schedule) were piloted in East London. The survey questionnaire was piloted in three different gambling sites and overall 11 gambling participants contributed. The focus group interview schedule was piloted to 6 people (3 elderly people and 3 youths). 1.5.5 Final revisions were made to the research instruments and they were approved by the ECGBB. 1.5.6 The ECGBB provided letters to Site Operators, details of Older Persons’ Forums and pay points schedules to the Service Provider.
  • 23. 22 1.5.7 The Service Provider recruited, trained and orientated Data Collectors and afterwards fieldwork commenced. 1.5.8 Gambling sites, pension pay points and houses visits were targeted data collection points. Different data control measures were administered to ensure that the data collected was the quality expected. 1.5.9 Data was captured, analysed and interpreted by qualified and experienced statistician and analysts. 1.5.10 As the research report was expected to be presented to three committees, for their comments, the following emanated: • Firstly, it was presented to the Management (ECGBB and partner departments) • Secondly, it was presented to the Compliance and Licensing Committee • Suggested amendments of both committees were addressed • An external validator and an editor were contracted by the Service Provider to validate the findings of the report as well as editing it. Recommended changes/recommendations were addressed. • Lastly, the research report was presented to the entire Board of Directors and likewise recommendations made were addressed. • The final report, a graphic designed hard copy document, utilising the brand colours of the ECGBB and the research partners was submitted to ECGBB Management. 1.6 CHAPTER OUTLINE This research report has five chapters, including Chapter 1 that outlines the background and introduction of the research study. Chapter 2 provides the details of the research methodology used to conduct the study. Chapter 3 presents the analysis and interpretation of collected data. Chapter 4 presents the findings of the study as well as recommendations to address negative findings. Chapter 5 concludes the study for ease of understanding, it also compares the findings to the global trends as well as highlighting lessons that can be learnt from other countries and lastly areas that need further investigation are listed.
  • 24. 23 CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • 25. 24 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter outlines the methodology used in the study and it begins with philosophical foundations (post positivist or Mixed Methods Research: MMR) that guided the research study and goes on to cover issues of research design; instruments used to collect data; piloting of the instruments; sampling strategy; methods of data collection; data quality control; data analysis; delimitations and limitations of the study as well as the ethical considerations. 2.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The post-positivist or MMR paradigm combines and integrates both quantitative (positivist, i.e. survey) and qualitative (interpretivist, i.e. focus groups) research approaches. The MMR was deemed the most suitable for the study. The quantitative approach relies on tangible evidence to validate data and relationships between these phenomena which are investigated in terms of generalizable causal effects which in turn allows for prediction; whilst the qualitative approach considers reality as psychologically and socially constructed (Gelo et al., 2008:268). The research designs used were survey and case studies, and this approach allowed for triangulation. When triangulating quantitative statistical results were compared and contrasted against the qualitative findings to validate or expand quantitative results with the qualitative data. 2.3 POPULATION The population of this study comprised of all the recipients of Old Age Social Grant in the Eastern Cape, a total of 330 000 as per SASSA advice. Due to financial and time constraints, the 5% sample that was initially targeted (as per SLA) was not attainable; therefore 1000 participants (0.3%) were sampled. The latter decision did not compromise sample representation as per the research guide below. Table 1: Sampling guide Population Percentage suggested Number of participants 20 100% 20 30 80% 24 50 64% 32 100 45% 45 200 32% 64 500 20% 100 1 000 14% 140 10 000 4.5% 450 100 000 2% 2 000 200 000 1% 2 000 (Stoker, 1985 cited by Leboea, 2014)
  • 26. 25 The quantitative sample of 1000 was supplemented by four focus group participants that were 64 in number, therefore the overall sample was 1064. 2.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE A combination of sampling methods was used, i.e. stratified (districts, different gambling sites, age, pension recipients, gender, etc.); convenience (East London was chosen as a pilot site) and snowballing (referrals). The survey was conducted in the following municipalities: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality [BCMM] (East London); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality [NMMM] (Port Elizabeth); Alfred Nzo District Municipality (Mbizana); Chris Hani District Municipality (Queenstown); Sara Baartman District Municipality formally called Cacadu District Municipality (Jeffrey’s Bay) and OR Tambo District Municipality (Mthatha). Table 2: Gambling sites per research sites Research site Gambling site BCMM (East London) Casino, Bingo, Site A, Tabs, house visits and pay points NMMM (Port Elizabeth) Casino, Bingo, Site A, Site B, house visits and Tabs Sara Bartman DM (Jeffrey’s Bay) Site B and Tab Alfred Nzo DM (Mbizana) Casino, house visits and pay points OR Tambo DM (Mthatha) Bingo, Tabs and house visits Chris Hani DM (Queenstown) Casino, Site A, Site B, house visits and Tab Above: One of ECGBB’s Betting sites.
