THE DEVELOPMENT AND FEASIBILITY TESTING OF AN
EATING DISORDERS TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR
UK SCHOOL STAFF
Pooky Knightsmith He...
Declaration
I confirm that the work presented in this thesis is my original work.
________________________________________...
Abstract
Aims:
The overall aims of this thesis were (1) to develop an eating disorders training
programme for school staff...
months later. The significance of intragroup changes over time was determined using
generalised estimating equations (GEE)...
Original Contribution
The four inter-linked studies outlined in this thesis make a substantial and novel
contribution to t...
Study Four (chapters 5 and 6):
This study was the first feasibility study of a one day, face to face eating disorders
trai...
Table of Contents
Declaration................................................................................................
1.3.2 The Impact on Student Outcomes of Training School Staff in Early
Intervention Strategies Targeted at a Range of Cond...
5.3.3 Confidence Items................................................................................ 173
5.3.4 Validity....
7.2.2 Participant Demographics................................................................... 208
7.2.3 Depth of Answe...
Appendix D: Model Eating Disorders Policy for Schools ..................................... 266
Appendix E: Eating Disorde...
Table of Tables and Figures
Table 1 - Significant changes to the diagnosis of eating disorders under the new
DSM-5 criteri...
Peer-Reviewed Papers, Other Publications and Presentations
Associated with this Thesis
Peer-Reviewed Papers
Knightsmith, P...
Knightsmith, P (March, 2013) “Guidelines for school staff” In Alexander,J & Treasure,
J (Eds) Anorexia Nervosa: A Survival...
Presentations
Eating Disorders International Conference 2010: “We just don’t know how best to help”
Staff Experiences of E...
Acknowledgements
Thanks must go first to the wonderful Ulrike Schmidt. Ulrike kept me both smiling and
stretched to the ve...
do not finish your PhD. But for me, it was only when I became a mother that I
understood that I owed it to the other paren...
Incorporation of Published Papers
Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of this thesis have already been published as papers in the
Journal ...
Chapter 1
Introduction
19
The overall aim of this thesis was to gain an understanding of student and staff
experiences of eating disorders within th...
The role of school staff within mental health care is discussed before the small amount
of research available regarding sc...
The DSM-5 lists seven diagnosable disorders of feeding and eating. These are:
 Anorexia nervosa
 Bulimia nervosa
 Binge...
 Intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat, or
 Persistent behaviour that interferes with weight gain
 Undue influenc...
1.1.1.3 Binge Eating Disorder
A clinician may diagnose a person with binge eating disorder according to the DSM-5
criteria...
with eating disorders do not always neatly fit into diagnostic categories and may suffer
from symptoms or behaviours typic...
Disorder DSMV Impact
Anorexia
Nervosa
Patient must have reached 'significantly low weight' to
be diagnosed
DSMIV required ...
1.1.2 Epidemiology
Due to the very recent introduction of revised diagnostic criteria for eating disorders
with the introd...
Swanson, Crow, Le Grange, Swendsen, & Merikangas, 2011 studied a community
sample of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 year...
disordered eating attitudes and behaviours (Jones, Bennett, Olmsted, Lawson, &
Rodin, 2001).
1.1.3 Risk Factors
For the pu...
1.1.3.2 Ethnicity
In her review of the literature Jacobi et al., (2004) found no clear relationship between
ethnic status ...
1.1.3.3 Age
As outlined above, eating disorders have a peak age of onset of 15 to 19 in females
and 10-19 in males (Micali...
In a population based cohort study reported over three years, Patton, Selzer, Coffey,
Carlin, & Wolfe (1999) reported that...
1.1.3.6 Adverse Life Events
Eighteen percent of Participants with bulimia nervosa (n=18/102) in a community study
by Welch...
939 adolescent girls, Killen et al., (1994) reported that girls scoring in the highest
quartile in a measure of weight con...
another consumed solely milk until the age of three and one four year old was
described as being unaware of their hunger a...
1.1.3.12 Perfectionism
Fairburn et al., (1998) reported that in recovered anorexia nervosa patients, premorbid
perfectioni...
those participants who went on to develop eating disorders were significantly more
active than their peers.
1.1.3.14 Subcl...
and 24.2%, 10.7% and 8.7% reported severe impairment. Social impairment was the
most reported impairment with 88.9% of par...
which carries with it a series of long-term health risks such as diabetes, heart disease,
elevated blood pressure and some...
report high levels of comorbidity with other mental health conditions in those
adolescents fulfilling the criteria for bul...
suicide plans and bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were associated with
suicide attempts. Interestingly, adolesce...
 Where inpatient treatment is provided, psychosocial interventions should be
provided alongside re-feeding.
Bulimia Nervo...
It is well documented that children with mental health problems do less well in terms
of academic and social development w...
1.2 Eating Disorders: Prevention, Detection and Early Intervention
The terms prevention, detection and early intervention ...
Prevention studies may be universal – targeting all members of a specific population,
or selective, targeting specific mem...
aims to stop those problems from becoming entrenched and thus to prevent
children and young people from experiencing unnec...
Whilst the current thesis is primarily concerned with detection and early intervention
of eating disorders, there is very ...
Prevention programmes may have primary, secondary or tertiary approaches.
Primary prevention refers to programmes designed...
Sharpe, Schober, Treasure, & Schmidt (2013) who report on the feasibility, efficacy
and acceptability of a teacher-deliver...
weight-related teasing. The programme was delivered through age-appropriate
puppet shows lasting approximately 20 minutes ...
which was delivered as a series of eight media literacy lessons. A control group of
307 eighth graders received their norm...
Lesson 2: Building a Positive Sense of Self
 Building your self-esteem.
 Identifying your unique features and self-image...
Lesson 8: Relationship Skills
 How other people affect our self-image.
 Dealing with relationships.
 Video of self-este...
O’Dea and Abraham reported a positive impact of the intervention on participants’ thin
ideal internalisation and dieting a...
Study Sample Intervention Findings
Buddeberg-
Fischer et al.
(1998)
314 middle school
boys and girls
mean age 16.1
Didacti...
Kater et al.
(2002)
415 grade and
middle school girls
and boys mean
age 10.0
Psycho-educational. Provided information on
d...
Moreno &
Thelen
(1993)
219 middle school
girls mean age
13.75
Didactic psycho-educational presentation.
Provided informati...
Outwater
(1991)
50 middle school
girls and boys
mean age 11.5
Didactic psycho-educational. Focused on
enhancing body satis...
Santonastaso
et al.
(1999)
265 vocational
school girls mean
age 16.1
Provided psycho-educational information about
normati...
Stewart,
Carter,
Drinkwater,
Hainsworth, &
Fairburn (2001)
459 grade school
girls mean age
13.4
Interactive programme focu...
Weiss (2000) 173 high school
girls mean age
14.3
Interactive program that provided information on
eating pathology and ris...
1.2.2.2 Selective Prevention Programmes
Instead of targeting the whole population, like the universal prevention programme...
All participants completed pre, post and one-month follow up questionnaires. The
intervention was reported to have a signi...
group for body dissatisfaction, negative affect or eating pathology. The authors argue
that the programme may have been mo...
 Positive relationships: Identifying healthy versus unhealthy relationships,
applying problem-solving strategies to issue...
Compared to the studies outlined above, Stice, Trost, & Chase took an even more
targeted approach with their 2003 interven...
 Bulimic Symptoms.
The results of the intervention were:
 Thin-Ideal Internalisation:
o A significant decrease in thin-i...
 Dieting
o Dissonance intervention participants showed significant reductions in
dieting from baseline to termination. Th...
o Healthy weight intervention participants showed significant reductions
in bulimic symptoms from baseline to termination....
into the differential impact that can be observed by using similar programme types with
different age cohorts.
As interven...
This indicates that enabling school staff to identify those most at risk of eating
disorders may enable effective preventi...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psycho...
