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Standard Material Requirements
Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in
Corrosive Petroleu...
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MR0103-2012
NACE International i
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ii NACE International
Whenever possible, the recommended materials are identified by ac...
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(d) temperature; and
(e) time.
1.3.3 Material susceptibility to SS...
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However, cracking potential is maximized at near-ambient temperatu...
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those standards. The tables should be used only for materials that...
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1.7.1 The revision/ballot process may be used to impose new restri...
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Table 1
“Road Map” for This Standard
Material Groups
Material Grou...
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Material Groups
Material Group or
Application Conditions Allowed
A...
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8 NACE International
2.1.4 Other carbon steels shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC ...
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2.1.8.2.3 When thermal-spray coatings are applied to P-No. 1 carbo...
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2.4.1.1.2 Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) minimum; then air cool to a...
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Table 3
Chemical Composition Requirements for Austenitic Stainles...
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2.8 Duplex Stainless Steel Materials
2.8.1 Wrought and cast duple...
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(c) Harden at 621 ± 14 °C (1,150 ± 25 °F) for 4 h minimum at temp...
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2.5% Mo minimum.
or
14.5% Cr minimum,
52% Ni + Co minimum, and
12...
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Table 6
Precipitation-Hardenable Nickel Alloys, Conditions, and M...
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3.4 Titanium Alloys
3.4.1 Specific guidelines must be followed fo...
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4.2.3 The base materials listed in Sections 2 and 3 are also allo...
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(h) Galvanic effects (if the substrate material becomes exposed o...
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5.3 Unexposed Bolting
5.3.1 Unexposed bolting and fasteners may b...
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7.4 Instrumentation and Control Devices
7.4.1 Instrumentation and...
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7.7.2 Tungsten-carbide alloys, whether cast or cemented, are allo...
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7. NACE Standard TM0177 (latest revision), “Laboratory Testing of...
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29. ASTM A278/A278M (latest revision), “Standard Specification fo...
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(a) When the raw material specification lists a hardness requirem...
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B16. The user must understand that not all portable hardness test...
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
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Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments

Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking SSC in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Nace Mr0103 2012 Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments

  • 1. Providedby:www.spic.ir Standard Material Requirements Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments This NACE International standard represents a consensus of those individual members who have reviewed this document, its scope, and provisions. Its acceptance does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he or she has adopted the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not in conformance with this standard. Nothing contained in this NACE International standard is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, to manufacture, sell, or use in connection with any method, apparatus, or product covered by Letters Patent, or as indemnifying or protecting anyone against liability for infringement of Letters Patent. This standard represents minimum requirements and should in no way be interpreted as a restriction on the use of better procedures or materials. Neither is this standard intended to apply in all cases relating to the subject. Unpredictable circumstances may negate the usefulness of this standard in specific instances. NACE International assumes no responsibility for the interpretation or use of this standard by other parties and accepts responsibility for only those official NACE International interpretations issued by NACE International in accordance with its governing procedures and policies, which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual volunteers. Users of this NACE International standard are responsible for reviewing appropriate health, safety, environmental, and regulatory documents and for determining their applicability in relation to this standard prior to its use. This NACE International standard may not necessarily address all potential health and safety problems or environmental hazards associated with the use of materials, equipment, and/or operations detailed or referred to within this standard. Users of this NACE International standard are also responsible for establishing appropriate health, safety, and environmental protection practices, in consultation with appropriate regulatory authorities if necessary, to achieve compliance with any existing applicable