  • 27. 26 The focus group discussions were undertaken at Amathole District Municipality (Fort Beaufort); Joe Gqabi District Municipality (Aliwal North); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (Port Elizabeth) and OR Tambo District Municipality (Mthatha). The sampling of the above mentioned research sites was influenced by the following factors: the SLA Terms of Reference (ToR) (recommended number of municipalities and gambling sites to be targeted, i.e. 7 municipalities and 4 casinos, 5 Site A’s (3-5 machines) and 2 Site B’s (20-40 machines); incorporation of municipalities with casinos and contextual issues, e.g. Mbizana and Jeffery’s Bay case. 2.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS A questionnaire with dichotomous and open format questions was used as a data collection instrument for the survey (see Appendix A). The questionnaire enabled the researcher to get quantifiable and comparable data. Dichotomous and open format questions enabled the participants to choose from a number of options and provided space to mention “other” things that were relevant to the phenomenon under study but not featured in the questionnaire (Research Services, 2009). For the qualitative phase, focus group interviews were used as a data collection instrument. The focus groups interviews were aimed at understanding feelings, thoughts, intentions, past experiences as well as the meanings participants attach to the topic under investigation. The interview would also enable researchers to pick up nonverbal cues, through frowns, nervous tapping and other body language that participants would unconsciously exhibit. Focus group interviews also enabled the researchers to access a good number of people who could be engaged in one interview. An interview schedule with standardised and open ended questions was designed (see Appendix B). Open -ended questions allowed researchers to probe: adapt questions, clarify doubt, ensure responses are properly understood and repeat or rephrase questions so that the interviews could produce a high response rate. Open- ended questions also develop trust, are perceived as less threatening, allow an unrestrained or free response, and may be more useful with articulate participants (Welman & Kruger, 2006:174). Document analysis was done in order to interrogate related studies, policies and any relevant information in order to identify trends and patterns, propose new questions or corroborate qualitative data. 2.6 PILOTING OF INSTRUMENTS (SURVEY AND INTERVIEW SCHEDULE) A pilot study meant to confirm the simplicity, clarity or comprehensiveness of the questionnaire was conducted in East London. Welman et al (2005:148) note that a pilot assists with detecting possible flaws in the measurement, identifies unclear or ambiguously formulated items and also affords researchers an opportunity to notice non-verbal behaviour. Ten people from different gambling sites (casino, bingo, Tab and Site A) were targeted to participate; however, due to a positive response, eleven people were seen. Issues linked to the structure, writing style, use of relevant concepts and language appropriateness were picked up. After engagements with participants, necessary changes were effected on the questionnaire and it was then deemed to be a reliable instrument to be used to investigate the phenomenon under study.
  • 28. 27 The following observations were made during the pilot: elderly people took time to respond to questions and were easily side-tracked from issues under discussion; participants tended to be tense whenconversations were initiated but would loosen up as the conversations were progressing and some participants were very passionate about gambling. Participants also shared a lot of pertinent issues related to the study, e.g. myths and socio-economic impact etc. The above mentioned observations as well as the information shared were used to inform the training document that was used when Data Collectors were trained and some were kept to be used in the data analysis chapter. To ensure validity, the interview schedule was also piloted in East London. Six participants were conveniently sampled, i.e. three elderly persons and three youths. The involvement of youth in the piloting of the interview schedule was deliberate and meant to resemble the actual focus groups interviews (elderly people and their significant others: triangulation) which are to take place during data collection. It is also envisaged that as part of unfolding socio economic impact of gambling, the views of those affected by excessive gambling would cut across all ages and include those of the youth. All the questions were deemed comprehensive and not much changes were made to the schedule because although the exact wording and sequence of questions were predetermined, when probing, researchers were allowed to rephrase the questions to ensure their comprehensiveness. 2.7 DATA COLLECTION 2.7.1 Recruitment and appointment of Data Collectors In preparation for fieldwork, Data Collectors who were to administer the questionnaire (survey) were recruited. Recruitment was done through local institutions of higher learning, community and faith based eaders and through word of mouth and preference was given to local people. One of the most critical selection requirements was language competency in both English and Xhosa as it was expected for the incumbent to be able to translate from English to Xhosa and vice versa. Prospective Data Collectors were interviewed and the following skills were tested: self-management, interpersonal, communication, team/group work principles, conflict management, translation and interpretation as pertaining to the questionnaire itself. Five Data Collectors were appointed to work on each research site, except in the case of Mbizana -Mthatha where two additional Data Collectors were appointed to administer the questionnaire in Mthatha. Because of distance, it would have not been practical neither would it be cost effective to use the five Data Collectors from the Mbizana team, hence the extra two Data Collectors for the Mthatha OR Tambo site. The overall number of Data Collectors was therefore twenty-two. 2.7.2 Training of Data Collectors Appointed Data Collectors were trained. As much as it was a one day training, Data Collectors were trained on the background and purpose of the workshop; research concepts; questionnaire administration; research ethics; interpersonal skills; different gambling activities and relevant acts. Because some Data Collectors were graduates and some at tertiary institutions, they were trainable and showed a lot of enthusiasm for the study and they also understood it’s sensitivity and the challenges it could pose.