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Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psychological medicine

This is my PhD thesis - it is an example of 'thesis by publication' and was for the award of PhD in psychological medicine from the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London in 2014. This work was funded by the National Institute of Health Research as part of the 'ARIADNE' project. Abstract Aims: The overall aims of this thesis were (1) to develop an eating disorders training programme for school staff, informed by stakeholder (student, staff) views and designed to improve staff’s confidence, attitudes and knowledge in recognising and managing student eating disorders and (2) to carry out a feasibility study of this programme. Method: In Studies 1 and 2, 11-19 year old school students (n= 511) and school staff (n=826) completed online questionnaires exploring their respective experiences and complementing perspectives of eating disorders in an integrated way. In Study 3, focus groups were conducted with 63 members of staff from 29 UK schools with the aims of (a) capturing their views on their ability to identify and manage student eating disorders and any obstacles to this, and (b) to identify any specific training needs in this area that school staff may have and to generate recommendations based on these. In study 4, an eating disorders training programme was developed with input from school staff and clinicians and informed by the findings from studies 1-3. 45 school staff took part in the one day face to face eating disorders training programme and completed a questionnaire about their eating disorder knowledge, attitude and confidence prior to the intervention, immediately post intervention and again three months later. The significance of intragroup changes over time was determined using generalised estimating equations (GEE) models. Results: Studies 1-3 indicated that both students and staff felt that eating disorder training for school staff would be beneficial but that such training was not currently widely available. Students and staff then went on to make recommendations for the development of a training intervention for school staff. The intervention was tested in study 4 and was found to have a significant positive impact on school staff’s self-reported confidence, attitudes and knowledge about eating disorders with medium to large effect sizes of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.8 respectively. These gains were universally maintained at follow-up three months later. Conclusions: The promising results of the feasibility study provide strong motivation and sound indicators for further research in this emerging field. A large scale evaluation of the teacher training using a fully powered stepped wedge design is recommended as the next step.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - Pooky knightsmith PhD thesis - development and testing of an eating disorders training programme for school staff - psychological medicine

  • 1. THE DEVELOPMENT AND FEASIBILITY TESTING OF AN EATING DISORDERS TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR UK SCHOOL STAFF Pooky Knightsmith Hesmondhalgh Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London Thesis submitted to King’s College London, University of London, for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2014 1
  • 2. Declaration I confirm that the work presented in this thesis is my original work. ____________________________________________________ Pooky Knightsmith Hesmondhalgh 20th January 2014 2
  • 3. Abstract Aims: The overall aims of this thesis were (1) to develop an eating disorders training programme for school staff, informed by stakeholder (student, staff) views and designed to improve staff’s confidence, attitudes and knowledge in recognising and managing student eating disorders and (2) to carry out a feasibility study of this programme. Method: In Studies 1 and 2, 11-19 year old school students (n= 511) and school staff (n=826) completed online questionnaires exploring their respective experiences and complementing perspectives of eating disorders in an integrated way. In Study 3, focus groups were conducted with 63 members of staff from 29 UK schools with the aims of (a) capturing their views on their ability to identify and manage student eating disorders and any obstacles to this, and (b) to identify any specific training needs in this area that school staff may have and to generate recommendations based on these. In study 4, an eating disorders training programme was developed with input from school staff and clinicians and informed by the findings from studies 1-3. 45 school staff took part in the one day face to face eating disorders training programme and completed a questionnaire about their eating disorder knowledge, attitude and confidence prior to the intervention, immediately post intervention and again three 3
  • 4. months later. The significance of intragroup changes over time was determined using generalised estimating equations (GEE) models. Results: Studies 1-3 indicated that both students and staff felt that eating disorder training for school staff would be beneficial but that such training was not currently widely available. Students and staff then went on to make recommendations for the development of a training intervention for school staff. The intervention was tested in study 4 and was found to have a significant positive impact on school staff’s self- reported confidence, attitudes and knowledge about eating disorders with medium to large effect sizes of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.8 respectively. These gains were universally maintained at follow-up three months later. Conclusions: The promising results of the feasibility study provide strong motivation and sound indicators for further research in this emerging field. A large scale evaluation of the teacher training using a fully powered stepped wedge design is recommended as the next step. 4
  • 5. Original Contribution The four inter-linked studies outlined in this thesis make a substantial and novel contribution to the field of eating disorders prevention and early intervention. The work is the author’s own with the exception that all information was double coded with a second researcher, not related to the current project nor wider research team, performing coding for studies one, two and three, blind to the lead researcher’s coding in order to increase the validity of the results. Study One (chapter 2): This study was the first empirical study to investigate students’ experiences of eating disorders within the UK school setting. Study Two (chapter 3): This study was the first empirical study to investigate school staff experiences of eating disorders within the UK school setting. Study Three (chapter 4): This study was the first empirical study to specifically draw on school staff experiences of eating disorders to generate recommendations for an early intervention programme. 5
  • 6. Study Four (chapters 5 and 6): This study was the first feasibility study of a one day, face to face eating disorders training programme aimed at improving school staff knowledge about, attitudes towards and confidence in identifying and managing student eating disorders. Additionally, the experimental measures, training programme content and supporting materials were all authored by the researcher. 6
  • 7. Table of Contents Declaration................................................................................................................. 2 Original Contribution................................................................................................... 5 Table of Contents....................................................................................................... 7 Table of Tables and Figures..................................................................................... 12 Publications and Presentations Associated with this Thesis .................................... 13 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................. 16 Acknowledgement of Funding .................................................................................. 17 Incorporation of Published Papers ........................................................................... 18 Chapter 1 Introduction.............................................................................................. 19 1.1 Introduction to Eating Disorders.................................................................. 21 1.1.1 Classification ........................................................................................ 22 1.1.2 Epidemiology........................................................................................ 27 1.1.3 Risk Factors.......................................................................................... 29 1.1.4 Comorbidities and Consequences of Eating Disorders ........................ 37 1.1.5 Treatment ............................................................................................. 41 1.1.6 Costs .................................................................................................... 42 1.2 Eating Disorders: Prevention, Detection and Early Intervention.................. 44 1.2.1 Defining Prevention, Detection and Early Intervention ......................... 44 1.2.2 Eating Disorder Prevention Studies...................................................... 47 1.2.3 ‘Being’ Rather than ‘Doing’ Prevention ................................................. 78 1.2.4 Eating Disorder Detection and Early Intervention in Schools................ 79 1.2.5 Barriers to Eating Disorder Detection & Early Intervention in Schools.. 81 1.3 The Role of Schools in Student Mental Health Care ................................... 85 1.3.1 The Role of School Staff in Early Intervention ...................................... 86 7
  • 8. 1.3.2 The Impact on Student Outcomes of Training School Staff in Early Intervention Strategies Targeted at a Range of Conditions................................ 90 1.4 Summary................................................................................................... 103 1.5 Thesis Aims and Outline ........................................................................... 105 Chapter 2 - Student Experiences of Eating Disorders within the School Setting: An Online Survey ................................................................................................... 108 Chapter 3 - School Staff Experiences of Eating Disorders within the School Setting: An Online Survey ................................................................................................... 118 Chapter 4 - Recommendations from School Staff about Spotting and Supporting Eating Disorders..................................................................................................... 128 Chapter 5 - Development of Content and Outcome Measures of a One Day Eating Disorders Training Programme for School Staff..................................................... 141 5.1 The NICE Principles of Effective Behaviour Change Interventions ........... 142 5.1.1 Principle 1: Planning Interventions and Programmes ......................... 143 5.1.2 Principle 2: Assessing Social Context ................................................ 144 5.1.3 Principle 3: Education and Training .................................................... 145 5.1.4 Principle 4: Delivery............................................................................ 146 5.1.5 Principle 5: Evaluating Effectiveness.................................................. 147 5.2 Intervention Content and Delivery............................................................. 148 5.2.1 The Authoring Process ....................................................................... 148 5.2.2 Content Outline and Rationale............................................................ 150 5.2.3 Content Delivery ................................................................................. 162 5.3 Development of Outcome Measures......................................................... 163 5.3.1 Knowledge Items................................................................................ 171 5.3.2 Attitude Items...................................................................................... 172 8
  • 9. 5.3.3 Confidence Items................................................................................ 173 5.3.4 Validity................................................................................................ 174 5.4 Summary................................................................................................... 175 Chapter 6 - Feasibility Study of a One Day Eating Disorders Training Programme for UK Secondary School Staff.................................................................................... 177 6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 178 6.2 Method...................................................................................................... 181 6.2.1 Participants......................................................................................... 181 6.2.2 Procedure........................................................................................... 181 6.2.3 Statistical Analysis.............................................................................. 182 6.3 Results ...................................................................................................... 184 6.3.1 Demographic Information ................................................................... 184 6.3.2 Acceptability of the Intervention.......................................................... 187 6.4 Discussion................................................................................................. 190 6.4.1 Knowledge.......................................................................................... 190 6.4.2 Attitudes.............................................................................................. 191 6.4.3 Confidence ......................................................................................... 191 6.4.4 Strengths of the Current Study ........................................................... 193 6.4.5 Limitations of the Current Study ......................................................... 194 6.4.6 Future Directions ................................................................................ 196 6.5 Summary................................................................................................... 201 Chapter 7 Discussion ............................................................................................. 202 7.1 Summary of Findings ................................................................................ 203 7.2 Strengths of the Studies............................................................................ 207 7.2.1 Unique Nature of the Studies.............................................................. 207 9