regulatory requirements prior to the use of this standard. CAUTIONARY NOTICE: NACE International standards are subject to periodic review, and may be revised or withdrawn at any time in accordance with NACE technical committee procedures. NACE International requires that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of initial publication. The user is cautioned to obtain the latest edition. Purchasers of NACE International standards may receive current information on all standards and other NACE International publications by contacting the NACE International FirstService Department, 1440 South Creek Drive, Houston, Texas 77084-4906 (telephone +1 281-228-6200). Revised 2012-06-23 Revised 2010-10-22 Revised 2007-07-19 Revised 2005-05-23 Approved 2003-03-15 NACE International 1440 South Creek Dr. Houston, Texas 77084-4906 +1 281-228-6200 ISBN 1-57590-168-4 © 2012, NACE International NACE Standard MR0103-2012 Item 21305
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  • 3. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International i _________________________________________________________________________ Foreword This NACE standard establishes material requirements for resistance to sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in sour refinery process environments, i.e., environments that contain wet hydrogen sulfide (H2S). It is intended to be used by refineries, equipment manufacturers, engineering contractors, and construction contractors. The term “wet H2S cracking” as used in the refining industry covers a range of damage mechanisms that can occur because of the effects of hydrogen charging in wet H2S refinery or gas plant process environments. One of the types of material damage that can occur as a result of hydrogen charging is SSC of hard weldments and microstructures, which is addressed by this standard. Other types of material damage include hydrogen blistering, hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC), which are not addressed by this standard. Historically many end users, industry organizations (e.g., API (1) ), and manufacturers that have specified and supplied equipment and products such as rotating equipment and valves to the refining industry have used NACE MR0175/ISO (2) 15156 1 to establish materials requirements to prevent SSC. However, it has always been recognized that refining environments are outside the scope of NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, which was developed specifically for the oil and gas production industry. In 2000, NACE Task Group (TG) 231 was formed to develop a refinery- specific sour service materials standard. This standard is based on the good experience gained with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, but tailored to refinery environments and applications. Other references for this standard are NACE SP0296, 2 NACE Publication 8X194, 3 NACE Publication 8X294, 4 and the refining experience of the task group members. The materials, heat treatments, and materials property requirements set forth in this standard represent the best judgment and experience of TG 231 and its two sponsors, Specific Technology Group (STG) 34, “Petroleum Refining and Gas Processing Industry Corrosion,” and STG 60, “Corrosion Mechanisms.” In many cases this judgment is based on extensive experience in the oil and gas production industry, as documented in NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, and has been deemed relevant to the refining industry by the task group. (1) American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L St. NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070. (2) International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1 ch. de la Voie-Creuse, Case postale 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.
  • 4. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 ii NACE International Whenever possible, the recommended materials are identified by accepted generic descriptors (such as UNS (3) numbers) and/or accepted standards, such as AISI, (4) API, ASTM, (5) ASME, (6) ANSI, (7) or BSI (8) standards. This NACE standard updates and supersedes all previous editions of NACE Standard MR0103. It was originally prepared in 2003 and was revised in 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2012 by NACE TG 231, “Petroleum Refining Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC): Review of NACE Standard MR0103.” TG 231 is administered by STG 34, “Petroleum Refining and Gas Processing.” It is also sponsored by STG 60, “Corrosion Mechanisms.” This standard is issued by NACE International under the auspices of STG 34. In NACE standards, the terms shall, must, should, and may are used in accordance with the definitions of these terms in the NACE Publications Style Manual. The terms shall and must are used to state a requirement, and are considered mandatory. The term should is used to state something good and is recommended, but is not considered mandatory. The term may is used to state something considered optional. _________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ (3) Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys (UNS). UNS numbers are listed in Metals & Alloys in the Unified Numbering System, latest revision (Warrendale, PA: SAE International and West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International). (4) American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 1140 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036. (5) ASTM International (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. (6) ASME International (ASME), Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. (7) American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 West 43 rd St., 4 th Floor, New York, NY 10036. (8) BSI British Standards (BSI) (formerly British Standards Institution), 389 Chiswick High Road., London W4 4AL, U.K.
