Proceedings of the
8th European Conference on
Games Based Learning
Uni ersit of Applied SciencesUniversity of Applied Scie...
 
Proceedings of  
The 8th European Conference  
on Games Based Learning 
ECGBL 2014 
Research and Training Center for Cul...
 
Copyright The Authors, 2014. All Rights Reserved. 
No reproduction, copy or transmission may be made without written per...
i 
Contents 
Paper Title  Author(s)  Page 
No. 
Preface  viii 
Committee  ix 
Biographies   xii 
Research papers 
Volume O...
v 
Paper Title  Author(s)  Page 
No. 
Redesign Principles of Game‐Based Learning: 
Expectations From Stakeholders in a Dev...
Redesign Principles of Game-Based Learning: Expectations From
Stakeholders in a Developing Country
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
Assu...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
2. Statement of problem
DGBL has been an important mechanism in Thai education in its drive for innovat...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
2012). Parents have rather negative attitudes towards video games and demonstrate a reluctance to
encou...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
environments out-of-school and become addicted to a particular computer game. The demand of game
redesi...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
into classroom activities can increase students’ motivation and assist children to experientially grasp...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
Figure 2: Anxiety-inducing patterns of game-based learning
The data examining the anxiety of participan...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
addiction and consider design aspects to serve the objective of better knowledge based around the conte...
Poonsri Vate-U-Lan
Nolan, J. & Mcbride, M. 2013. Beyond gamification: reconceptualizing game-based learning in early child...
Steinkjer, Norway
The 9th European Conference on
Games-Based Learning
Nord-Trondelag University College
Steinkjer, Norway
...
of 14

Redesign Principles of Game-Based Learning: Expectations From Stakeholders in a Developing Country

Dr. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan's Article in Proceedings of The 8th European Conference on Games Based Learning ECGBL 2014 at Research and Training Center for Culture and Computer Science (FKI) University of Applied Sciences HTW Berlin, Germany 9‐10 October 2014 Edited by Professor Dr.‐Ing. Carsten Busch Abstract: The attraction of game-based learning is strong as the educational experience is immediately gratifying and rewarding which inspires, challenges and engages young people. This paper examines two main aspects of principles in redesigning game-based learning in both school and out-of-school contexts. In 2011 Thailand was Southeast Asia’s biggest online game market. In 2012, the Thai government implemented the one-tablet-per-child project which allocated almost one million tablets to Grade One students nation-wide. The prime stakeholder groups involved in game-based-learning in Thailand have been students, parents and teachers. These three groups held different perspectives towards the advantages and disadvantages of game-based learning but all shared the same goal which was to stimulate an enhanced learning approach among learners. This study outlines the survey and interview results which investigated perceptions and anxieties toward game-based learning. This self-administered Internet-based survey yielded 236 responses. Just over half (53.4 per cent) were teachers. Almost two fifths (39.8%) were students which included elementary, secondary and university students while 6.8 per cent were parents. The statistical measures used to present the quantitative data were the frequency tables and the f-test. The qualitative data was derived from an open-ended question and face-to-face interviews. The diverse responses to game-based learning among the three groups of participants are discussed in detail.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - Redesign Principles of Game-Based Learning: Expectations From Stakeholders in a Developing Country

  • 1. Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Games Based Learning Uni ersit of Applied SciencesUniversity of Applied Sciences HTW Berlin GermanyGermany 9-10 October 2014 Volume Two A conference managed by ACPI, UK Edited by Dr.-Ing. Carsten Busch Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 2.   Proceedings of   The 8th European Conference   on Games Based Learning  ECGBL 2014  Research and Training Center for Culture and  Computer Science (FKI)  University of Applied Sciences   HTW Berlin  Germany  9‐10 October 2014  Volume Two  Edited by  Professor Dr.‐Ing. Carsten Busch  Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 3.   Copyright The Authors, 2014. All Rights Reserved.  No reproduction, copy or transmission may be made without written permission from the individual authors.  Papers have been double‐blind peer reviewed before final submission to the conference. Initially, paper abstracts were read  and selected by the conference panel for submission as possible papers for the conference.  Many thanks to the reviewers who helped ensure the quality of the full papers.  These Conference Proceedings have been submitted to Thomson ISI for indexing. Please note that the process of indexing  can take up to a year to complete.  Further copies of this book and previous year’s proceedings can be purchased from http://academic‐bookshop.com  E‐Book ISBN: 978‐1‐910309‐57‐5  E‐Book ISSN: 2049‐100X  Book version ISBN: 978‐1‐910309‐55‐1  Book Version ISSN: 2049‐0992  CD Version ISBN: 978‐1‐910309‐56‐8  CD Version ISSN: 2049‐1018  The  electronic  version  of  the  Conference  Proceedings  is  available  to  download  from  DROPBOX.  (http://tinyurl.com/ECGBL2014). Select Download and then Direct Download to access the PDF file.  