  • 29. 28 2.7.3 The actual fieldwork • Survey The data collection processes ran concurrently, i.e. whilst the Data Collectors were busy with the survey phase, research coordinators were busy with focus group interviews. Fuller, Rawlinson and Bevan (2000) note that the strength of fieldwork is that it provides opportunities to learn through direct, concrete experiences, enhancing the understanding that comes from observing ‘real world’ manifestations and it develops skills like observation, synthesis, evaluation, reasoning, instrumentation skills, practical problem solving and adaptability to new demands that call for creative solutions. 250 questionnaires were supposed to be administered in each research site and each Data Collector had to administer 50 questionnaires each over a period of five days. In the case of Mbizana-Mthatha and Port Elizabeth- Jeffrey’s Bay, the 250 was shared between those towns. Both solo and group approaches were undertaken as the Data Collectors sometimes worked alone or in groups. As mentioned in sub section 2.7.1, Data Collectors translated the questionnaire whenever it was necessary. Initially, the duration of the fieldwork was planned for five days but due to the nature of the study and the dynamics involved (i.e. its sensitivity that led to reluctance of people to participate and the Mbizana -Mthatha case where the coordinator had to move to Mthatha and continue with data collection), the data collection process took eight days to complete. At the end of the fieldwork 1000 questionnaires were returned to research coordinators (see paragraph 2 of the Data Quality Control section [2.8] for specifics). • Focus groups Focus groups were conducted by research coordinators and the participants were mainly elderly people and the youth. Platforms used to invite participants were community leaders; forums for the elderly people and people living with disabilities; youth groups and faith based organisations. Initially, the maximum number targeted for focus group participants was ten; however, when people came in large numbers they were not turned away as that was seen as an opportunity to enhance the quality of the engagements. The following table outlines participants per research site: Table 3: Focus group participants per research site Research site Number of participants Amathole District Municipality (Fort Beaufort) 12 Joe Gqabi District Municipality (Aliwal North) 19 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (Port Elizabeth) 28 OR Tambo (Mthatha) 23
  • 30. 29 The coordinators were also able to mediate the issue of language during the interviews, e.g. in the case of Joe Gqabi (Aliwal North) where some participants were Sotho speaking, the researcher was also able to speak both Xhosa and South Sotho. The interviews were captured through audio-taping and notes were also taken by the Coordinator/researchers’ assistants. In most groups, participants were enthusiastic and some noted that they were gambling whilst others used to gamble. 2.7.4 Highlights of the fieldwork • Reception, support and co-operation from the gambling site officials were favourable in most research sites. • Officials from Route Operators Licensees were also very supportive and helpful. • After the purpose of the study was explained, most participants showed appreciation for the study as they believed that it would bring value to the gambling participants, the gambling authorities and the community at large. 2.7.5 Challenges and remedial measures • Fear, suspicion and mistrust There was fear, suspicion and mistrust around the purpose of the study as a result of which: • some people would promise to organise elderly people who do gamble but on follow up they would ignore calls or the phones would be switched off • at pay points, elderly people were reluctant to speak about the issue under study due to fear of losing their Old Age Social Grant. Remedial measure: The purpose of the study was explained; however, research ethics were also honoured - people not willing to participate were not forced to do so. • Pay dates in conflict with the research time Some dates for the payment of the Old Age Social Grant were either before or after fieldwork, therefore in other research sites pay points could not be visited. Remedial measure: Pay points that presented no clashes were visited by Data Collectors and researchers. Snowballing was also used as some Data Collectors knew some Old Age Social Grant recipients who were gam- bling participants and in such cases house visits would be conducted.
  • 31. 30 • Non-use of certain gambling sites by elderly people It was shared by site managers that elderly people do not use certain gambling sites, especially Site A’s because of the nature of their operations, i.e. most are taverns so elderly people do not feel safe in them. Remedial measure: Gambling sites that were frequented by elderly people were targeted. • Racism In one research site a coordinator and Data Collectors experienced racism as they were told to use a certain door and a sitting area that was reserved for black people. In some research sites gambling participants complained that they received racist treatment as they were expected to use reserved lounges. Gambling participants also noted that in some gambling sites it was obvious that equity prescripts were ignored as in some sites staff members were mainly white especially in management positions. Remedial measure: The coordinator had to assert herself and on mentioning that the team was from/linked to ECGBB, the manager involved became very apologetic. • Time constraints Because of time constraints Data Collectors worked long hours and the planned period (5 days) was exceeded. Remedial measure: Data Collectors worked on weekends and coordinators risked their lives by transporting Data Collectors to their places of residence very late in the evening. • Negotiation of participation with gambling participants Gambling sites were one of the targeted places for data collection, however it was not always easy to approach a gambling participant that had just finished playing or had just taken a break as other gambling participants looked agitated whenever they were approached. The agitation could be linked to a feeling of being disturbed at one’s leisure time or a person has just lost and therefore still wants to contain him/herself. Remedial measure: Floor managers in various sites volunteered to be the ones approaching the gambling participants to introduce the Data Collectors. Because the site staff was familiar with the gambling participants, some of them showed willingness to participate. 2.8. DATA QUALITY CONTROL Before fieldwork was undertaken a research proposal and process was presented to ECGBB and all other relevant partners. It was interrogated to ensure that the envisaged aim was realised. Research instruments were also piloted and Data Collectors were trained.