  • 5. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International iii _________________________________________________________________________ NACE International Standard Material Requirements Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments Contents 1. General .......................................................................................................................... 1 2. Ferrous Materials ............................................................................................................ 7 3. Nonferrous Materials..................................................................................................... 13 4. General Fabrication Requirements............................................................................... 16 5. Bolting ........................................................................................................................... 18 6. Plating, Coatings, and Diffusion Processes.................................................................. 19 7. Special Components..................................................................................................... 19 8. Valves ........................................................................................................................... 21 9. Compressors and Pumps ............................................................................................. 21 References........................................................................................................................ 21 Appendix A: Sulfide Species Plot (Nonmandatory) ......................................................... 24 Appendix B: Background Information on Hardness Testing and Requirements (Nonmandatory) .......................................................................................................... 25 Appendix C: Welding Procedure Qualification Hardness Survey Layouts (Mandatory)... 28 Appendix D: Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Considerations .......................................... 32 FIGURES: Figure A1: Sulfide Species Plot for Closed System at 25 °C (77 °C) ............................... 24 Figure C1: Hardness test locations................................................................................... 29 Figure C2: Hardness test details....................................................................................... 31 TABLES Table 1: “Road Map” for this Standard................................................................................ 6 Table 2: Maximum Hardness Requirements for P-Numbered Alloy Steels........................ 8 Table 3: Chemical Composition Requirements for Austenitic Stainless Steels ............... 11 Table 4: Maximum Hardness Requirements for Weldments in Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels........................................................................................................... 13 Table 5: Cold-Worked Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys and Maximum Hardness Requirements .............................................................................................................. 14 Table 6: Precipitation-Hardenable Nickel Alloys, Conditions, and Maximum Hardness Requirements ............................................................................................................. 15 Table 7: UNS R30035 Heat Treatments........................................................................... 15 Table 8: Titanium Alloys, Conditions, and Maximum Hardness Requirements................ 16 Table 9: Common Bolting Materials That Meet Section 2 and Section 3 Requirements.. 19 Table B1: Portable Hardness Testing Standards ............................................................. 26 Table D1: Duplex Stainless Steel Base Metal Groupings................................................. 34 _________________________________________________________________________
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  • 7. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 1 _________________________________________________________________________ Section 1: General 1.1 Scope 1.1.1 This standard establishes material requirements for resistance to SSC in sour petroleum refining and related processing environments containing H2S either as a gas or dissolved in an aqueous (liquid water) phase with or without the presence of hydrocarbon. This standard does not include and is not intended to include design specifications. Other forms of wet H2S cracking, environmental cracking, corrosion, and other modes of failure, although outside the scope of this standard, should be considered in the design and operation of equipment. Severely corrosive and/or hydrogen charging conditions may lead to failures by mechanisms other than SSC and should be mitigated by methods that are outside the scope of this standard. 1.1.2 Specifically, this standard is directed at the prevention of SSC of equipment (including pressure vessels, heat exchangers, piping, valve bodies, and pump and compressor cases) and components used in the refining industry. Prevention of SSC in carbon steel materials categorized under P-No. 1 in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) 5 is addressed by requiring compliance with NACE SP0472. 6 Note: There are a number of instances in which this standard specifically references the ASME BPVC. This reference is based on historical development of the standard, but is not intended to preclude the use of other pertinent codes and standards where they are appropriate. 1.2 Applicability 1.2.1 This standard applies to all components of equipment exposed to sour refinery environments (see Paragraph 1.3) where failure by SSC would (1) compromise the integrity of the pressure-containment system, (2) prevent the basic function of the equipment, and/or (3) prevent the equipment from being restored to an operating condition while continuing to contain pressure. 