  • 10. 7.2.2 Participant Demographics................................................................... 208 7.2.3 Depth of Answers ............................................................................... 210 7.2.4 Use of an Independent Coder............................................................. 210 7.2.5 Training Intervention Follow up........................................................... 211 7.2.6 Practical Model of Delivery ................................................................. 212 7.2.7 Acceptability of the Intervention.......................................................... 212 7.2.8 Consideration of Attitudes as well as Knowledge and Confidence ..... 213 7.3 Limitations of the Studies .......................................................................... 213 7.3.1 Sample size........................................................................................ 214 7.3.2 Lack of Control Group......................................................................... 214 7.3.3 Sample Selection................................................................................ 215 7.3.4 Reporting Measures ........................................................................... 216 7.3.5 UK Focus............................................................................................ 216 7.3.6 Limited Scope..................................................................................... 217 7.4 Future Directions....................................................................................... 219 7.4.1 Further Development of the Training Materials................................... 219 7.4.2 Pilot Online Training Materials............................................................ 220 7.4.3 Carry out a Fully Powered Study........................................................ 220 7.5 Positive By-Products of the Work on this Thesis....................................... 221 7.6 Overall Conclusions .................................................................................. 221 References............................................................................................................. 223 Appendices ............................................................................................................ 254 Appendix A: Questionnaire and results from Hardie (2007) ................................ 254 Appendix B: Student Questionnaire used in Study One ...................................... 255 Appendix C: Staff Questionnaire used in Study Two........................................... 260 10
  • 11. Appendix D: Model Eating Disorders Policy for Schools ..................................... 266 Appendix E: Eating Disorders Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire – Schools Version................................................................................................................ 274 Appendix F: Training Hand-Outs Authored for Study 4 ....................................... 279 11
  • 12. Table of Tables and Figures Table 1 - Significant changes to the diagnosis of eating disorders under the new DSM-5 criteria .......................................................................................................... 26 Table 2 - Descriptions of the sample, intervention content, and findings from universal eating disorder prevention trials aimed at school-aged participants not outlined in the narrative ................................................................................................................... 61 Table 3 - Descriptions of the sample, intervention content, and findings from selected eating disorder prevention trials aimed at college-aged participants........................ 77 Table 4 - Eating Disorders - One day training curriculum....................................... 151 Table 5 - Eating disorder knowledge, attitude and confidence summary ............... 167 Table 6 - case vignettes designed to test participant confidence in managing eating disorders ................................................................................................................ 170 Table 7 - Participant roles ...................................................................................... 184 Table 8 - Estimated means and standard errors .................................................... 185 Table 9 - Post hoc analyses ................................................................................... 186 Table 10 - Participant feedback about potential improvements to the intervention 189 Figure 1 - Definitions of and interactions between prevention, detection and intervention............................................................................................................... 46 Figure 2 - Authoring process for each intervention session.................................... 149 12
  • 13. Peer-Reviewed Papers, Other Publications and Presentations Associated with this Thesis Peer-Reviewed Papers Knightsmith, P., Sharpe, H., Breen, O., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., (2013) “My teacher saved my life" versus "Teachers don’t have a clue": An online survey of pupils' experiences of eating disorders” Journal of child and adolescent mental health Knightsmith, P., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U (2013) “We don’t know how to help” An online survey of school staff experiences of eating disorders” Journal of child and adolescent mental health Knightsmith, P., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U (2013) “Spotting and supporting eating disorders in school. Recommendations from school staff” Health Education Research Journal, 28(6), 1004-1013 Other Publications Knightsmith, P. (September, 2012) Eating Disorders Pocketbook. Hampshire: Teachers’ Pocketbooks Knightsmith, P (reported by Bloom, A) (September 2012) “Teachers have the power to save lives” TES Pro Magazine (pp 14-15). Times Educational Supplement Knightsmith, P (January, 2013) “Overcoming eating disorders: identifying pupils at risk and spotting the signs” Special Children Magazine (pp 8-9). Optimus Education 13
  • 14. Knightsmith, P (March, 2013) “Guidelines for school staff” In Alexander,J & Treasure, J (Eds) Anorexia Nervosa: A Survival Guide for Families, Friends and Sufferers (pp 259-266) Routledge Knightsmith, P (March, 2013) “Overcoming eating disorders: supporting pupils on the road to recovery” Special Children Magazine (pp 12-14). Optimus Education Knightsmith, P., (June, 2013) “Out of the darkness” guidance for discussing mental health issues in the classroom. (page 45) Times Educational Supplement Knightsmith, P., (July, 2013) “Mealtimes: ten ideas for supporting recovering anorexics” (page 37) Education Issues (249). Independence Educational Publishers. Cambridge Knightsmith, P., (August, 2013) “What is my child saying” – guidance to understanding and responding to unusual behaviour related to food. (page 11) Adoption Today Magazine Knightsmith, P., (October, 2013) “Talking to pupils when they make mental health disclosures” Teacher resource developed for PSHE Association members in the UK Knightsmith, P., (January, 2014) “What are pro-ana and pro-mia sites and what can we do about them?” (pp 14-15) Issues Today: Eating Disorders. Independence Educational Publishers. Cambridge Knightsmith, P., (In production) “Common eating issues in adoptive children – providing care and support” in Radwan, K (Ed) Prepare for Adoption Now. Adoption UK Publications 14
  • 15. Presentations Eating Disorders International Conference 2010: “We just don’t know how best to help” Staff Experiences of Eating Disorders in UK Schools. Oral Presentation Royal College of Psychiatrists Eating Disorders Conference 2011: “Preventing eating disorders in school – what can we learn from students and teachers?” Keynote PSHE Educators Conference 2012: “Recognising and responding to eating disorder warning signs.” Keynote Eating Disorders International Conference 2012: “Working with teachers and students to develop an eating disorders prevention and support programme.” Oral presentation Times Educational Supplement Special Needs Show 2013: “Promoting mental health in adolescents” seminar Optimus one day annual conference 2013: “Promoting mental health in schools” workshop 15
  • 16. Acknowledgements Thanks must go first to the wonderful Ulrike Schmidt. Ulrike kept me both smiling and stretched to the very end – always more sure of my abilities than I was. I hope I have lived up to her expectations. Thanks also to Janet Treasure, my second supervisor, who could always be relied upon for prompt, succinct feedback that was never sugar coated and invariably set me off in the right direction (at 5am). The entire eating disorders team at the Institute of Psychiatry have been a real inspiration to me these past seven years (yes, it really has been that long). Special thanks to Helen, my first port of call for questions big and small as she always knows the answers. Thanks too to Jocelyn both for her personal support and her amazing ways with all things admin. Also to Miriam who was able to offer sage advice from a fellow working Mum who’d needed to find the 25th hour in the day to write her thesis. There are too many personal thanks to list here, please know I love you and I’m grateful, even if your name is not listed in this great tome. Special thanks to my grandfather who inspires me to constantly try harder and to Tom who saved me from my own eating disorder and taught me to enjoy life… and enabled me to do so even during the final stages of my thesis write up. Finally, thank you Lyra and Ellie who are too little right now to understand why Mummy has been so obsessed with this big project, but who have been a major inspiration for me to carry on. I was once told that having children was a sure fire way to ensure you 16
  • 17. do not finish your PhD. But for me, it was only when I became a mother that I understood that I owed it to the other parents out there to do all I could to protect their children from eating disorders. This thesis is just the first step. Acknowledgement of Funding This thesis presents independent research commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Programme Grants for Applied Research scheme (RP-PG-0606-1043). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. 17
  • 18. Incorporation of Published Papers Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of this thesis have already been published as papers in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (chapters 2 and 3) and the Journal of Health Education Research (chapter 4). The papers have been incorporated within this thesis exactly as they have appeared in the journals. As a result, the references, tables and figures that appear within the papers are not incorporated into the indices or reference lists of the main thesis. 18
  • 19. Chapter 1 Introduction 19
  • 20. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain an understanding of student and staff experiences of eating disorders within the UK school setting and to use this information to inform an eating disorders recognition and early intervention training programme for school staff. Further, this thesis aimed to carry out a feasibility study of this programme within UK Schools and to measure its impact on school staff’s knowledge, confidence and attitudes about eating disorders. This introductory chapter starts by identifying the eating disorders which are of interest throughout this thesis, and outlining these conditions. The incidence and prevalence of eating disorders within school aged children is then summarised in order to illustrate the vulnerability of school-aged children to eating disorders compared to those in other age categories and risk factors, comorbidity and treatment options are briefly outlined. The costs of eating disorders are then considered in terms of financial implications for health services as well as in terms of psychological, physical and quality of life costs to the individuals concerned. The chapter then goes on to define eating disorder prevention, detection and intervention before outlining a range of eating disorder prevention studies that have been carried out in schools. Due to a lack of research specifically pertaining to the early intervention of eating disorders in the school setting, the chapter next outlines the impact school staff have been shown to have on conditions such as learning problems, conduct disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). 20
  • 21. The role of school staff within mental health care is discussed before the small amount of research available regarding school staff knowledge and understanding of eating disorders is summarised. Finally, two studies are outlined which demonstrate the impact that training programmes for school staff can have in terms of knowledge, attitudes and confidence in dealing with health or mental health difficulties within the school setting. Due to the paucity of data regarding the central theme of this thesis and the broad range of topics outlined in the introductory chapter, a narrative rather than systematic review of the literature was considered most appropriate. In the final section of the introductory chapter, the remaining chapters of the thesis are outlined. 1.1 Introduction to Eating Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders A revised version of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (“DSM- 5”. American Psychiatric Association, 2013) was published in 2013. Therefore, the majority of the research within this thesis was carried out whilst the previous diagnostic manual was in effect (DSMIV American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The new definitions of eating disorders are described below and a table of the major changes to the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders is included for reference (see table 1). 21