  • 32. 31 Prior to the actual fieldwork the coordinator and Data Collectors visited the gambling sites in order to familiarise themselves with their new work environment and to give them an understanding of what the sites are about, e.g. the machines used and any other information that could be useful during their stay on the site. During fieldwork research coordinators were continuously monitoring Data Collectors by being there in the field with them, paying unannounced visits and at times they would even transport (drop and collect) the Data Collectors. Being there with the Data Collectors also afforded coordinators a chance to give support and advice whenever they deemed it necessary. For the purpose of control, all questionnaires were numbered. At the end of each day the coordinators would check if the submitted questionnaires were thoroughly completed. At the end of fieldwork 1000 questionnaires were returned, and on capturing the data the following emanated: 22 questionnaires from the self-completed batches were declared spoilt due to the following reasons: • other participants gave conflicting responses, e.g. they would note that they were gamblers but would respond to some questions on the non-gamblers section • other participants only completed the biographical part and would refuse to continue • others gave multiple responses in many questions that required only one answer At the end of the capturing stage, 987 questionnaires were entered on SPSS, i.e. 767 gamblers and 211 non-gamblers. It should be noted that 22 spoilt questionnaires constitute a 2.2% margin of error for the sample and it is therefore within the 5% margin of error with a 97.8% confidence level, which is acceptable as per the SLA requirements. For the focus group the interviews were recorded and transcribed; the recorded data and transcripts are available. In terms of validity, researchers checked if the findings could be substantiated by evidence that does not waiver (Niemann et al, 2002:283). Therefore, the researchers are confident that the results of the study are dependable because if the research study can be repeated, in the same context, with the same methods and with the same participants, similar results would be obtained. To ensure validity, data capturing was performed by qualified and experienced data analysts, in addition an independent validator was contracted to validate the findings of the research report. The research was also edited to ensure that it meets the standard of a professional report, however, statements taken from the Terms of Reference were quoted verbatim and thus not edited. To confirm trustworthiness and reliability, i.e. that the study results are a product of an enquiry and are not tainted by the biases of the researchers, records of focus group interviews, filled survey questionnaires, drafts, field notes, pilots material, preliminary schedules, observation sheets, recorded data and data analysis products will be forwarded to the ECGBB as advised.
  • 33. 32 2.9 DATA ANALYSIS This study had two sets of data, quantitative and qualitative. In MMR, the data is interpreted after it has been collected and analysed and it involves a cyclical combination between quantitative deductive inference (theory driven hypothesis testing, verification oriented) and qualitative inductive inference (data driven hypothesis and theory development, exploratory orientated) (Gelo et al, 2008:286). Therefore, even though this study had two sets of data, the quantitative data was captured and analysed on the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) by experienced analysts. Tables and charts were used to present the results and using the SPSS programme the data collected was cross tabulated and correlation exercises were also undertaken. The qualitative data was analysed by a team of researchers using Content Analysis where data was coded and categorised. Observed similarities and differences between the labelled text units were grouped into themes. Emergent themes were relabelled using the language closer to the researcher and to the theory of reference and, finally, the themes were interrelated into each other and abstracted into a set of themes which received new labels and the obtained data was then presented and this involved a discussion of the evidence for the emerged themes and perspectives. At the end of the second analysis the data was merged by comparing the data with the results of the quantitative and qualitative datasets through a discussion. The quantitative results were displayed and then discussed with reference to the obtained qualitative results and literature. 2.10 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY For the survey part the study is limited only to pension recipients, i.e. elderly people over the age of 60 from the Eastern Cape Province and is meant to investigate gambling prevalence of Old Age Social Grant recipients. 2.11 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY As aforementioned on the fieldwork challenges (Section 2.6.5), the reluctance of elderly people to participate due to fear that their Old Age Social Grant may be taken away, time constraints, pension pay dates that clashed with the fieldwork schedule, non-preference of certain sites by elderly people, racism and the emotional state of the gambling participants were limitations. 2.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS The overall approach of the study was guided by the recognition of the following ethical principles: respect, beneficence and justice. The researchers respected the dignity and autonomy of all participants. Before fieldwork was undertaken coordinators visited the gambling sites with Data Collectors and the purpose was to formally introduce the Data Collectors to Site Managers and staff and to discuss the mode of operation to be adopted.
  • 34. 33 It was clearly articulated to participants that they were under no obligation to participate and their identities were to be kept confidential. 2.13 CONCLUSION This chapter outlined the methodology of the study, starting with the post positivist paradigm, the chosen mixed methods, the sampling process, piloting and fieldwork. Data collection instruments outlined include questionnaires, an interview schedule and documents analysis. The study also outlined the steps undertaken to ensure validity and reliability. The next chapter proceeds with reviewed literature.
  • 35. 35 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
  • 36. 36 CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1.1 Definition of prevalence The Oxford Advance Dictionary (2014) notes that the word prevalence comes from the Latin word “praevalere”, meaning a “condition of being widespread or general”. It further expounds that the word is often used to describe a phenomenon that is widespread in a community and it is another word for commonness. For the purpose of this study, the area of focus is gambling prevalence amongst elderly people. 3.1.2 Legal Framework The advent of democratic dispensation and the incorporation of the homelands into the provinces necessitated regulation of gambling in South Africa. The National Gambling Act passed in 1996 repealed and replaced by the National Gambling Act (Act No. 7 of 2004) among other things addressed the following: • legal provisions for regulation of gambling activities; • promotion of uniform norms and standards in relation to gambling throughout the country; • definition of different gambling notions, i.e. how many gambling licenses were to be distributed among the provinces; • provision of information on liability; • introduction of a National Lottery etc. These legal processes also resulted in the establishment of the National Responsible Gambling Programme (NRGP) which began operating in 1999 (Rule, and Sibanyoni, 2000 & Seggie, 2011). The principle of responsible gambling as defined by Jonkheid and Mango (2008) emphasises knowing your limits, gambling within your means as well as gambling in a way which minimises the potential for harm. ECGBB pro- motes responsible gambling through a number of initiatives e.g. campaigns and information sharing sessions. It is however, noted that a research report (undated) by ECGBB showed that some elderly people displayed little or no understanding of responsible gambling initiatives. This assertion is confirmed in a study by Ligthelm and Jonkheid (2009) which revealed that in South Africa pensioners reported the lowest incidence of budgeting for gambling which shows lack of understanding responsible gambling principles.