Published by Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited  Reading  UK  44‐118‐972‐4148  www.academic‐publishing.org Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 4. i  Contents  Paper Title  Author(s)  Page  No.  Preface  viii  Committee  ix  Biographies   xii  Research papers  Volume One  Mathematics Problem Solving Through Collaboration:  Game Design and Adventure  Reem Al‐Washmi, Matthew Baines, S.  Organ, Gail Hopkins and Peter  Blanchfield  1  Design of a Math Learning Game Using a Minecraft  Mod  Reem Al‐Washmi, J. Bana, Ian Knight, E.  Benson, O. Afolabi  A. Kerr, Peter  Blanchfield and Gail Hopkins  10  GameScapes and SimApps: New Techniques for  Integrating Rich Narratives With Game Mechanics  Ashish Amresh, David Clarke  and Doug  Beckwith  18  Evaluation of the Game Development Process of a  Location‐Based Mobile Game  Imran Beg, Jan Van Looy and Anissa All  26  Children's Perceptions of Real and Technology Assisted  Sport Games (Exergames): A Case Study in a Greek Kin‐ dergarten  Tharrenos Bratitsis and Irene  Papachristou  34  MoLeGaF: A Mobile Learning Games Framework  Carsten Busch, Sabine Claßnitz, André  Selmanagić and Martin Steinicke  41  Gamification and Education: A Literature Review  Ilaria Caponetto, Jeffrey Earp and  Michela Ott   50  An Assessment Engine: Educators as Editors of their  Serious Games’ Assessment   Yaëlle Chaudy, Thomas Connolly and  Thomas Hainey   58  HTML5 Canvas, User Illusions and Game Flow  Larry Crockett  68  How can Non‐Content Related Online Games be Used  to Drive Engagement in On‐Ground Classes?  Reet Cronk  77  Present or Play: Some Evidence of the Effect on  Behaviour of Serious Gaming  Tom van Dijk, Ton Spil, Sanne van der  Burg, Ivo Wenzler and Simon Dalmolen  84  Gamification of a Higher Education Course: What’s the  fun in That?  Stine Ejsing‐Duun and Helle Skovbjerg  Karoff   92  A Model to Identify Affordances for Game‐Based  Sustainability Learning  Carlo Fabricatore  and Ximena López  99  Using Gameplay Patterns to Gamify Learning  Experiences  Carlo Fabricatore and Ximena López  109  Applying the Self Determination Theory of Motivation  in Games Based Learning  David Farrell and David Moffat  118  Decimal Point: Designing and Developing an  Educational Game to Teach Decimals to Middle School  Students  Jodi Forlizzi, Bruce McLaren, Craig  Ganoe, Patrick McLaren, Grace  Kihumba, and Kimberly Lister   128  Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 5. v  Paper Title  Author(s)  Page  No.  Redesign Principles of Game‐Based Learning:  Expectations From Stakeholders in a Developing  Country  Poonsri Vate‐U‐Lan  586  Experimenting on how to Create a Sustainable  Gamified Learning Design That Supports Adult Students  When Learning Through Designing Learning Games   Charlotte Lærke Weitze  594  Encouraging Teachers to use Serious Games in Science  Teaching  Ayelet Weizman  604  Automatic Situation Recognition In Collaborative Mul‐ tiplayer Serious Games  Viktor Wendel, Marc‐André Bär, Robert  Hahn, Benedict Jahn, Max Mehltretter,  Stefan Göbel and Ralf Steinmetz  610  The Playground Game: Inquiry‐Based Learning About  Research Methods and Statistics  Wim Westera, Aad Slootmaker and Hub  Kurvers  620  Inclusion of Disaffected Youth and Avoidance of  Stigmatising Remedial Education Groups Through  Game‐Based Learning  Mats Wiklund, Peter Mozelius, Lena  Norberg and Thomas Westin  628  Effectiveness of Gamification in Vocational Technical  Education  Ong Chao Xiang  , Teh Tuan Ann, Chan  Ying Huiand Lee Tse Yew    636  Towards a Quest‐Based Contextualization Process for  Game‐Based Learning  Murat Yilmaz, Murat Saran and Rory  O’Connor  645  Implementation of Games in Mathematics and Physics  Modules   Oxana Zamyatina, Tatyana Yu.  Yurutkina, Polina Mozgaleva and  Kseniya Gulyaeva  652  Achieving Teachers' Competences in the Serious Game  Design Process  Matej Zapušek and Jože Rugelj  662  PhD Research Papers    667  Defining Effectiveness of Digital Game‐Based Learning:  A Socio‐Cognitive Approach  Anissa All, Elena Nuñez Patricia Castellar  and Jan Van Looy  669  Towards a Learning Game Evaluation Methodology in a  Training Context: A Literature Review   Fahima Djelil, Eric Sanchez, Benjamin  Albouy‐Kissi, Jean‐Marc Lavest and Adé‐ laïde Albouy‐Kissi  676  Challenges for Student´s Skills and Attitudes Within  Social Studies Conventional Simulation Games  Dana Drazilova Fialova  683  Mobile Rehabilitation Games ‐ User Experience Study  Antti Koivisto, Sari Merilampi and  Andrew Sirkka  688  Meta‐Techniques for a Social Awareness Learning  Game  Jeroen Linssen and Mariët Theune  697  A Method to Analyze Efficiency of the Story as a Moti‐ vational Element in Video Games  José Rafael López‐Arcos, Francisco Luis  Gutiérrez Vela, Natalia Padilla‐Zea and  Patricia Paderewski  705  Disaster in my Backyard: A Serious Game to Improve  Community Disaster Resilience  Kenny Meesters, Luuk Olthof and Bartel  Van de Walle  714  Robotic Teaching Assistant for “Tower of Hanoi”  Problem  Thien Nguyen Duc, Annalisa Terracina,  Massimo Mecella and Luca Iocchi  723  Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 6. Redesign Principles of Game-Based Learning: Expectations From Stakeholders in a Developing Country Poonsri Vate-U-Lan Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand poonsri.vate@gmail.com Abstract: The attraction of game-based learning is strong as the educational experience is immediately gratifying and rewarding which inspires, challenges and engages young people. This paper examines two main aspects of principles in re- designing game-based learning in both school and out-of-school contexts. In 2011 Thailand was Southeast Asia’s biggest online game market. In 2012, the Thai government implemented the one-tablet-per-child