  • 22. The DSM-5 lists seven diagnosable disorders of feeding and eating. These are:  Anorexia nervosa  Bulimia nervosa  Binge eating disorder  Feeding and eating disorders not elsewhere classified  Pica  Rumination disorder  Avoidant/Restrictive food intake disorder Of specific interest to the current thesis are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED). Pica, rumination disorder and avoidant / restrictive food intake are ‘feeding’ disorders and were listed among ‘Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence’ in DSMIV. This chapter does not exist in DSM-5 and did not form part of the original research aims of the current thesis. 1.1.1 Classification The four eating disorders of specific interest in the current thesis are outlined below. 1.1.1.1 Anorexia Nervosa A clinician may diagnose a person with anorexia nervosa according to the DSM-5 criteria if they present with the following symptoms:  The patient has reached a ‘significantly low weight’ through restriction of energy intake 22
  • 23.  Intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat, or  Persistent behaviour that interferes with weight gain  Undue influence of body shape and weight on self-evaluation  Persistent lack of recognition of the seriousness of the current low body weight 1.1.1.2 Bulimia Nervosa A clinician may diagnose a person with bulimia nervosa according to the DSM-5 criteria if they present with the following symptoms:  Recurrent episodes of binge eating where binge eating is defined as consuming an objectively large amount of food in a discrete period of time accompanied by a sense of lack of control.  Recurrent, inappropriate, compensatory behaviour aimed at preventing weight gain e.g. o self-induced vomiting o misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications o fasting o excessive exercise  The binge eating and compensatory behaviours occur at least once a week for a period of three months  Undue influence of body shape and weight on self-evaluation 23
  • 24. 1.1.1.3 Binge Eating Disorder A clinician may diagnose a person with binge eating disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria if they present with the following symptoms:  Recurrent episodes of binge eating, where binge eating is defined as consuming an objectively large amount of food in a discrete period of time accompanied by a sense of lack of control.  The binge eating episodes are associated with three or more of the following: o eating very rapidly o continuing to eat even when feeling full o eating large quantities of food when not feeling hungry o eating in isolation due to embarrassment or shame o feelings of guilt, shame or low mood following an episode of binge eating  The patient is distressed about their binge eating  The binge eating occurs at least once a week for a period of three months 1.1.1.4 Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder & Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder In addition to the three major eating disorders, individuals can be diagnosed with Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED – formerly known as Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified or ‘EDNOS’). OSFED is a diagnosis that is applied to patients who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for one of the three major eating disorders, though this diagnosis is not an indication of a less severe eating disorder, rather a different combination of symptoms. This is a relatively frequent occurrence as people 24
  • 25. with eating disorders do not always neatly fit into diagnostic categories and may suffer from symptoms or behaviours typical of more than one of the disorders without reaching the diagnostic criteria for any single disorder. Historically, EDNOS was a frequently applied diagnosis, accounting for up to fifty percent of diagnosed eating disorders (Fairburn, & Bohn, 2005). DSM-5 outlines five specific OSFED subtypes: 1. Atypical Anorexia Nervosa (i.e., anorexic features without low weight) 2. Bulimia Nervosa (of low frequency and/or limited duration) 3. Binge Eating Disorder (of low frequency and/or limited duration) 4. Purging Disorder 5. Night Eating Syndrome DSM-5 also includes a category called Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (UFED) that is reserved for cases who do not fit into any of these five categories, or for whom there is not enough information to make a specific OSFED diagnosis. The incidence of OSFED and UFED is likely to be significantly lower than the historic incidence of EDNOS as the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (“DSM-5”. American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduces major changes to the classification of eating disorders in order to better represent the symptoms and behaviours of people with eating disorders. The major changes between DSM-5 and DSMIV are outlined in table 1. 25
  • 26. Disorder DSMV Impact Anorexia Nervosa Patient must have reached 'significantly low weight' to be diagnosed DSMIV required weight to be at or below 85% of ideal body weight. The new DSM- 5 criteria enable an earlier diagnosis Anorexia Nervosa Amenorrhea is no longer listed as a criterion This criterion was not useful as there were so many exceptions to it. It cannot be applied to males, pre-menarchal females, females taking oral contraceptives and post-menopausal females. In some cases, individuals exhibit all other symptoms and signs of anorexia nervosa but still report some menstrual activity Anorexia Nervosa Removal of the idea of “refusal” to maintain an appropriate weight Disambiguates diagnosis as 'refusal' implies intention on the part of the patient and can be difficult to assess Anorexia Nervosa Persistent behaviour that interferes with weight gain added as an alternative to fear of weight gain Patients can now be diagnosed without explicitly expressing fear of weight gain Bulimia Nervosa Reduction of frequency of binge-purge behaviour required for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa from twice weekly to once weekly More patients fulfil the criteria for bulimia nervosa rather than being diagnosed with EDNOS / OSFED / UFED Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is recognised as a discrete diagnosis Patients can now be diagnosed with, and treated for Binge Eating disorder as opposed to EDNOS / OSFED / UFED Table 1 - Significant changes to the diagnosis of eating disorders under the new DSM-5 criteria 26
  • 27. 1.1.2 Epidemiology Due to the very recent introduction of revised diagnostic criteria for eating disorders with the introduction of DSM-5, the eating disorder incidence rates and prevalence rates stated throughout the current thesis are determined according to the previous versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). It is worth noting that the new diagnostic criteria are likely to result in an increase in diagnosable cases of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and a decrease of cases of OSFED / UFED (formerly ‘EDNOS’). This was a key aim of the updated diagnostic criteria (Ornstein et al., 2013). Eating disorders have a peak age of onset of 15 to 19 in females and 10-19 in males according to a recent extensive study which examined the time trends in primary care incidence of eating disorders by drawing on data from the General Practice Research Database spanning nine years to 2009 (Micali et al., 2013). Additionally, this study found an increased incidence of eating disorders at the end of the 2000s compared to the start of the 2000s. By 2009, the incidence of eating disorders in 14-19 year old girls had peaked at an incidence of 0.2% of the population. Micali et al’s study extends the findings of Currin et al. (2005) who examined the General Practice Research Database for the time period 1994-2000 and found incidences of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa remained stable (at 4.7 and 6.6 per 100,000 population for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, respectively) with a peak onset in those between the ages of 10 and 19. The reported numbers are likely to grossly underplay the true incidence of eating disorders as they take into account only the ‘detected’ incidence rates as opposed to community incidence rates. 27
  • 28. Swanson, Crow, Le Grange, Swendsen, & Merikangas, 2011 studied a community sample of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years in the USA. All participants completed a survey and researchers interviewed participants who reported eating disorder symptomology. The median ages at onset of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, were 12.3, 12.4, and 12.6 years respectively with lifetime prevalence estimates of 0.3% (anorexia nervosa), 0.9% (bulimia nervosa) and 1.6% (binge eating disorder). Machado, Machado, Gonçalves, & Hoek (2007) studied a community sample of 2028 female students aged 12-23 in Portugal. Participants completed the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire in stage one of the study, and in stage 2, 901 who met symptomology criteria were interviewed. 3.06% of participants were found to have a diagnosable eating disorder. Prevalence for anorexia nervosa was 0.39% and for bulimia nervosa 0.30%. A far higher prevalence of 2.37% was reported for eating disorders not otherwise specified. The data do not take into account those individuals with eating disorder like thoughts and behaviours and who may have a subclinical or prodromal form of the disorder. In a study by Cotrufo, Barretta, Monteleone, & Maj (1998) in Italy of 919 female students aged 13-19 years, 2 cases of full-syndrome anorexia nervosa (0.2%), 21 cases of full- syndrome bulimia nervosa (2.3%) and 2 cases of full-syndrome binge-eating disorder (0.2%) were reported. A further 35 girls (3.8%) met the criteria for partial-syndrome and 98 girls (10.7%) fulfilled the criteria for subclinical eating disorders. Additionally, in a self-report study of 1739 12-18 year-old girls in Toronto, 27% were found to have 28
  • 29. disordered eating attitudes and behaviours (Jones, Bennett, Olmsted, Lawson, & Rodin, 2001). 1.1.3 Risk Factors For the purpose of this thesis, the term risk factor is understood according to the definition use by Jacobi, Hayward, De Zwaan, Kraemer & Agras (2004) in their comprehensive review of the risk factors for eating disorders: “A measurable characteristic of each subject in a specified population which precedes the outcome of interest and which can be shown to divide the population into two groups: a high-risk group and a low-risk group. The probability in the high-risk group must be shown to be greater than in the low-risk group.” (page 20) A series of potential eating disorder risk factors are considered briefly in turn, focusing on those factors which are more likely to be observable in adolescents by school staff. 1.1.3.1 Gender Eating disorders are consistently found to be more prevalent in females than males, both within clinical and non-clinical populations (Jacobi et al., 2004). Population based studies indicate a ratio of ten to one female to male ratio for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (Wittchen, Nelson & Lachner, 1998) based on a sample of 3021 14 to 24 year olds, and a ratio of 2.5 to 1 female to male ratio for binge eating disorder (Spitzer et al., 1992) based on a community sample of 1984 18-60 year olds. 29
  • 30. 1.1.3.2 Ethnicity In her review of the literature Jacobi et al., (2004) found no clear relationship between ethnic status and eating disorder prevalence. Likewise in a meta-analysis of six studies of ethnicity and body dissatisfaction among US women, Grabe & Hyde (2006) challenged the commonly held belief that body dissatisfaction is greatest amongst white women suggesting that minority ethnic groups were no more, or less likely to develop eating disorders than their Caucasian peers. More recent studies demonstrate that abnormal eating behaviours do occur in some ethnic minority groups and may be more prevalent than in non-ethnic minorities (Marques et al., 2011). These authors drew on pooled data from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Studies, to compare the prevalence, correlates of functional impairment, and service utilisation for eating disorders across Hispanic, Asian and African Americans living in the United States to non-Latino Whites (Marques et al 2011). The prevalence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa was found to be similar in all groups examined, whilst bulimia nervosa was found to be more prevalent amongst Latinos and African Americans than non-Latino whites. In a UK based study that established the prevalence and correlates of disordered eating in a general population in South East London, Solmi, Hatch, Hotopf, Treasure & Micali (2014) found that the majority of participants reporting to have disordered eating according to the SCOFF Questionnaire, were of an ethnic minority. Participants of Asian or mixed other ethnicity had the highest prevalence of disordered eating (14.8% and 16.1%), followed by those of Black Caribbean and African ethnicity (12.8%). White participants had a disordered eating prevalence of 7.8%. 30
  • 31. 1.1.3.3 Age As outlined above, eating disorders have a peak age of onset of 15 to 19 in females and 10-19 in males (Micali et al., 2013; Currin et al., 2005). Of note is the fact that age is also a factor related to the onset of other psychiatric disorders so it is possible that the relationship between age and eating disorders incidence is a complex one. 1.1.3.4 Psychiatric Disturbance It is common for eating disorder patients to have dual diagnoses, with eating disorders being highly comorbid with other conditions such as affective disorders, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders (Herzog, Keller, Sacks, Yeh & Lavori , 1992; Milos, Spindler & Schnyder 2004; Zaider, Johnson, & Cockell, 2000). Here it is important to consider chronology i.e. is the eating disorder a risk factor for the comorbid illness or vice versa or do both arise simultaneously? This can be somewhat disambiguated by employing prospective studies, which follow a group of people over a period of time in addition to cross-sectional studies which provide a ‘snapshot’ of the characteristics of a given population at one point in time. In order to gain an understanding of the causal nature of the relationships between eating disorders and personality disorders, Råstam (1992) considered chronology of onset and reported that obsessive compulsive personality disorder was the only personality disorder that was pre-morbid in eating disorder patients. 31