  • 37. 37 3.1.3 Gambling prevalence with regard to elderly people Ensor and Esterhuizen (2013) note that in comparison to other African countries, e.g. Nigeria and Kenya, South Africa has by far the largest overall gambling market, as well as the largest land-based casino gambling market. When compared to western countries, gambling in the United States of America (USA) is one of the fastest growing industries and it is estimated that in the USA, 125 million people are gamblers (Vig, 2014). Countries like Canada, Australia, North America, Britain and Austria are also reporting high gambling prevalence (Eades, 2003 & Griffiths, 2003). With specific reference to the elderly, Community Links (2010) shares that globally there is general agreement in research and popular media that elderly people are one of the fastest growing groups of gamblers. Vig (2014) notes that gambling addiction is also on the rise among older adults in Canada and the United States as a result of this growth in the number of gamblers. The United States individuals over the age of 65 represent about 7.2% of gamblers. In South Africa, the National Gambling Board Research Study (2013) reveals that with regard to licensed casino use, the 55+ year age group showed high incidence of gambling. The National Gambling Board Research Study (2013) also states that regulators often raise concerns that pensions and social grants are misspent, and that recipients allocate disproportionate amounts of their available income to gambling. There was also a concern that pensioners or grant recipients were systematically targeted by unscrupulous (illegal) gambling operators, however, no evidence was encountered that pensioners or grant recipients were targeted (Department of Trade and Industry Gambling Review, 2013). Furthermore, the National Gambling Board Research Study (2013) reveals that that there is likelihood that grant recipients gamble on the day that they receive their grant than they were during the rest of the month. With regard to elderly people who are Old Age Social Grant recipients, Ligthelm and Jonkheid (2009) reveal that some elderly people gamble the little money they get from the social grant. However, a research study conducted in Soweto reveals that, as much as there was a question meant to establish if the Old Age Social Grant was used to gamble, no participant shared stories of grant recipients spending too much money or diverting grant money from household necessities in order to gamble (National Gambling Board Research Study, 2013). 3.1.4 Reasons for gambling by elderly people Community Link (2010) and Vig (2014) mention different reasons why elderly people gamble and when compared to the South African context, a number of similarities are recognized and these are; • Elderly people socialise due to social isolation and seek to be entertained or have fun Van der Vilt (2004) notes that elderly people are attracted to the comfortable safe atmosphere of the bingo hall/casino as well as the exciting atmosphere and ‘glitter’ of the casino.
  • 38. 38 • They seek to relieve boredom and to escape loneliness and loss National Gambling Board Research Study conducted in 2013 found that in rural KwaZulu-Natal pensioners face a tedious situation, a mixture of boredom and frustration which produces hordes of men and women who gamble as a natural facet of daily existence. • They want to make money or hope to make money The National Gambling Board Research Study (2010) established that in Gauteng the high incidence of poverty in the province motivates a significant number of pensioners to see gambling as a route to better circumstances thus almost two-thirds of pension-age gamblers, gamble in a desperate bid to boost their income. • They seek to support charitable causes It is reported that gambling operators aggressively advertise their charities and elderly people are constantly invited by being offered a meal, promised cinema visits, etc. that entice them to go to the casino floor (Gambling Review Commission Report, 2013). However, the report highlights that the gambling Act prohibits advertising of a gambling activity as being available for free. It must however be noted that as much as certain causes of gambling are shared by different countries, it was evident that in countries like Australia, elderly people mainly gamble because they are bored or lonely because they have lost family members through death, marriages, relocation, etc.; whilst in South Africa elderly people mainly gamble for extra income (Rule and Sibanyoni, 2000 & National Gambling Board Research Study, 2010). 3.1.5 Impact of gambling on the elderly people According to the National Gambling Board Research Study (2010) the Positive Impact of gambling for low-income older gamblers, includes among others: • means of being able to afford food and basic necessities • cultivates friendships with other gamblers and • a relaxing and enjoyable hobby Negative Impact includes: • gambling might constitute irresponsible spending and can lead to dishonesty between family members • emotional stress and family tensions
  • 39. 39 • violence due to excessive gambling • financial devastation • selling of assets such as vehicles and houses • as well as suicide 3.1.6 Problem gambling Ferris (2015) notes that the following are signs indicative of problem gambling by elderly people: not having enough money for groceries, medication or other bills; defensiveness about the way they spend money on gambling; preoccupation about gambling; juggling bills to have more money for gambling; health problems; borrowing money; increased isolation from friends, family and community gatherings; growing agitation; change in appearance (sloppier); loss of a house or car; spending all their money before their pension cheque arrives, etc. To confirm the negative impact of addiction/problem gambling on family relations, an article published in Daily Dispatch (March, 10 2015) shares a story of a family feud that was a result of a family member who lost her salary in gambling then stole money from a family business which she also gambled with the hope of winning more money. In explaining the situation an attorney said, “Intending to pay back the money with gambling winnings her situation became uncontrolled and she was trapped in a vicious cycle as she lost more and more money” 3.1.7 Gambling stigmatisation and secrecy In comparison to other countries, Azmier and Roach (2000) report that in Canada gambling is a ‘hidden problem’ for elderly people. A research study conducted in the Eastern Cape Province in 2009 reveals that gambling becomes less acceptable as people get older and 38% of participants who were 50 years or older supported that notion (Van Vuuren et al, 2009), therefore, that could be a reason why older people hide that they are involved in gambling. Nonetheless, De Vries (2014) believes that gambling is becoming normalised and few people are raising serious moral concerns about it in South Africa. 