project which allocated almost one million tablets to Grade One students nation-wide. The prime stakeholder groups involved in game-based-learning in Thailand have been students, parents and teachers. These three groups held different perspectives towards the advantages and disadvantages of game-based learning but all shared the same goal which was to stimulate an enhanced learning approach among learners. This study outlines the survey and interview results which investigated perceptions and anxieties toward game-based learning. This self-administered Internet-based survey yielded 236 responses. Just over half (53.4 per cent) were teachers. Almost two fifths (39.8%) were students which included elementary, secondary and university students while 6.8 per cent were parents. The statistical measures used to present the quantitative data were the frequency tables and the f-test. The qualitative data was derived from an open-ended question and face-to-face interviews. The diverse responses to game-based learning among the three groups of participants are discussed in detail. Keywords: computer vision syndrome, digital game-based learning, game addiction, redesign principle, survey, Thailand 1. Introduction The redesign principles of game-based learning (GBL) have guided the modification of existing games in response to the demand for this type of learning. They are underpinned by social responsibility and the health of students. Worthwhile and applicable game design principles are the key pillars that generate student motivation to achieve particular learning goals and within ideal learning environments (Fabricatore 2014, Trybus 2014, Prensky 2001, Jukes et al. 2013). Digital game-based learning (DGBL) shares many similar entertainment characteristics to either a movie or a book or commercial off-the-shelf (COTs) games but the difference is the alignment with learning outcomes (Prensky 2001, Eck, 2009 Hanghøj 2011). Global technology trends involve the majority of people gaining access through the Internet via their mobile phones predominantly for two main purposes - checking social media and playing games (Galarneau 2014). The downside of such games has been reported through the media such as a user of “Cookie Run”, a ‘freemium’ game available for all ‘LINE’ users. A strategy of "freemium" is offering free access but “gamers” must pay for "premium" service – this has been a gateway for game developers to enhance their business (Griffiths 2014). For example, the joy and intensity of playing the game caused a 35 year old man to accidentally fall from the fourth floor of a terrace above a building because he was so engrossed in a game and was not concentrating on what he was doing (Pattaya Dailynews 2014). This man reported that the game made him so excited when he reached a new level that he forgot where he was laying and accidentally fell off the roof landing on the awning below bruising his arm and leg (Pattaya Dailynews 2014). In 2008, concerns were raised about the expense in playing some games. For example, a 19 year old student living in Bangkok killed a taxi driver to obtain money to continue playing ‘Grand Theft Auto’ (The Telegraph UK 2008). According to Griffiths (2014), the playing of free games among children and adolescents is one of the risk factors in the uptake of real gambling. Then, being totally absorbed, gamers can forget about everything else while engaging in the activity and it may cause psychological and behavioural problems similar to drug-induced addictions (Griffiths 2014). Thus, it has been recommended that an age verification test be incorporated into any game that requires the spending of money (Griffiths 2014). This research explored digital-based game learning (DGBL) in real life situations, but not limited only to formal school settings but also in relation to informal out-of-school settings. In practice, computer games for educational purposes have been widely used in Thailand. UNESCO Bangkok (2014) recommended the integration of ‘game-based pedagogy’ into lesson plans as many educational advantages for schools or teachers can accrue. 586 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 7. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan 2. Statement of problem DGBL has been an important mechanism in Thai education in its drive for innovation in teaching and learning. Education is one of the busiest and highly competitive industry sectors among Google play, “App store” as examples among many downloadable sites. In particular, the applications and web sites for education in the Thai context are numerous; however, the research underpinning this study indicates that appropriate guidelines for redesign principles to enhance the quality of DGBL remain sparse. 3. Research objectives This research investigated: 1) the perceptions, 2) the preferred delivery mode and 3) the anxiety levels among the main stakeholders, namely, teachers, students and parents in Thailand to determine redesign principles for DGBL. 4. Literature review DGBL has become more common in society with the capacity for delivery through multiple forms of computer devices available to students and the wider society generally. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) anticipated according to the annual growth rate projection that by 2014 the world will have more cell phone accounts than people on earth (7.3 over 7.1 billion) (Silicon India 2013, ITU 2013). In 2013, 41 per cent of the world's households were connected to the Internet while in the developed world 78 per cent were users (ITU 2013). Europe is the region with the highest level of household Internet penetration (77%) while Africa has the lowest level (7%) (ITU 2013). The number of Internet users in Thailand was expected to reach 52 million by the end of 2013 with a 3G network currently being implemented, an estimated three quarters (74.29 per cent) of the Thailand’s total population of 70 million (Williams 2013). The popular trend towards computer gaming in Thailand reflects a global phenomenon and the broader trend towards video games, which represents a fast-moving multibillion dollar business, cutting across all age groups and both genders. In Southeast Asia, Thailand has been the biggest online gaming market (We are social 2011). These trends have been similar to the USA where games were the most popular mobile phone applications (64%) followed by social networking (56%) (ITU 2011). The most searched keywords of search engines in Thailand were “game and entertainment” (Prapakamol 2014). Moreover, the Thai government reported that playing online games was the most favoured activity of Thai Internet users younger than 15 years old (Ministry of ICT of Thailand 2013). The same report showed that over half (53.6%) of Thai adolescents spent time on the Internet playing games. Thai users spent about 20 hours per week on the Internet (Ministry of ICT of Thailand 2013). A remarkable observation is that nine per cent of Thai Internet users averaged 105 hours per week on the Internet which represents over double the full-time weekly workload of employees (Ministry of ICT of Thailand 2013). Another research study in 2013 conducted with young Thai Internet users, found that almost 90 per cent of Thai children aged over six had access to computers (Momypedia 2013). Approximately half of Thai children used computers at Internet cafes, while the remainder obtained access from home and school. Young Thai students have been supported by the Thai government in the ‘One Tablet per Child Project’ (OTCP) which distributed 865,090 tablets to Grade One students aged six to seven years, in order to 1) provide education opportunity and equality and 2) enhance education quality (OTPC Project of Thailand, 2012). Crucially, the research found that Thai children spent very much (80%) of their waking time on the tablets playing games (Momypedia 2013). The same study found that about one third of Thai children who regularly play a computer game spent more than four hours a day playing games which eventually may lead to computer game addiction. This research study also warned that the risk of computer game addiction increases during long school breaks since most parents need to maintain regular work and income with children having plenty of free time alone (Momypedia 2013). 4.1 Effects of DGBL In children’s view, DGBL would seem to be the most preferred mode of learning activity in everyday life, unlike traditional pedagogical schooling with a teacher (Nolan and McBride 2013). It is perhaps hard to visualize how all games will educate effectively, as ideal DGBL needs to balance entertainment and education or being an outstanding form of “edutainment” - thus indicating the crucial issue regarding the redesign principles for DGBL. This issue needs to be considered in the context that the largest users of the virtual world and online games are children aged 3–10 years (Nolan and McBride 2013). Although DGBL has an important connection in terms of developing 21st century skills, those skills are not currently tested or explicitly valued in educational systems. This might cause teachers to be less interested in integrating DGBL into the classroom (McClarty et al. 587 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 8. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan 2012). Parents have rather negative attitudes towards video games and demonstrate a reluctance to encourage their offspring to use video gaming for educational settings (Bourgonjon et al. 2011, Gallagher 2014). In addition, the results of research has indicated students’ achievement and attitudes towards course learning from traditional, talk and chalk methods is the same as DGBL implementation (Panoutsopoulos & Sampson 2012). DGBL needs more commitment in terms of hardware and software investment and though teachers and classrooms may not alter in the short term, textbooks and laboratories are likely to change in due course (McClarty et al. 2012). Most people are biased against games – and even gamers (McGonigal 2011). One consequence takes the form of addictive behaviour perhaps caused by a design strategy of COTs games that aims to make a profit by expanding market share, gaining more users, and encouraging people to stay in a game and return frequently (PsychGuides.com 2014). Sound support from families and schools to promote appropriate usage of computer games can increase game addiction awareness significantly and early intervention can lessen the likelihood of addiction (Felicia 2011). Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) is an example of addiction inducement. It is an inexhaustible system that offers curiosity and rewards (Felicia 2011, Yousafzai et al. 2013). The MMORPGs technique may also increase users' positive attraction to the game (Felica 2011). This is an important point in terms of redesign as Felicia 2011 considered it a responsibility of designers – including education game designers - to find the right balance between addictive aspects, enjoyment/entertainment and, in terms of this study, education (Felicia 2011). Addictive game behaviour is an unwanted intrusion and it has been clearly studied. A study on computer game addiction found that it was not a widespread phenomenon among adolescents and adults (Festl et al. 2012). Researchers at Cardiff, Derby and Nottingham Trent universities recommended setting a number of measures in place to ensure that games could be enjoyed safely and sensibly as opposed to playing games that transformed young people to a "pathological" addiction (BBC News Wales 2013). The research found some gamers play up to 90 hours a session, thus warning messages were not enough. Game developers need to be more socially responsible, thus representing another dimension in design principles (Yousafzai et al. 2013). This might be brought about by legal intervention as has occurred in some countries in Asia (BBC News Wales 2013, Yousafzai et al. 2013). 