  • 32. In a population based cohort study reported over three years, Patton, Selzer, Coffey, Carlin, & Wolfe (1999) reported that psychiatric morbidity predicted the onset of eating disorders (both full and partial syndromes) in 1699 male and female Australian High School students. Participants in the highest psychiatric morbidity category were found to be seven times more likely to develop an eating disorder. In a study of comorbidity of anxiety and eating disorders, Swinbourne et al (2012) reported that of 100 women presenting for treatment of an eating disorder, 65 also met the criteria for at least one comorbid anxiety disorder. Of these, 69% reported that the anxiety disorder had preceded the eating disorder. The most prevalent diagnosis was social phobia (42%) followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (26%) and generalised anxiety disorder (23%). 1.1.3.5 Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse, has been widely reported as a risk factor for eating disorders (Jacobi et al., 2004). In a prospective study, Brown, Russell, Thornton & Dunn (1997) found that 34% of patients with eating disorders reported childhood sexual abuse compared to 20% of controls. In a cross-sectional study, Dansky, Brewerton, Kilpatrick & O’Neal (1997) conducted telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 3006 US women by telephone and reported the odds of having bulimia as 1.86 times higher among victims of direct assault, than non-victims whilst Garfinkel et al., (1995) found that in an epidemiological study of 8116 male and female Ontarian adults, structured interviews indicated that participants with bulimia nervosa were three times as likely to have been the victims of childhood sexual abuse as healthy participants. 32
  • 33. 1.1.3.6 Adverse Life Events Eighteen percent of Participants with bulimia nervosa (n=18/102) in a community study by Welch, Doll and Fairburn (1997) reported three or more life events in the year prior to onset compared to five percent of healthy, age-matched controls (n=10/204). This finding was not replicated in participants with anorexia nervosa. The role of life events may not be specific to eating disorders but true for psychiatric patients in general (Jacobi et al., 2004). 1.1.3.7 Body Mass Index and Weight Related Variables Childhood obesity was indicated as a risk factor for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in a community-based case-control study by Fairburn, et al (1998). 33% of 52 female participants with binge eating disorder and 40% of 102 female participants with bulimia nervosa reported childhood obesity, compared to 13-19% of 104 healthy controls. In their review of the literature, Jacobi et al (2004) found conflicting evidence as to whether higher body mass index could be considered a risk factor, with two longitudinal studies supporting this stance and three studies which did not support this relationship. 1.1.3.8 Dieting and Weight Preoccupation In their population based cohort study of 1699 Australian High School students, Patton et al., (1999) reported that female subjects who dieted at a severe level were 18 times more likely to develop an eating disorder than those who did not diet, and female participants who dieted at a moderate level were five times more likely to develop an eating disorder than those who did not diet. In a three-year prospective analysis of 33
  • 34. 939 adolescent girls, Killen et al., (1994) reported that girls scoring in the highest quartile in a measure of weight concerns were six times more likely to develop an eating disorder within three years than those scoring on the lowest quartile for weight concerns. These studies provide evidence that amongst the adolescent population, dieting and weight concern may act as predictive risk factors or prodromes for eating disorders. 1.1.3.9 Early Childhood Eating and Digestive Problems In a longitudinal study of 659 children and their mothers by Marchi & Cohen, 1990, it was reported that pica and early digestive problems were linked to later bulimic symptoms. Sufferers of pica during early childhood were reportedly seven times more at risk of a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa in adulthood than controls. Digestive problems and selective eating were linked to later anorexic symptoms. Kotler, Cohen, Davies, Pine, & Walsh (2001) reported a longitudinal study of 800 US children and their mothers which found that unpleasant meals and mealtime struggles between 1 and 10 years were predictive for a later diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. A 14-month surveillance study of childhood eating disorders conducted by Nicholls, Lynn & Viner (2011) reported a history of early feeding problems was reported in around 21% of cases (66% none, 13% unknown), across all eating disorder diagnoses. The feeding difficulties experienced were described as picky, fussy, faddy or restrictive and the researchers noted the relative severity of these feeding difficulties. For example, one case was described as being fussy until the age of nine, 34
  • 35. another consumed solely milk until the age of three and one four year old was described as being unaware of their hunger and unable to tolerate lumps in their food. 1.1.3.10 Family Interaction Styles Shoebridge & Gowers (2000) reported a wide range of high concern attitudes and behaviours to be more frequent in mothers of four anorexic patients compared with matched healthy controls and that these behaviours preceded rather than accompanied the diagnosis. Similarly, Webster & Palmer (2000) reported that women with bulimia nervosa (but not those with anorexia nervosa) reported significantly more indifference, discord, lack of care and overall adversity in their family life than healthy controls. This pattern did not differ significantly from that reported by women with major depression so these experiences may be non-specific. 1.1.3.11 Low Self-Esteem German patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, (N = 33); bulimia nervosa, (N = 38) and binge eating disorder, (N = 28) were all found to display lower self-esteem and higher feelings of ineffectiveness according to the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scales when compared with healthy controls and, to a lesser extent when compared with patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. More recently, Ackard, Fulkerson, & Neumark‐ Sztainer (2011) reported results from a US school-based sample of 4746 students who completed anthropometric measures and Project EAT survey items. The study indicated that the binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa group reported significantly lower self-esteem than their asymptomatic peers. 35
  • 36. 1.1.3.12 Perfectionism Fairburn et al., (1998) reported that in recovered anorexia nervosa patients, premorbid perfectionism was reported more commonly than in psychiatric controls or healthy controls. Perfectionism is widely accepted as a risk factor for anorexia nervosa (Jacobi et al, 2004), however, Gustafsson, Edlund, Kjellin, & Norring, (2010) note that perfectionism and need for control were historically considered central symptoms of the disorder but have been re-cast as risk factors. 1.1.3.13 Athletic Competition Members of professions with an emphasis on shape and weight were first highlighted as at potential risk of eating disorders by Garner & Garfinkel twenty five years ago (1978) and belief that these groups are high risk is regularly restated in the literature. In their review of risk factors, Jacobi et al (2004) found little evidence which met their review criteria to conclusively support this stance but indicated this was possibly due to the very small sample sizes involved. Incomplete data also means that where there is evidence for e.g. increased eating disorder pathology in ballet dancers, due to lack of baseline data, it is not possible to determine whether this pathology was present prior to the participants’ dancing careers (Garner, Garfkinkel, Rockert & Olmsted, 1987). Davis, Kennedy, Ravelski & Dionne (1994) carried out a study that retrospectively assessed physical activity levels prior to the onset of an eating disorder and found that 36
  • 37. those participants who went on to develop eating disorders were significantly more active than their peers. 1.1.3.14 Subclinical Eating Pathology Herzog, Hopkins, and Burns (1993) found that 15 of 33 treatment-seeking women with a partial syndrome eating disorder went on to develop a full syndrome eating disorder within 24 to 52 months whilst 6 had recovered indicating that a high proportion of patients with subclinical eating pathology will either continue to exhibit subclinical pathology or go on to develop the full syndrome. 1.1.4 Comorbidities and Consequences of Eating Disorders Despite the relatively low prevalence and incidence rates reported for eating disorders compared to other psychiatric disturbances, their significance is heightened by their severity and impact resulting in role impairment; medical complications; comorbidity; mortality and suicide. 1.1.4.1 Role Impairment In a cross-sectional study of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years, Swanson et al., (2011) judged impairment using the Sheehan Disability Scale (Leon, Olfson, Portera, Farber & Sheehan, 1997) which is designed to capture the severity of role impairment in the domains of home, school, family and social life. Of those adolescents who had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder 97.1%, 78.0% and 62.6%, respectively, reported impairment in the past 12 months 37
  • 38. and 24.2%, 10.7% and 8.7% reported severe impairment. Social impairment was the most reported impairment with 88.9% of participants with anorexia nervosa reporting some degree of social impairment. 11.6% of participants with anorexia nervosa, 14.4% of participants with bulimia nervosa and 9.8% of participants with binge eating disorder reported between one and ninety days in the previous twelve months when their impairment had been significant enough to completely prevent them from participating in normal activities. 1.1.4.2 Medical Complications In a review of medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, Mitchell & Crow (2006) reported that medical complications are frequent and often serious in patients with eating disorders, particularly those with anorexia nervosa. Medical complications can affect all organ systems and includes disorders of the skin (Strumia, 2005); gastrointestinal system (Lo, Yen & Jones, 2004; Barada et al., 2006); cardiovascular / pulmonary systems (Ohwada et al., 2005; Klein-Weigel et al., 2004; Klump, Bulik, Kaye, Treasure, & Tyson, 2009; Mitchell & Crow, 2006); skeletal system (Herzog et al., 1993; Misra et al., 2004a); and metabolism (Misra et al., 2004b; Yücel, Özbey, Polat, & Yager, 2005). In addition, the vomiting and laxative abuse commonly seen in bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa can give rise to ongoing dental and oral problems, electrolyte imbalances and their associated medical difficulties and gastro-intestinal complications (Mehler, 2011) and binge eating disorder frequently results in obesity 38
  • 39. which carries with it a series of long-term health risks such as diabetes, heart disease, elevated blood pressure and some cancers (Striegel-Moore et al., 2001). 1.1.4.3 Comorbidity Hudson, Hiripi, Pope, & Kessler (2007) conducted a face-to-face household survey of 9282 US adults and reported that anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were significantly co-morbid with other DSMIV disorders. 56.2% of respondents with anorexia nervosa, 94.5% with bulimia nervosa and 78.9% with binge eating disorder met criteria for at least 1 of the core DSM-IV disorders. Eating disorders were positively related to mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Similarly, Preti et al’s 2009 study, which drew on findings from interviews of 4139 adults in six European countries, reported that eating disorder comorbidity with a range of other mental health disorders were highly common, though treatment was rarely sought. The picture may be somewhat different for adolescent patients with eating disorders. Swanson et al., (2011) report a discrepancy between the lack of substantial comorbidity among adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa in their study of 10,123 adolescents and the high rates of comorbidity associated with anorexia nervosa in adults (Preti et al., 2009; Hudson et al., 2007) and suggest that comorbid disorders may be a consequence of anorexia nervosa. Swanson et al’s study did 39
  • 40. report high levels of comorbidity with other mental health conditions in those adolescents fulfilling the criteria for bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. 1.1.4.4 Mortality and Suicide Using computerized record linkage to the US National Death Index, Crow et al., (2009) conducted a longitudinal assessment of mortality over 25 years in 1,885 individuals with anorexia nervosa (N=177), bulimia nervosa (N=906), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (N=802). Mortality rates were reported at 4.0% for anorexia nervosa, 3.9% for bulimia nervosa, and 5.2% for eating disorders not otherwise specified. Previous studies have demonstrated particularly high mortality rates and suicidal behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa with an attempted suicide rate of 16.9% of 432 patients with anorexia nervosa in a study by Bulik et al., (2008) and a meta- analysis by Harris, & Barraclough (1997) showed a twenty three times greater risk of completed suicide in adult female patients with anorexia nervosa than in the general population. Data for adolescents, males or patients with other eating disorders were not reported; though overall, mental ill health was reported to increase the risk of completed suicide five-fold in adolescents. Swanson et al., (2011) surveyed adolescents (n=10,123) about suicide ideation, plans and attempts and reported that suicide ideation was associated with all subtypes of eating disorders including sub clinical disorders. Bulimia nervosa was associated with 40