3.1.8 Online gambling It should be noted that, although there are people involved in online gambling in South Africa, it is still illegal (Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2013). The National Responsible Gambling Programme (2013) reveals that with relation to the elderly people (65 + year olds), in both 2012 and 2013 an average of 7% was using online gambling in South Africa. The Gambling Review conducted by DTI in 2013 warned that, even if online gambling can be regulated in South Africa the activity will not necessarily inhibit the use of unlicensed foreign sites that could still be accessed by the very individuals that the legislation seeks to protect, such as minors and problem gamblers. In comparison to the African continent, online gambling is permitted in Kenya but prohibited in Nigeria, except for lotteries.
  • 40. 40 3.1.9. Intervention measures to address problem gambling Seggie (2011) notes that NRGP has three main divisions that work closely together to address problem gambling challenges and these are: • Treatment Treatment begins with the provision of a free 24/7 confidential help and counselling (helpline 0800 006 008) funded by NRGP through which problem gamblers and those close to them can get expert assistance. • Prevention Prevention consists mainly of educating actual and potential problem gamblers about the dangers of gambling and how to avoid them through awareness campaigns targeted both at the population at large and at vulnerable communities including the young, the poor and grant recipients. These are conducted by print, television and radio advertising; distribution of promotional and informational leaflets, brochures and newsletters; participation in community outreach initiatives and integration of gambling educational programmes in schools and in special events. • Research The NRGP Research Division makes use of academics from local universities as well as collaborators from other countries to undertake research aimed at understanding the nature, causes and prevalence of problem gambling, to facilitate the development of good public policy, and to enhance the effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies. MacIntyre (2008) explains that the University of Windsor’s prevention and treatment programme for elderly people entails peer support (seniors helping other seniors) and the active involvement of gambling operators as they are expected to address the unique nature and impact of problem gambling within the elderly by recognizing their needs, views and concerns and receive input from them for the development of support programs. 3.2 CONCLUSION The latter literature discussion reveals that gambling and its associated problems is not a unique South African problem, many countries in the world are experiencing similar problems – therefore that presents an opportunity for an exchange of ideas. Nonetheless, it is also important to note that each country has its unique dynamics, therefore in exchanging of ideas, contextual issues need to be given serious consideration.
  • 41. 41 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  • 42. 42 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the analysis and the interpretation of the data collected by way of questionnaires, focus group schedules and document analysis. For ease of reference, the towns where the survey was undertaken are referred to as survey zones, namely, East London Zone: representing Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM); Port Elizabeth Zone: representing Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (NMMM) and Cacadu (Jeffrey’s Bay), Queenstown Zone: representing Chris Hani; and Mbizana-Mthatha Zone: representing Alfred Nzo and OR Tambo. Table 4 shows different survey zones and the number of instruments administered at each zone (see below: Figure 1). 4.1.1 Distribution of participants by Survey Zones Each Survey Zone was expected to administer 250 questionnaires and the table presents the outcome of the survey. The following table shows that in all the Zones the prevalence of gambling is evident as depicted by Gambler percentages, East London (21.5%); Port Elizabeth (21%); Queenstown (18.2%); and Mthatha/Mbizana (17.7%). Gambling prevalence is evident, with East London showing the highest rate. The overall gambling prevalence rate is 78.4 %. Table 4: Survey Zones of the participants Survey Zones Gamblers Non-Gamblers Total East London Port Elizabeth Queenstown Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 210 245 25.1 208 21 36 3.7 244 24.9 176 246 25.2 Total 173 243 24.8 767 78.4 211 21.6 978 100 21.5 18.2 17.7 35 70 70 3.6 7.2 7.1Mthatha/Mbizana
  • 43. 43 Figure 1: Survey Zones of the participants 4.2 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA 4.2.1 Distribution of participants by Gender Gambling is more prevalent amongst males (55.4%) whilst females are at 44.6%; and this is true across all zones except for Port Elizabeth (see Figures 2 & 3 below). This contradicts ECGBB’s observation that a number of older persons, particularly women attend and actively participate in gambling. From focus group interviews the most prominent view was that both men and women are involved in gambling, because both groups have the same intention, i.e. to make more money. Table 5: No. of participants per Gender Gender Gambler Non-Gambler Total (Observed) Male Female Total Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 423 39.7 506 52.0 341 44.6 126 60.3 467 48.0 764 100 209 100 973 100 8355.4
  • 44. 44 Figure 2: No. of participants per Gender Figure 3: Gender by Zones 4.2.2 Distribution of participants by Marital Status The following table shows that Gambling and non-gambling participants’ distribution seem to be evenly spread across all categories of status. However, it does show that the ‘married’ category has the highest percentage of gambling participants.