4.2 Threats of computer vision syndrome – educators, beware As new technologies are changing the way people communicate, game consoles and cell phones are revolutionising the way people communicate, whilst the internet is providing lifelong learning opportunities (Jukes et al. 2013). According to the National Institute of Occupational Safety, 90 per cent of people who spend three hours or more a day at a computer will be affected by a computer vision syndrome (CVS) (Beck 2010). The recommendation to reduce the risk of CVS is to consider using the 20-20-20 rule. That is, every 20 minutes take a 20 second break and focus your eyes on something at least 20 feet away. The eyes require a much- needed break (Doctor of Optometry Canada 2014). The 20-20-20 rule is working well with a computer technology mechanism by installing software on a computer or application on a mobile device. There are many free applications with an adjustable function such as ‘Time Out’ and ’20 20 20’. The threat of CVS should be taken seriously as a research study in Malaysia of 795 college students from five universities between the ages of 18 and 25, found that the students experienced headaches along with eyestrain, with 89.9% of the students surveyed feeling at least one symptom of CVS (Reddy et al. 2013). At first glance this may seem irrelevant to the study; however, this is an added danger that educators and designers must be aware of and perhaps build breaks into the DGBL offerings for health and safety purposes. 4.3 The gap in DGBL design principles A good game design makes for a better game but also technology can make a game even smarter. DGBL design principles borrow many strategies from a COTs game but they highlight the educational purpose involved (Reeve 2013). Trybus (2014) confirmed that a well-designed game highly motivates students to immerse themselves into learning. In addition, complex scoring metrics make the feedback systems even more motivating (McGonigal 2011, Prensky 2001, McClarty et al. 2012). Furthermore, social networking technology brought games into people’s daily lives even though it was created to serve other purposes (Klopfer et al. 2009). While general game design strategies drive people to enjoy playing a game, the awareness of balancing the virtual world and the real world should be taken into design consideration. The missing part of DGBL design principles is how to create a healthy habit while using edutainment media. DGBL has been introduced into classroom environments but some children may play games not necessarily according to the education 588 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 9. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan environments out-of-school and become addicted to a particular computer game. The demand of game redesign principles is crucial to prevent this potential downside of DGBL’s effect on gamers. To date, there is an unclear set of guidelines which are underpinned by psychological techniques and computer technology advances in order to balance the enjoyable experience of playing DGBL whilst maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Based upon this brief literature review, this researcher proactively investigated the perceptions, demands and anxiety levels concerning game-based learning among three key groups of stakeholders in Thailand – students, teachers and parents. 5. Research methodology This current research employed two main research techniques: 1) survey and 2) interview to elicit both quantitative and qualitative data from the three stakeholder groups. The research instruments consisted of 1) an Internet-based self-administered survey and 2) an interview. After reviewing all relevant literature, the Internet survey form was drafted and then three experts in this field were consulted for comment and suggested revision where needed. The feedback focused on questions that needed to simplify technological jargon and avoid ambiguous words. The Thai online form was distributed through the social networking of the researcher’s page for one week in March, 2014. The invitation indicated clearly that it was for academic purposes with no incentive offered. The invitation encouraged people to disclose their opinions and experiences openly, given that game-based learning will play an important role in educational reform in Thailand and other countries. The sampling method was a snowball technique to invite readers to share this survey among their communities. The first part of the questionnaire was a demographic section asking about gender, occupation, residential location and their age group. The second part included 10 items using 5-point Likert rating scales, 2 items of multiple choice, 5 items of multiple select option or check-all-that-apply and a last item was an open-ended question. Perceptions were investigated through the rating scale questions. The delivery mode was investigated through the multiple choice questions. Lastly, selected aspects of anxiety were investigated through multiple select option questions. The interviewees were derived from the survey respondents. Two interviews with teachers were conducted through a “chat” section of a social networking platform and another interview was a face-to-face interview with a parent accompanied by a student. 