  • 41. suicide plans and bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were associated with suicide attempts. Interestingly, adolescents with sub-threshold anorexia nervosa reported more suicide plans and attempts than those with the full syndrome disorder. A particularly strong link was demonstrated between bulimia nervosa and suicidality with 53% of the 92 adolescents surveyed reporting suicide ideation and 35% reporting suicide attempts. 1.1.5 Treatment The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines in the treatment and management of eating disorders (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2004) makes the following recommendations for the treatment of eating disorders in adolescents: All Eating Disorders:  Family members, including siblings, should be included in the treatment of adolescents with eating disorders.  Sharing of information, behavioural management advice and communications facilitation may be included in the intervention. Anorexia Nervosa  Most treatment should be provided on an outpatient basis.  The physical risk of the eating disorder must be assessed. 41
  • 42.  Where inpatient treatment is provided, psychosocial interventions should be provided alongside re-feeding. Bulimia Nervosa  Evidence based self-help programmes may form a first step.  Cognitive behaviour therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) – a specifically adapted form of CBT should be offered to adolescents with bulimia nervosa and adapted as needed to suit their age, circumstances and level of development and should include the family as appropriate. Binge Eating Disorder  Cognitive behaviour therapy for binge eating disorder (CBT-BED), a specifically adapted form of CBT, should be offered to adults with binge eating disorder. (No specific guidance is offered for adolescents). 1.1.6 Costs Eating disorders in secondary school aged children can impact on physical well-being, academic and social development and also carry a significant financial burden for the health service, especially if not treated promptly (Treasure, Claudino & Zucker, 2010). 42
  • 43. It is well documented that children with mental health problems do less well in terms of academic and social development with lasting implications for later life (Farrington, Healey & Knapp, 2004, Colman et al., 2009). Of all of the mental health disorders arising in adolescence, eating disorders have the highest rate of morbidity and mortality due to complications of the disorder and completed suicide (Rome et al., 2003). In addition to the physical ramifications of eating disorder pathology, individuals who have suffered from an eating disorder are more likely than their peers to develop comorbid mental health problems such as depression, thoughts of suicide, drug abuse and anxiety disorders (Berkman, Lohr & Bulik, 2007) which are likely to incur treatment costs and have a significant impact on the individual’s quality of life. In addition to the morbidity, mortality and disability resulting from eating disorder pathology, the impact can also be great to the individual in the short term, especially in terms of quality of life when factors such as emotional well-being, satisfaction at school or work and impact of mental and physical health on day to day life are considered. In a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to quality of life in people with eating disorders, Jenkins, Hoste, Meyer, & Blissett (2011) found that the presence of an eating disorder had a great impact on quality of life and that this appears to be true even in cases where the pathology is subclinical. 43
  • 44. 1.2 Eating Disorders: Prevention, Detection and Early Intervention The terms prevention, detection and early intervention are key terms to define and understand within the context of the current thesis, so the next section focuses firstly on applying definitions to these concepts before briefly exploring illustrative examples of existing studies. Finally the scope for prevention, detection and early intervention within the school setting is explored. 1.2.1 Defining Prevention, Detection and Early Intervention The definitions for prevention, and early intervention used within this thesis are those adopted by the UK Department for Education as this is the body which oversees the UK state education system and is therefore a key potential stakeholder in the studies contained within this thesis, and future studies informed by the current studies. The definition of prevention used will be the definition adopted by the Department for Children, Schools and Families in their review of early interventions in the UK (2010), namely: “The process of boosting children’s resilience and protecting them from potential poor outcomes. The success of a preventive strategy is evidenced by a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of a specific problem within a specific group.” (Page 9, Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2010). 44
  • 45. Prevention studies may be universal – targeting all members of a specific population, or selective, targeting specific members of the population who are considered to be at higher risk of developing e.g. an eating disorder. In the absence of a Department for Education definition of the term ‘detection’, the definition used by the Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford English Dictionary, 2013) is adopted. Namely: “The action or process of discovering the presence or existence of something.” The definition of early intervention used is the definition adopted by the Policy Review of Children and Young People (HM Treasury and Department for Education and Skills, 2007) and the Department for Children, Schools and Families in their review of early interventions in the UK (2010): “Early intervention means intervening as soon as possible to tackle problems that have already emerged for children and young people.” (Page 8, Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2010) Where ‘intervene’ is understood to mean “act so as to alter the result or course of events.” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2013). “When early intervention is understood in this way, it means that it targets specific children who have an identified need for additional support once their problems have already begun to develop but before they become serious. It 45
  • 46. aims to stop those problems from becoming entrenched and thus to prevent children and young people from experiencing unnecessarily enduring or serious symptoms.” (Early Intervention: Securing good outcomes for children and young people, Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2010. Page 8) Figure 1 - Definitions of and interactions between prevention, detection and intervention Prevention, detection and early intervention are often somewhat over-lapping processes (See figure 1). For example, in order to carry out an early intervention it is necessary to first detect the target disorder. Similarly, early intervention work may, in its own right, sometimes be considered a form of prevention. For example, if a school teacher detects a student with a subclinical eating disorder and initiates early intervention work, that work may be considered a form of prevention for the full- syndrome eating disorder. PREVENTION The process of boosting children’s resilience and protecting them from potential poor outcomes. Prevention may be universal or selective. DETECTION The action or process of discovering the presence or existence of something e.g. eating disorder symptomology. EARLY INTERVENTION Acting as soon as possible to tackle problems that have already emerged for children and young people with the aim of altering the course of events. 46
  • 47. Whilst the current thesis is primarily concerned with detection and early intervention of eating disorders, there is very little relevant literature to draw on. However, there is a large and growing, body of evidence regarding the implementation of eating disorder prevention programmes in schools which may provide some valuable lessons and directions to be applied to detection or early intervention programmes. For this reason, a narrative review of selected prevention studies is provided below. 1.2.2 Eating Disorder Prevention Studies The literature on eating disorder prevention is extensive. In their meta-analysis of the literature, Stice, Shaw & Marti (2004) identified 38 eating disorder prevention programmes evaluated in 53 separate controlled trials. Carrying out an exhaustive review of these studies is beyond the scope of the current thesis, however, examples which illustrate the key approaches to and elements of prevention are outlined in brief below, specifically those which are relevant to a high school aged audience, and therefore have most relevance to the current thesis. Eating disorder prevention programmes fall into two broad categories; universal programmes and selective programmes. Universal prevention programmes target whole populations – e.g. an entire school cohort whereas selective prevention programmes are targeted specifically at those at higher risk of developing an eating disorder. 47
  • 48. Prevention programmes may have primary, secondary or tertiary approaches. Primary prevention refers to programmes designed to prevent healthy people from developing a disease or disorder. Secondary prevention refers to interventions which are implemented following a diagnosis in order to halt or slow the progress of an the disease or disorder. Tertiary prevention focuses on helping people to manage complicated, long-term health issues in order to maximise quality of life and, where possible, to prevent further deterioration. The ultimate aim of eating disorder prevention programmes is to reduce the incidence of eating disorders amongst the sample population. This may be achieved by:  Improving general health, nutrition, and psychological well-being of participants including promotion of self-esteem and positive body image.  Enhancing media literacy and promoting critical evaluation of media messages.  Helping young people learn to manage the socio-cultural influences linked to the development of body image dissatisfaction.  Reducing teasing, including weight, shape and appearance-based teasing. 1.2.2.1 Universal Prevention Programmes Universal prevention programmes are offered to all available participants, regardless of their risk status. A wide range of formats have been developed for the delivery of universal prevention programmes including both brief interventions and longer programmes of study delivered over the course of several sessions or lessons. An example of one such approach is a recently reported prevention programme by 48
  • 49. Sharpe, Schober, Treasure, & Schmidt (2013) who report on the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a teacher-delivered eating disorders prevention programme which consisted of six fifty-minute lessons. The lessons focused on improving media literacy, understanding and reducing ‘fat talk’ (negative ritualised communications about weight and shape) and implementing positive psychology techniques including self-esteem building. Sixteen classes from three UK schools were enrolled in the study. The sample totalled 448 male and female students aged 12 to 14, of which 261 students were randomised to the intervention condition and the remaining 187 formed the control arm and received their school’s regular curriculum. Participants completed self-report questionnaires pre-intervention, post-intervention and three months post- intervention. These reports were designed to measure body esteem and eating disordered behaviours. Sharpe et al., reported significantly improved body esteem, self-esteem and reduced thin-ideal internalisation post intervention. The impact of body esteem and thin-ideal internalisation were maintained at the three month follow- up. The study did not demonstrate a reduction in eating disorder symptoms. Although Sharpe et al’s study did not demonstrate a direct impact on eating disorder symptoms, there were clear benefits to participants in terms of developing protective factors against the development of eating disorders. Other eating disorder prevention programmes focus more heavily on the development of protective factors against eating disorders as a primary aim, with the assumption that this will lead to a decrease in eating disorder symptomology over time. One such study is Irving (2000)’s programme designed to promote the acceptance of different body sizes and reduce 49
  • 50. weight-related teasing. The programme was delivered through age-appropriate puppet shows lasting approximately 20 minutes followed by an opportunity to ask questions for 20 minutes. Approximately 2,400 children in US schools grade 1-5 were exposed to the intervention. Of these, 152 first and second grade students completed an evaluation which aimed to determine what they considered the most important messages of the show. These evaluations demonstrated that the show promoted greater acceptance of diverse body shapes by discouraging teasing. Additionally, 45 fifth grade girls completed Brylinsky & Moore’s (1994) Figure Rating Scale either prior to watching the performance or afterwards. The scale is designed to determine whether respondents evaluate large body types more or less favourably than medium or thin body types. Irving reported that compared to girls who completed the figure rating scale pre-test, girls who completed the scale post-test rated large body types more favourably on three out of six items. This prevention programme had the benefit of being very brief and enjoyed by students in addition to showing a modest impact on its aim of promoting universal body size acceptance. However, the study was not followed up, so it is unknown either whether the positive impact of the programme lasted in the medium or long term, nor whether this impact translated into a change in behaviour in participants. Furthermore, there is no evidence as to whether the programme ultimately impacted on the rate of development of eating disorders amongst the studied cohorts. Wilksch & Wade (2010) took a slightly different approach with their universal eating disorder prevention programme, in that its key aim was to impact on a series of eating disorders risk factors, with a reduction in shape and weight concern being their primary aim. Two hundred and thirty four Australian eighth graders received the intervention 50