  • 45. 45 Table 6: Marital Status of the participants Figure 4: Marital Status of the participants Marital Status Gambler Non-Gambler Total (Observed) Married Single Divorced Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 438 57.6 117 56.0 555 57.2 127 17.7 164 16.9 41 52 5.4 Cohabitating Widowed 25 130 18.1 168 17.3 Total 761 100 209 100 970 100 16.7 5.4 3.3 17.0 37 11 6 38 5.3 31 3.22.9
  • 46. 46 4.2.3 Distribution of participants by Age Group As it is known that the qualifying age for the Old Age Social Grant is 60, a provision of 55 was made to accommodate participants that were on “other pensions” and had taken early pension, e.g. GEPF, Provident Fund, etc. The overall number of participants that were receiving “other pensioners” was 26, i.e. 23 gambling participants and 3 non gambling participants, which only reflects 3% participation. Therefore, it should be noted that most respondents were Old Age Social Grant recipients (60 and above). This issue was also covered in Section A Question 2 of the questionnaire where data collectors had to establish the participants’ source of income and the finding was that: of the 962 that responded to the question 743 (77.2%) noted that they were Old Age Social Grant recipients; and out of the overall 77.2%, 60.5% were gambling participants (see Table 8). The following table shows that for the old age grant recipients in the 61 to 69 and the 70 and above age group brackets, the gambling participants are 37% + 16.2% = 53.2%. Thus, indicating an above 50% gambling prevalence rate. The stated fact argued, thus suggests that the 53.2% prevalence rate is actually higher considering the fact that the 55-60 age group bracket includes pension/grant recipients (the 60 year olds), this refers to the 25.9%, out of which only 3% is not Old Age Social Grant recipients, the Old Age Social Grant recipients who gamble in that bracket is therefore 22.9% (25.9% – 3%). Therefore, the study at 97.8% confidence level indicates an overall 76.1% (37% + 16.2% + 22.9%) gambling prevalence amongst Old Age Social Grant recipients. The latter findings also confirm ECGBB’s observation that older persons that gamble are retired (3%) and some are dependent on social grants as a primary source of income (53.2%). Table 7: No. of participants per Age Group Age Gambler Non-Gambler Total (Observed) 55-60 61-69 70 and above Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency 249 298 37.0 102 10.6 458 156 21.5 207 Total 761 202 963 Percent 47.6 21.5 100 356 25.9 16.2 49 51 5.1 30.9 79.1 37.2
  • 47. 47 Figure 5: No. of participants per Age Group 4.2.4 Distribution of participants by Nationality Out of the total respondents as indicated below, 12 did not state their nationality. It is however, obvious that virtually all the participants are citizens of South Africa at 99.1% whilst others are 0.9%. Table 8: Nationality of participants 4.2.5 Distribution of participants by Race The table below shows that the majority of the respondents were black (72.7%) followed by Whites (14.5%). The Coloureds and Indians were 11.3% and 1.4% respectively. However, 7 participants did not state their racial status. Nationality Gamblers Non-Gamblers Total (Observed) South African Others Total Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 750 207 209 100 7 0.7 2 0.2 9 77.6 95721.4 99.1 0.9 757 78.3 21.6 966
  • 48. 48 Table 9: No. of participants according to Race Figure 6: No. of participants according to Race 4.2.6 Distribution of participants by Dependants The following table reveals that the percentage of those who gamble and have dependants is 80% (8.7% + 18.6% + 16.5% + 14.0% + 22.2%). Most of the gambling participants (22.2%), have five dependants and above. The latter confirms what was noted by most focus group participants that most elderly people who take care of their grandchildren, gamble because they need to supplement their old age grant income. Race Gamblers Non-Gamblers Total (Observed) Black Coloured Indian Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 523 53.9 183 93 110 11.3 14 Others Total 133 0.8 141 14.5 764 78.7 208 971 100 White 1 9.6 1.4 13.7 0.1 17 0 8 0 0 0 14 1 1.4 0.1 18.8 706 72.7 1.7 21.3
  • 49. 49 Table 10: No. of Dependants per participants 4.2.7 Distribution of participants by Income The following table shows that the source of income of most gambling participants is the Old Age Social Grant (77.2%). There are a few (11.9%) who seem to have other sources of income, therefore, it is evident that the grant money might not be sufficient to meet all the grant recipients’ needs. The focus group discussions also confirmed that the grant money is not sufficient and need to be augmented by selling vegetables, cleaning homes, etc. Dependants Gamblers Non-Gamblers Total (Observed) One Two Three Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 66 142 19.8 183 18.9 126 20.8 169 17.4 Four 107 126 13.0 Five and Above None Total 169 22.7 216 22.3 152 15.9 185 19.1 762 100 207 100 969 100 18.6 16.5 14.0 24 41 43 19 47 33 11.6 9.2 90 9.38.7 22.2 20