6. Research result and discussion 6.1 Demographic information There were 236 responses, about three fifths were females (59.7% females or N= 141 and 40.3% males or N=95). The survey provided seven categories of occupation. Currently, Thailand is promoting the STEM curriculum which is comprised of four subject areas: science, technology, engineering and mathematics. It found that the biggest group of participants were teachers in non-STEM subjects, followed by teachers in STEM subjects, university students of a non-STEM major, university students of a STEM major, secondary school students, parents and elementary school students. (28.4% or N=67, 25% or N=59, 15.3% or N=36, 12.3% or N=29, 9.3% or N=22, 6.8% or N=16, 3% or N=7 respectively). This online survey received responses from people all over Thailand, the majority living in Bangkok followed by northern, centre, northeast and southern parts of Thailand (32.2% or N=76, 30.5% or N=76, 26.3% or N=62, 7.6% or N=18, and 3.4% or N=8 respectively). When categorized these participants fell into three main groups according to main occupations: 1) teacher, 2) student and 3) parent. The average teacher age was 37 years, for students 22 years and parents 41 years. 6.2 Perception information The respondents indicated their perception toward using game-based learning as shown in Table 1. T-tests found no statistically significant difference between the three groups of stakeholders. The top three rankings fell into the same level; those are “Strongly agree”. The highest ranking showed that all three stakeholder groups perceived game-based learning as inducing ‘fun’ into teaching and learning. They agreed that learning by digital games increased users’ motivation. The rest of the perception results from the survey presented a positive description as all “Agreed” and each standard deviation was less than one. In addition, the survey showed that, using game-based learning assisted users to gain an increased understanding of the learning material. This form of DGBL delivered more memorable content. All stakeholders believed that DGBL improved teaching and learning methods as well as enhancing teaching and learning quality overall. They were also willing to participate in DGBL in the future. Notably, the participants preferred a COTs game but indicated that using DGBL is easy to implement but this aspect was ranked lower on the Likert scale. Here lies a challenge for game designers to reduce a difficult aspect of the way to use educative games. Accordingly, games blended 589 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 10. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan into classroom activities can increase students’ motivation and assist children to experientially grasp skills and concepts relevant to their cognitive, affective and psychomotor development. Table 1: Perception of digital game-based learning Items Overall respondents’ perception Mean SD Rank Description Q1 Improve teaching and learning method 3.96 0.73 6 Agree Q2 Enhance teaching and learning quality 3.94 0.77 7 Agree Q3 Easy to implement 3.56 0.87 10 Agree Q4 Users get better understanding 4.05 0.81 4 Agree Q5 Deliver more memorable contents 3.97 0.85 5 Agree Q6 Increase users motivation 4.40 0.77 2 Strongly agree Q7 Make teaching and learning fun 4.41 0.76 1 Strongly agree Q8 Game will be a part of education in the future 3.72 0.83 8 Agree Q9 Prefer a commercial off the shelf application 3.69 0.93 9 Agree Q10 Need of support and collaborative research project 4.25 0.87 3 Strongly agree Range: 4.21-5.00 Strongly agree 3.41-4.20 Agree 2.61-3.40 Neutral 1.81-2.60 Disagree 1.00-1.80 Strongly disagree 6.3 Delivery mode of DGBL The preferred delivery mode of DGBL according to the three groups of stakeholders were somewhat similar as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Preferred delivery mode of digital game-based learning More than half of the participants chose, as the most preferred mode of delivery of game-based learning, ‘online’ through a web browser (54.7% or N= 129). The mobile application delivery mode was preferred by almost one-third of participants (31.8% or N=75). Only 13.6 per cent indicated the ‘off line’ mode, especially parents. The online mode reflected the fact that people prefer convenience by not having to install or download the application. However, the mobile application mode illustrated how people tend to access through mobile more often in the near future. The demand for an offline mode reflected the fact that the Internet might not be a stable service in some parts of Thailand. More than half of the participants or 57.2 per cent (N=135) preferred ‘Thai’ as the GBL language. English has become more important as about one third or 34.7 per cent of all respondents chose English or a bilingual format (8.1%). This suggests that Thai people today have become more familiar with English. 6.4 Anxiety information The data gathered from this online survey focused on five aspects of anxiety (Figure 2). 590 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 11. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan Figure 2: Anxiety-inducing patterns of game-based learning The data examining the anxiety of participants about selected aspects of DGBL showed that the biggest worry was the readiness of the devices and the Internet service (73.7% or N=174). The difficulty in controlling the class while using DGBL was the second concern (53.4% or N=126) with computer-game addiction very closely following (52.5% or N= 1/24). Almost half (49.6 per cent) (N=117) expressed concern about the gap between using DGBL and the actual learning objectives of each course. About one third of stakeholders (33.5% or N=79) indicated concern on the problem of violence that may be associated with computer games generally. 