  • 51. which was delivered as a series of eight media literacy lessons. A control group of 307 eighth graders received their normal lessons. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, post intervention, and at 6-month and 30-month follow up periods. Wilksch & Wade reported that the intervention had a lasting, positive impact on shape and weight concern; dieting; body dissatisfaction; ineffectiveness and depression. This indicates that this form of prevention programme can have a significant impact on some of the major eating disorder risk factors in a universal, young adolescent, mixed gender population. It is unclear whether this reduction in risk factors translates into a reduction in eating disorder symptomology. Some studies have demonstrated that a positive impact on thin ideal internalisation and body dissatisfaction can be observed alongside an impact on dieting behaviour. This was the case in O’Dea & Abraham (2000)’s study of 470 middle school students. The 470 US middle school students aged 11-14 were allocated to either the intervention or the control programme. The control programme consisted of the students’ usual health curriculum whereas the intervention based on a programme entitled ‘Everybody’s Different’ (O’Dea, 1995) and delivered by class teachers consisted of nine weekly lessons of up to eighty minutes on the following topics: Lesson 1: Dealing with Stress  Relaxation tape.  Ways of dealing with stress.  Feeling good in your body. 51
  • 52. Lesson 2: Building a Positive Sense of Self  Building your self-esteem.  Identifying your unique features and self-image and how it might be destroyed.  “I am OK” self-esteem-building activity. Lesson 3, 4, 5: Stereotypes in our Society  Collage posters of stereotypes.  Male and female stereotypes.  Being an individual—being yourself.  Learning to accept and value differences. Lesson 6: Positive Self-Evaluation  Exploring individuality. What is unique about you?  Self-advertisement activity. Learning to value uniqueness. Lesson 7: Involving Significant Others  Ways of improving your self-image.  Receiving positive feedback from others.  Hand outline activity.  Learning to seek positive feedback from significant others. 52
  • 53. Lesson 8: Relationship Skills  How other people affect our self-image.  Dealing with relationships.  Video of self-esteem.  Role plays. Lesson 9: Communication Skills  Games and activities to build self-esteem.  Pictionary game.  Programme evaluation by students and teachers. (O’Dea & Abraham, 2000) Participants completed a range of measures before the programme, directly following the programme and three months after the completion of the programme. The measures included were:  The Eating Disorders Inventory (Garner et al, 1983)  The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1985)  The Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961)  The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Speilberger, 1983)  Demographic, food habits, and body image questionnaires (O’Dea, Abraham, & Heard, 1996)  And Six Physical Appearance Ratings (O’Dea et al, 1996) 53
  • 54. O’Dea and Abraham reported a positive impact of the intervention on participants’ thin ideal internalisation and dieting at 12 months but not directly post-test compared to controls. Conversely, effects were reported for body dissatisfaction at post-test but not at 12-months. The study also reported a shift in participant attitudes suggesting that peer group acceptability and popularity had become less important to them implying it may be possible to modify the susceptibility of adolescents to peer pressure and cultural ideals. Further studies would be needed to determine whether these qualitative observations were translated into an impact on participants’ behaviour or eating pathology. O’Dea and Abraham’s study is unusual in that there is relatively detailed consideration of the role of pedagogy involved in the development and delivery of the intervention. The intervention was designed to be student-centred and interactive in order to promote learning and skill development (Hill & Hill, 1990) – it’s possible that this consideration about what would make for effective, impactful learning may have had a significant impact of the efficacy of the programme. Many other studies either do not take pedagogy factors into consideration, or do not report them and in many cases, programmes are developed by researchers with clinical rather than educational expertise. Findings from a range of universal eating disorder prevention trials aimed at school- aged participants not outlined in the narrative above are summarised in table 2, below, for reference. 54
  • 55. Study Sample Intervention Findings Buddeberg- Fischer et al. (1998) 314 middle school boys and girls mean age 16.1 Didactic. Provided information on normative physical development, nutrition, healthy weight- control behaviours, eating disorders, and risk factors for eating disorders. No significant intervention effects on eating disorder symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, or physical symptoms at termination relative to an assessment-only control group. Dalle Grave et al. (2001) 106 middle school girls and boys mean age 11.6 Interactive. Provided information about eating disorders and risk factors for eating disorders. Attempted to reduce over-evaluation of appearance and promote self-acceptance and healthy weight control behaviours. Effects for knowledge at post-test and 6-month follow-up relative to an assessment-only control group, but no effects for body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect, or eating pathology. Jerome (1987, 1991) 135 and 109 high school girls and boys mean age 15.1; 15.7 Psycho-educational video. Described bulimia nervosa and detailed the processes that putatively cause development of this eating disorder. Effect for knowledge relative to assessment-only controls at post-test in first trial, but no effects for perceived pressure to be thin, body dissatisfaction, dieting, or eating pathology. Effects for knowledge at post-test in second trial, but no effects for body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect, or eating pathology. 55
  • 56. Kater et al. (2002) 415 grade and middle school girls and boys mean age 10.0 Psycho-educational. Provided information on determinants of body shape and healthy weight- control behaviours and promoted body acceptance, coping skills, and critical thinking about mass media. No effects for knowledge, healthy weight-control behaviours, thin-ideal internalisation, body satisfaction, or negative affect at post-test for girls or boys relative to assessment-only controls. Killen et al. (1993) 838 middle school girls mean age 12.4 Didactic psycho-educational. Provided information on harmful effects of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, promoted healthy weight-control practices, and taught coping skills to resist sociocultural pressures for thinness. Effect for knowledge relative to assessment-only controls at post-test, but no effect at 24-month follow-up. No effects for healthy weight- control behaviours, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect, eating pathology, or body mass at post-test or follow- up. Kusel (1999) 172 middle school girls mean age 10.1 Media literacy program promoted resistance to sociocultural pressure for thinness by enhancing critical viewing of mass media. Effects for thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and negative affect relative to assessment-only controls at post-test, but no effects for eating pathology; no effects at 3-month follow-up. 56
  • 57. Moreno & Thelen (1993) 219 middle school girls mean age 13.75 Didactic psycho-educational presentation. Provided information on eating disorders, consequences and putative causes of eating pathology, healthy weight-control behaviours, and peer pressure resistance skills. Delivered by a research assistant (Study 1) and a home economics teacher (Study 2). Effects for knowledge and behavioural intentions to diet at post-test and 1-month follow-up relative to assessment-only controls in both trials. Neumark- Sztainer, Butler, & Palti (1995) 341 high school girls mean age 15.3 Didactic psycho-educational. Presented information on healthy weight-control behaviours, body image, eating disorders, putative causes of eating disorders, and social pressure resistance skills. Effects for knowledge and eating pathology at 1-month follow-up; knowledge, healthy weight-control behaviours, dieting, and binge eating at 6-month follow-up; and binge eating at 24- month follow-up. Neumark- Sztainer, Sherwood, Coller, & Hannan (2000) 208 girl scouts mean age 10.6 Provided psycho-educational information on normative physical development. Included self- esteem enhancement exercises and interactive activities focused on helping adolescents become critical consumers of thin-ideal media. Effects for knowledge at post-test but not at 3-month follow-up, and effects for thin-ideal internalization at 3-month follow-up but not at post- test, relative to waitlist controls. No effects for body dissatisfaction, dieting, or eating pathology. 57
  • 58. Outwater (1991) 50 middle school girls and boys mean age 11.5 Didactic psycho-educational. Focused on enhancing body satisfaction and self-esteem. No effects for body satisfaction or negative affect at post-test or1- month follow-up relative to an assessment-only control group. Paxton (1993) 136 high school girls mean age 14.1 Didactic psycho-educational. Provided information about sociocultural pressures; determinants of body size, nutrition, weight- control methods, and emotional eating. Interactive discussions about these topics in small groups. No effects for thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect, eating pathology, body mass, or healthy behaviours at 11-month follow-up relative to assessment-only controls. Richman (1993, 1998) 180 and 463 primary school girls and boys mean age 10.4; 10.9 Psycho-educational. Presented information on eating disorders and healthy weight-control behaviours, attempted to enhance self-esteem, and encouraged participants to resist the thin ideal. Effects for knowledge and body satisfaction compared with assessment-only controls at post-test in first trial, but no effects for dieting and eating pathology. Effects for knowledge, body satisfaction, and dieting relative to assessment-only control group at post-test, but no effects for bulimic pathology. 58
  • 59. Santonastaso et al. (1999) 265 vocational school girls mean age 16.1 Provided psycho-educational information about normative physical development and eating disorders. Girls engaged in unstructured discussions about topics such as body image concerns, sociocultural pressures, and coping with stress. Effects for body dissatisfaction at 12-month follow-up relative to assessment-only controls, but no effects for body mass, negative affect, perfectionism, or eating pathology. Shepard (2001) 153 high school girls mean age 14.4 Psycho-educational interactive program provided information on sociocultural pressures, body image disturbances, dieting and healthy weight- control behaviours, and eating disorders. Effects for knowledge at post-test and follow-up relative to assessment-only controls, but no effects for thin-ideal internalisation, body dissatisfaction, or eating pathology. Smolak, Levine, & Schermer (1998a, 1998b) 222 and 266 grade school girls and boys mean age 10.0; 9.0 Didactic psycho-educational. Provided information on nutrition, healthy weight-control techniques, and diversity of body shapes and promoted critical evaluation of thin-ideal media. Effects for thin-ideal internalisation at post-test relative to assessment- only controls in first trial, but no effects for knowledge, healthy weight- control behaviours, body dissatisfaction, and dieting. No effects for knowledge, healthy weight-control behaviours, thin-ideal internalisation, body dissatisfaction, or dieting in second trial. 59
  • 60. Stewart, Carter, Drinkwater, Hainsworth, & Fairburn (2001) 459 grade school girls mean age 13.4 Interactive programme focused on resisting cultural pressures for thinness, determinants of body weight, body acceptance, effects of cognitions on emotions, nature and consequences of eating disorders, self-esteem enhancement, stress management, and healthy weight-control behaviours. Effects for knowledge, dieting, and eating pathology at both post-test and 6-month follow-up, and effects for body dissatisfaction at post-test, but not at 6-month follow-up, relative to an assessment-only control group. No effects for negative affect. Varnado- Sullivan et al. (2001) 287 grade school girls and boys mean age 12.0 Interactive psycho-educational intervention focused on the causes and consequences of body dissatisfaction, particularly cultural influences, and healthy weight-control behaviours. Effects for girls at post-test for thin-ideal internalisation and eating pathology, but not for dieting and negative affect relative to waitlist controls. Effects for boys at post-test for thin-ideal internalisation and negative affect, but not for dieting and eating pathology. Wade et al. (2003) 86 middle school girls and boys mean age 13.42 Media literacy program promoted critical evaluation of thin-ideal images. Self-esteem program promoted positive self-esteem, coping skills, and social skills. No effects on body dissatisfaction, dieting, or negative affect at post- test or at 3-month follow-up for either intervention relative to assessment-only controls. 60
  • 61. Weiss (2000) 173 high school girls mean age 14.3 Interactive program that provided information on eating pathology and risk factors for eating pathology and promoted healthy weight-control behaviours, social pressures resistance, and body satisfaction and self-esteem. Effects for knowledge at post-test and follow-up, and for body dissatisfaction at follow-up relative to assessment-only controls, but no effects for dieting, negative affect, or bulimic pathology. Withers, Twigg, Wertheim, & Paxton (2002) 242 middle school girls mean age 12.5 Psycho-educational video provided information on causes and consequences of body image and eating problems, body shape determinants, social pressures for thinness, and healthy eating. Effects for knowledge at post-test and 1-month follow-up relative to an assessment-only control condition, but no effects for body dissatisfaction or dieting. Wolf-Bloom (1999) 70 high school girls mean age 12.3 Media literacy intervention. Promoted critical viewing of media images of the thin ideal and the effects on girls and women. No effects for thin-ideal internalisation, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, or eating pathology at post-test relative to assessment-only controls. Table 2 - Descriptions of the sample, intervention content, and findings from universal eating disorder prevention trials aimed at school-aged participants not outlined in the narrative. (adapted from Stice et al., 2004) 61