  • 50. 50 Table 11: Monthly Source of Income of participants Figure 7: Monthly Source of Income of participants 4.3. EXTENT AND GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD OF OLDER PERSONS IN EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE THAT ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN GAMBLING SITES THAT THE ECGBB REGULATES OR HAS LICENSE AND FURTHER ESTABLISHED This section explains the location in terms of geographical spread of the participants in the Eastern Cape Province according to district municipality, area of residence of the participants, the mode of transport to the site, the frequency of their visit to the gambling sites, reasons for participating in gambling activities, and reasons for using the preferred gambling site. The time taken to get to the gambling sites, the amount of money spent and sources of income of the participants were also explained. Source Gamblers Non-Gamblers Total (Observed) Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 582 77.4 743 77.2 11 1.5 90 11.9 26 48 60 6.2 23 1.4 26 2.7 754 100 208 100 962 100 77.2 6.4 3.0 Older Persons Grant From own Children and Relatives Own business Other (GEPF, Provident Fund ect.) Total Salary 161 6 12 3 2.9 12.5 5.8 17 116 1.8 12.1
  • 51. 51 District Gambler Non-Gambler Total (Observed) OR Tambo BCMM Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 105 Amathole Nelson Mandela Metro Cacadu/Sara Baartman Joe Gqabi Alfred Nzo Chris Hani Total 190 16 178 30 0 68 176 763 13.8 24.9 2.1 23.3 3.9 0 8.9 23.1 100 14.2 23.3 1.6 21.5 3.8 0 10.1 4.3.1. Distribution of participants by District The following table shows gambling prevalence per district: BCMM (19.7%), NMMM (18.4%), Chris Hani (18.2%), OR Tambo (10.9%), Alfred Nzo (7%), Cacadu (3.1%) and Amathole (1.7%). Joe Gqabi conducted a focus group. BCMM shows most prevalence of gambling among old age social grant recipients compared to other districts. Table 12: No. of participants per District 4.3.2. Distribution of participants by Area of Residence The following table shows that 47.0% of the respondents reside in township, 28.8% reside in suburb/town while 23.6% of the respondents stay in rural area and 0.6% reside in the farm. The table also shows that 18 respondents did not state their area of residence and that gambling activities are spread across three major areas (township, suburb and rural). 25.5 100 15.8 17.2 0 14.3 3.4 0 14.8 34.5 100 32 35 0 29 7 0 30 70 203 137 225 16 207 37 0 98 246 966
  • 52. 52 Table 13: Participants’ Area of Residence 4.3.3 Distribution of participants by Reasons for Gambling The following table shows that most participants (74.1%) cited need for extra income as the reason for participating in gambling activities. Most focus group participants reiterated the same reason as they noted that the key reason for gambling is related to addressing a financial need, the following reasons were mentioned: increase income, financial problems, need for money to support dreams, need for quick money and high rate of unemployment. This finding also confirmed ECGBB’s observation that older persons that gamble appear not to be gambling solely for entertainment or leisure but they gamble to improve their finances, perhaps to sustain their livelihood. In support of this finding, the NGB Research Bulletin (2014) also notes that the lure of potentially winning large sums of money is the economic motivation and the main reason why most gamblers participate in gambling activities. Residence Gamblers Non-Gamblers Total (Observed) Suburb/Town Township Rural Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 220 12.8 245 25.5 359 47.0 114 58.2 473 49.3 180 26.5 232 24.2 Farm 52 10 1.0 Total 764 100 196 100 960 100 5 28.8 23.6 0.6 25 5 2.5
  • 53. 53 Table 14: Reasons for Participating in Gambling Activities Figure 8: Reasons for participating in Gambling Activities 4.3.4 Distribution of participants by Mode of Transport The following table shows that most participants use taxis (35.1%) and others drive themselves (34.7%) and this contradicts ECGBB view that older persons travel in busloads to gambling sites or gamble in groups. Reason Yes No Total For Pleasure For extra Income ToDe-stress 334 51.7 312 48.3 646 520 74.2 181 25.8 210 34.8 393 65.2 603 Cannot stop gambling 75 12.8 510 87.1 585 Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 701
  • 54. 54 Table 15: Mode of transport to Gambling Sites 4.3.5 Distribution of participants by Frequency of Visits to gambling sites The following table shows that most respondents (24%) visit gambling sites once a month, followed by those who visit every day (21.1%) and three times a week (21%). Weekend gambling sites visitors were recorded at 19.8% and 14.1% visit the sites on any other day like paydays, holidays, etc. 14 respondents were observed not to have stated the frequency of their visit to gambling sites. It is clear from the table that most gambling participants visit the gambling sites once a month. Some of the gambling participants that have indicated to be visiting a gambling site once a month could be Old Age Social Grant recipients as they get their grants once a month. This finding confirms ECGBB’s observation that older persons that gamble do so more as a monthly attempt to make a fortune. I walk to gambling site 266 69 I hire a car 39 7 Bus 36 78 Not stated 269 767 I drive myself I hitch-hike We travel as a group with friends/ as elders Taxi Total 9.0 5.1 0.9 4.7 10.2 100 Mode of transport Frequency Percent 34.7 35.1 3 0.3

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