6.5 Open-ended answer and behavioural interview The open-ended answer and the interview data confirmed that students love to play not just DGBL but nearly all kinds of computer games. Students who have their own devices are avid game players and connect to social networking sites while in non-classroom environments. Most teachers did not allow students to use mobile devices during class as it caused students to lose concentration. Thai teachers and parents accepted that playing games is very popular. However, they found that students assumed that all kinds of games can educate them and spent much time playing games until risks emerged to addictive propensities coupled with the reduced attention to their studies. Parents found that purchasing a game and devoting extra time to playing games were effective in circumstances where children needed to achieve something. Parents understood that playing games is part of today’s generation and most games were beneficial in developing some skills even though that skill may not be recognized in educational settings. The only concern from children was that some games were not sufficiently enjoyable. Notably, all interviewees did not know about CVS or the 20-20-20 rule – an important aspect in design principles. 7. Recommendation and conclusion Based upon the literature review and the findings of this research, it seems necessary to propose a set of redesign principles for DGBL in order to provide a better approach for people in a developing country. As the perception of DGBL was very positive, this increased the importance of considering the integration of awareness to gamers in order to ensure a healthy balance between virtual activities and real life. It is acknowledged that this is both complex and of crucial importance. The existing games available on the Internet need to be refined to prevent CVS and addiction. Importantly, preventing game addiction through warnings needs to be coded into all games by setting user’s age, monitoring time spent on playing games day and night. Limitation functions need to be inbuilt and adjustable according to users’ needs and parental desires but the game designer should go one step further and provide extra scores to motivate users who can finish a game as opposed to keep on playing game in the addictive “trap”. Playing computer game wisely and having a good balance between real life and virtual reality should be a new standard that be accepted in the modern society, not just be able to play a computer game. The success of playing a game should not depend on high scores but the intelligence of the users to achieve without damaging their health. Games should also embed an advice function of the 20-20-20 rule. Referring to demand for future DGBL, the option of switching languages should also be available. The accessibility also needs to cover both normal ‘online’ and the mobile application. To offer a better DGBL, the application needs to use ‘streaming’ technology to reduce Internet bandwidth since the readiness of devices and the Internet are limited. A classroom control function should be embedded to assist teachers in order to employ DGBL easier. Tracking student progress and behaviour should be created on DGBL to assist both parents and teacher in order to monitor students playing game. DGBL should invent a way to stop game 591 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 12. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan addiction and consider design aspects to serve the objective of better knowledge based around the content and learning outcomes. Whenever the redesign principles are fully functional, DGBL will witness a reduction in user resistance in educational environments by key stakeholders, and COTs should adopt this for a sustainable use of games for future users. References BBC News Wales. 2013. Online game firms need to do more to prevent addiction say researchers [Online]. Wales. Available: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-south-east-wales-23576035 [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Beck, M. 2010. Becoming a Squinter Nation: Glasses Can Correct Near and Far, but What About Those Screens in Between? The Wall Street Journal, Health Journal. Bourgonjon, J., Valcke, M., Soetaert, R., Bram De Wever & Schellens, T. 2011. Parental Acceptance of Digital Game-based Learning. Computer & Education, 2011, 1434-1444.Doctor of Optometry Canada. 2014. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) [Online]. Available: http://doctorsofoptometry.ca/computer-vision- syndrome-cvs/ [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Eck, R. V. 2009. A Guide to Integrating COTS Games into Your Classroom. In: FERDIG, R. E. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education. New York: Information Science Reference. Fabricatore, C. 2014. Gameplay and Game Mechanics Design: A Key to Quality in Videogames [Online]. Available: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/39414829.pdf [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Felicia, P. 2011. How can violence and addiction possibly caused by digital games be avoided or managed? - In depth [Online]. Waterford: Waterford Institute of Technology. Available: http://linked.eun.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=23046&folderId=24014&name=DLFE-754.pdf [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Festl, R., Scharkow, M. & Quandt, T. 2012. Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults. Addiction Research Report, 108, 592-599. Galarneau, L. 2014. 2014 Global Gaming Stats: Who’s Playing What, and Why? [Online]. Available: http://www.bigfishgames.com/blog/2014-global-gaming-stats-whos-playing-what-and-why/ [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Gallagher, M. D. 2014. 