  • 62. 1.2.2.2 Selective Prevention Programmes Instead of targeting the whole population, like the universal prevention programmes outlined above, selective prevention programmes are targeted specifically at those members of a population determined to be at high risk. Most commonly, selective eating disorder prevention programmes are targeted at college-aged females (see table 3). In Stice et al’s (2004) meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention studies, 19 selective interventions are outlined, of which the majority are targeted at a college- aged audience and three are targeted at a school-aged population. The studies aimed at school-aged children are outlined in the narrative below. The information about the effectiveness of prevention trials aimed at college aged students is replicated from Stice et al’s paper in table 3. Withers, Twigg, Wertheim & Paxton (2002) reported a selective eating disorders prevention programme in which 242 12 to 13-year-old girls were either shown an intervention videotape on dieting and body image (N=115) or given no intervention. The intervention videotape was a twenty two minute video with the following content:  Determinants of body size and shape, variation in the “normal” female appearance, natural weight gain during puberty.  Historical and sociocultural influences on female appearance, the media's role in shaping this ideal.  The negative effects of extreme dieting, eating disorders and their harmful consequences, emotional eating and its triggers.  Healthy eating habits, the importance of healthy eating.  Suggestions for creating a healthy body image and boosting self-image. 62
  • 63. All participants completed pre, post and one-month follow up questionnaires. The intervention was reported to have a significant positive impact on attitude and knowledge at post-intervention but attitude only at one month follow-up. The intervention had no significant impact on body dissatisfaction or dieting behaviour. Bearing in mind the brevity of Withers et al’s video intervention, it is perhaps unsurprising that minimal impact is reported. A longer intervention, again targeted specifically at girls, was reported by Baranowski & Hetherington (2001) who reported results of a five week intervention with twenty nine 11 to 12-year-old girls in Dundee. The intervention consisted of five, weekly sessions of an hour and a half which covered a range of topics including:  Causes and consequences of dieting.  Appraisal of body weight and shape.  Stereotypes associated with thinness and obesity.  Self-esteem.  Body-esteem.  Eating disorders and  Energy regulation. A control group received a series of lessons on healthy eating. Participants completed questionnaires pre-intervention, post intervention and 6 months later. The questionnaires were designed to measure self-esteem, body esteem and eating pathology. Baranowski & Hetherington reported a positive impact of both the intervention programme and the control programme on dietary restraint and a marginal impact of the intervention programme on self-esteem. No impact was shown in either 63
  • 64. group for body dissatisfaction, negative affect or eating pathology. The authors argue that the programme may have been more effective with older, more at risk girls. A programme which appears to have proven more impactful with 11-12-year old girls than Baranowski & Hetherington’s programme is McVey, Davis, Tweed, & Shaw (2004)’s selective eating disorders prevention programme. The programme aimed to improve body image satisfaction, self-esteem and eating attitudes and behaviours and was delivered in the form of a life-skills programme consisting of six, weekly, fifty- minute sessions. The content covered in the sessions included:  Media influences: Unrealistic ‘‘ideal’’ body shapes portrayed in the media and how these images are related to girls’ perception of themselves, as well as the various methods that the media employ to create a ‘‘perfect’’ image of beauty.  Enhancing self-esteem and body image: Ways to promote positive self- esteem and body image, including ways to lower the importance placed on physical appearance as a sole barometer for self-worth.  Body size acceptance: Genetic influences on body shape, the negative effects of shifting an individual’s weight beyond the natural weight range, and acceptance and awareness of individual differences in body shape and size.  Healthy living: A non-dieting approach to healthy eating and active living.  Stress management: Stress management techniques that focus on assertive styles of communication and social problem-solving strategies to help attenuate the negative influences of stress on body image concerns. 64
  • 65.  Positive relationships: Identifying healthy versus unhealthy relationships, applying problem-solving strategies to issues related to peer relations and negative comments about weight and shape. 182 girls participated in the intervention, whilst 76 girls completed the control condition. All participants completed measures of  Body images satisfaction,  Global self-esteem,  Eating disorders attitudes and behaviours and  Perfectionism. Measures were completed before, one week after, six months after and twelve months after the six week intervention. The intervention was reported to be successful in improving body image satisfaction and global self-esteem, and in reducing dieting attitude scores one week post- intervention and three months post-intervention. However, this impact was not maintained at the 12 month follow-up. This is important to note as many studies do not include a longer term follow-up and may be assumed to be successful in the medium and long-term if e.g. 3-month follow up reports show that the intervention’s impact is maintained. McVey et al’s study demonstrates the impact that an eating disorders prevention programme can have in terms of influencing risk factors which pre-dispose girls to eating disorders in the short term, whilst raising questions about how best to ensure that this impact is maintained in the longer term. 65
  • 66. Compared to the studies outlined above, Stice, Trost, & Chase took an even more targeted approach with their 2003 intervention aimed at adolescent girls. Not only was the intervention delivered only to girls, like the studies above, but additionally only girls who believed themselves to have body image concerns were invited to participate in the intervention. One hundred and forty eight girls, with self-reported body image concerns, between the ages of 13 and 20-years-old were randomised to one of two interventions or to a waitlist control group. The first intervention was a healthy weight control intervention delivered over three sessions with the stated aims of helping participants develop a lasting healthy lifestyle incorporating a balanced diet and regular moderate exercise, ultimately resulting in weight control and consequent body satisfaction. The second intervention was a three session dissonance based intervention with the stated aims of helping to improve body satisfaction through the act of discussing how to help avoid body image problems. Participants completed measures at baseline, directly post-intervention and at three follow-ups: one, three and six months post-intervention. The measures, in the form of self-report questionnaires, were designed to measure the following:  Thin-Ideal Internalisation,  Body Dissatisfaction,  Dieting,  Negative Affect and 66
  • 67.  Bulimic Symptoms. The results of the intervention were:  Thin-Ideal Internalisation: o A significant decrease in thin-ideal internalisation was found in participants in the dissonance intervention directly post intervention and at the one month, three month and six month follow-up points. o A significant decrease in thin-ideal internalisation was found in participants in the healthy weight intervention directly post-intervention. This effect was maintained at the one month follow-up but not beyond this point. o Waitlist control participants showed significant decreases in thin-ideal internalisation from baseline to 3-month follow-up.  Body Dissatisfaction: o Dissonance intervention participants showed significant reductions in body dissatisfaction from baseline to post-intervention. This effect was not maintained. o Healthy weight intervention participants and waitlist participants did not show a reduction in body dissatisfaction. 67
  • 68.  Dieting o Dissonance intervention participants showed significant reductions in dieting from baseline to termination. This effect was maintained at one, three and six month follow-ups. o Healthy weight intervention participants showed significant reductions in dieting from baseline to termination. This effect was maintained at one, three and six month follow-ups. o Waitlist control participants showed significant reductions in dieting from baseline to one and three month follow-ups.  Negative Affect: o Dissonance intervention participants showed significant reductions in negative affect from baseline to three month follow-up but not directly post-intervention or one or six month follow-ups. o Healthy weight intervention participants showed significant reductions in negative affect from baseline to post-intervention. This effect was maintained at one, three and six month follow-ups. o Waitlist control participants did not show significant reductions in negative affect.  Bulimic Symptoms: o Dissonance intervention participants showed significant reductions in bulimic symptoms from baseline to post-intervention and at the three month follow-up but not directly at the one or six month follow-ups. 68
  • 69. o Healthy weight intervention participants showed significant reductions in bulimic symptoms from baseline to termination. This effect was maintained at one, three and six month follow-ups. o Waitlist control participants did not show significant reductions in bulimic symptoms. This study was the first to demonstrate the positive impact of a cognitive dissonance intervention in adolescent girls. A positive impact of similar interventions had previously been reported within college-aged populations (Stice, Chase, Stormer, & Appel, 2001). This is positive as, arguably, introducing prevention measures beyond the peak age of eating disorder onset is likely to provide only a limited impact in terms of preventing eating disorder pathology (i.e. where the illness has already occurred it is too late to prevent it). However, the lack of impact demonstrated in reducing body dissatisfaction and dieting – impact on both had been observed previously in college populations – indicates either that there may be a need for further adaptation of the intervention to make it more suitable for an adolescent target group or, perhaps, that a cognitive dissonance intervention will be slightly limited in its impact when targeted at younger groups who may not yet have fully subscribed fully to the thin-ideal which the programme aimed to explore. The healthy weight intervention did demonstrate a positive impact across a wider range of measures implying that the cognitive dissonance programme’s lack of impact upon some measures may be due to a limitation with the programme rather than the target audience. The more positive impact of the healthy weight intervention than the cognitive intervention was an unexpected impact of this study whose key aim was to explore the efficacy of the cognitive dissonance intervention – but this study design offered an interesting insight 69
  • 70. into the differential impact that can be observed by using similar programme types with different age cohorts. As interventions which prove successful in a college-aged cohort may not be assumed to be efficacious with a younger audience, such studies have not been outlined in full in the current thesis. However, information regarding the effectiveness of such studies is summarised below in table 3 which is adapted from Stice et al’s meta-analysis (2004). 1.2.2.3 Conclusions Drawn from the Prevention Literature which can be used to Inform the Intervention Development The Use of Universal and Selective Prevention Programmes The literature outlined demonstrates a potential preventative role for universal prevention programmes when working with a school aged population e.g. Wilksch & Wade (2010); Sharpe et al., (2013). The impact of selective prevention programmes on food, shape and weight attitudes, beliefs and behaviours was minimal (Withers et al, 2002 and Baronwski & Hetherington, 2001) and although a significant impact was demonstrated, this was not maintained at 12 months (McVey et al., 2004). However, in a recent review of body image programmes, Yager, Diedrichs, Ricciardelly & Halliwell (2013)it was found that the majority of programmes that conducted separate analyses of the effects of their programme among high and low risk groups, greater improvements in body image and other secondary factors were reported with high risk groups (McCabe et al., 2010; O’Dea & Abraham, 2000; Weiss & Wertheim, 2005). 70
  • 71. This indicates that enabling school staff to identify those most at risk of eating disorders may enable effective prevention measures to be implemented. Body image is a malleable risk factor in children and adolescents, which is something that many teachers may be unaware of and untrained in. Further, with appropriate, preparation, support and training, teachers may be in a position to create an appropriate culture of support in their schools, tackling potential body image issues at an early stage. The Importance of Pedagogy O’Dea and Abraham ‘s (2000) study of 470 middle school students reports a positive impact on thin internalisation, dieting, body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards popularity peer acceptance. One element of the study that stands out is the direct focus on pedagogy (the method and practice of teaching). Careful consideration was given to the development and dissemination of teaching materials in order to ensure that students were engaged and motivated by the content. This suggests that when developing an intervention for school staff, pedagogy and andragogy (the method and practice of teaching of children and adults respectively) should be given careful consideration to ensure that the intervention content is developed and delivered in a style that is most likely to impact on the target audience. 71