2014 Sale, Demographic, and Usage Data Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry [Online]. Entertainment Software Association. Available: http://www.theesa.com/facts/pdfs/ESA_EF_2014.pdf [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Griffiths, M. D. 2014. Child and adolescent social gaming: What are the issues of concern? Education and Health, 32, 19-22. Hanghøj, T. 2011. Clashing and Emerging Genres: The interplay of knowledge forms in educational gaming. Design for Learning 4, 22-33.ITU. 2011. Trends in Video Games and Gaming [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/23/01/T23010000140002PDFE.pdf [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. ITU. 2013. The World in 2013 ICT Facts and Figures [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU- D/Statistics/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2013-e.pdf [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Jukes, I., Mccain, T., Crockett, L. & Prensky, M. 2013. Understand the Digital Generation [Online]. 21st Century Fluency Project. Available: https://fluency21.zendesk.com/entries/23046466-Understanding-the-Digital- Generation [Accessed 3rd Mar 2014]. Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., Groff, J. & Haas, J. 2009. Using the technology of today, in the classroom today [Online]. The Education Arcade. Available: http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf [Accessed 4th May 2014]. Mcclarty, K. L., Orr, A., Frey, P. M., Dolan, R. P., Vassileva, V. & Mcvay, A. 2012. A Literature Review of Gaming in Education [Online]. Pearson. Available: http://researchnetwork.pearson.com/wp- content/uploads/Lit_Review_of_Gaming_in_Education.pdf [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Mcgonigal, J. 2011. Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World, USA, the Penguin Group. Ministry of ICT of Thaialand 2013. Thailand Internet User Profile 2013. In: NATIONAL STATITICAL OFFICE MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) OF THAILAND & ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (PUBLIC ORGANIZATION) (eds.). Bangkok: Ministry of Information and Communication Technology of Thailand,. Momypedia, M. 2013. The Computer Game Affliction, Game Addition: Crisis Situation of Thai Children. Momypedia, 2556. 592 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 13. Poonsri Vate-U-Lan Nolan, J. & Mcbride, M. 2013. Beyond gamification: reconceptualizing game-based learning in early childhood environments. Information, Communication & Society, DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2013.808365. OTPC Project of Thailand. 2012. One Tablet PC per Child (OTPC) for Thai Education [Online]. Available: http://www.otpc.in.th/aboutus.html [Accessed 4th May 2014]. Panoutsopoulos, H. & Sampson, D. G. 2012. A Study on Exploiting Commercial Digital Games into School Context. Educational Technology & Society, 15, 15-27. Pattaya Dailynews. 2014. Cookie Run Player Reveals Cause of Accident [Online]. Available: http://www.pattayadailynews.com/pattaya-news/2014/04/07/cookie-run-player-reveals-cause-of- accident/ [Accessed 4th May 2014]. Prapakamol, M. 2014. The NO. 1 Game Site In Thailand [Online]. Bangkok: futuregamer.co.th. Available: http://www.futuregamer.co.th/product_emedia_os.php [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Prensky, M. 2001. Chapter 5 Fun, Play and Games: What Makes Games Engaging. Digital Game-Based Learning. McGraw-Hill. Psychguides.com. 2014. Video Game Addiction Symptoms, Causes and Effects [Online]. Available: http://www.psychguides.com/guides/video-game-addiction-symptoms-causes-and-effects/ [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Reddy, S. C., Low, C., Lim, Y., Low, L., Mardina, F. & Nursaleha, M. 2013. Computer vision syndrome: a study of knowledge and practices in university students. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology, 5, 161-8. Reeve, E. M. 2013. What is STEM Education? [Online]. Bangkok: The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST): Special Initiative Project Division. Available: http://dpst- apply.ipst.ac.th/specialproject/images/IPST_Global/document/IPST_STEMWorkshop_EdReeve_7May2013_ 2.pdf [Accessed May 12 2014]. Silicon India. 2013. World to have more cell phone accounts than people by 2014 [Online]. Available: http://www.siliconindia.com/magazine_articles/World_to_have_more_cell_phone_accounts_than_people _by_2014-DASD767476836.html [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. The Telegraph UK. 2008. Grand Theft Auto blamed over Thai taxi driver murder [Online]. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/thailand/2497978/Grand-Theft-Auto-blamed-over- Thai-taxi-driver-murder.html [Accessed 4th May 2014]. Trybus, J. 2014. Game-Based Learning: What it is, Why it Works, and Where it's Going [Online]. Available: http://www.newmedia.org/game-based-learning--what-it-is-why-it-works-and-where-its-going.html [Accessed 4th May 2014]. UNESCO Bangkok. 2014. Game-based Curriculum: Lesson Plans for School Teachers [Online]. Available: http://www.unescobkk.org/culture/ich/children-games/teachers/ [Accessed 4th May 2014]. We Are Social. 2011. Guide to Social, Digital and Mobile in Thailand [Online]. Available: http://www.slideshare.net/wearesocialsg/we-are-socials-guide-to-social-digital-mobile-in-thailand-nov- 2011 [Accessed 4th May 2014]. Williams, A. 2013. Thailand’s internet users set to double [Online]. Bangkok. Available: http://investvine.com/thailands-internet-users-set-to-double/ [Accessed 3rd May 2014]. Yousafzai, S., Hussain, Z. & Griffiths, M. 2013. Social responsibility in online videogaming: What should the videogame industry do? Addiction Research & Theory, 2013, 1-5. 593 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  • 14. Steinkjer, Norway The 9th European Conference on Games-Based Learning Nord-Trondelag University College Steinkjer, Norway 8-9 October 2015 For further information contact info@academic-conferences.org or telephone +44-(0)-118-972-4148 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.