1.2.2 It is the responsibility of the user to determine the operating conditions and to specify when this standard applies. 1.2.3 It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that a material will be satisfactory in the intended environment. The user may select specific materials for use on the basis of operating conditions that include pressure, temperature, corrosiveness, and fluid properties. A variety of candidate materials may be selected from this standard for any given component. Unlisted materials may also be used based on either of the following processes: (a) If a metallurgical review based on scientific and empirical knowledge indicates that the SSC resistance will be adequate. These materials may then be proposed for inclusion into the standard using methods in Paragraph 1.6. (b) If a risk-based analysis indicates that the occurrence of SSC is acceptable in the subject application. 1.2.4 The manufacturer is responsible for meeting metallurgical requirements. 1.3 Factors Contributing to SSC 1.3.1 SSC is defined as cracking of a metal under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of water and H2S. SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking resulting from absorption of atomic hydrogen that is produced by the sulfide corrosion reaction on the metal surface. 1.3.2 SSC in refining equipment is affected by complex interactions of parameters including: (a) chemical composition, strength (as indicated by hardness), heat treatment, and microstructure of the material exposed to the sour environment; (b) total tensile stress present in the material (applied plus residual); (c) the hydrogen flux generated in the material, which is a function of the environment (i.e., presence of an aqueous phase, H2S concentration, pH, and other environmental parameters such as bisulfide ion concentration and presence of free cyanides);
  • 8. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 2 NACE International (d) temperature; and (e) time. 1.3.3 Material susceptibility to SSC is primarily related to material strength (as indicated by hardness), which is affected by chemical composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Materials with high hardness generally have an increased susceptibility to SSC. 1.3.3.1 SSC has not generally been a concern for carbon steels typically used for refinery pressure vessels and piping in wet H2S service because these steels have sufficiently low hardness levels. 1.3.3.2 Improperly heat-treated materials, weld deposits, and heat-affected zones (HAZs) may contain regions of high hardness. 1.3.4 SSC susceptibility for a given material increases with increased tensile stress. 1.3.4.1 Residual stresses contribute to the overall tensile stress level. High residual stresses associated with welds increase susceptibility to SSC. 1.3.4.2 Control of weldment hardness, with or without reduction of residual stresses, is a recognized method for preventing SSC, as outlined in NACE SP0472 for P-No. 1 carbon steels. 1.3.5 Susceptibility to SSC is also related to the hydrogen permeation flux in the steel, which is primarily associated with two environmental parameters: pH and total sulfide content of the aqueous phase. In a closed system at equilibrium condition, dissolved hydrogen sulfide (H2Saq), bisulfide ion (HS – ), and sulfide ion (S 2– ) (sometimes called “soluble sulfide”) exist in an aqueous solution in different pH ranges. The sulfide species plot exhibited in Figure A1 in Appendix A (nonmandatory) shows their relative amounts present in an aqueous solution at 25 °C (77 °F) as a function of pH. At pH less than 6, H2Saq is the dominant (> 90% of total) sulfide specie present in the aqueous phase. At pH between 8 and 11, the dominant (> 90% of total) sulfide specie present in the aqueous phase is HS – . At pH greater than 13, the dominant (> 90% of total) sulfide specie present in the aqueous phase is S 2– . At pH 7, the system contains 50% H2Saq, 50% HS – , and virtually no S 2– . At pH 12, the system contains 50% HS – , 50% S 2– , and virtually no H2Saq. The total sulfide content therefore refers to the total amount of all three sulfide species present in the aqueous phase (i.e., the sum of H2Saq, HS – , and S 2– ). Typically, the hydrogen flux in steels has been found to be lowest in near-neutral pH solutions, with increasing flux at both lower and higher pH values. Corrosion at lower pH values is typically caused by H2Saq, whereas corrosion at higher pH values is typically caused by high concentrations of HS – . In many refinery sour water environments, the presence of dissolved ammonia (NH3) increases the pH, thereby increasing the solubility of H2S and resulting in a high HS – concentration. At elevated pH, the presence of free cyanides, which include dissolved hydrogen cyanide (HCNaq) and cyanide ion (CN – ), can further aggravate the degree of atomic hydrogen charging into the steel. Even though SSC susceptibility is known to increase with total sulfide content of the aqueous phase, the presence of as little as 1 ppmw total sulfide in the aqueous phase can cause SSC under conditions that promote aggressive hydrogen charging. 1.3.5.1 Some environmental conditions known to cause SSC are those containing an aqueous phase and: (a) > 50 ppmw total sulfide content in the aqueous phase; or (b)  1 ppmw total sulfide content in the aqueous phase and pH < 4; or (c)  1 ppmw total sulfide content and  20 ppmw free cyanide in the aqueous phase, and pH > 7.6; or (d) > 0.3 kPa absolute (0.05 psia) partial pressure H2S in the gas phase associated with the aqueous phase of a process. 1.3.5.2 The high-pH sour environments differentiate refinery sour service from the oil and gas production sour environments covered by NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, because many wet sour streams in production also contain carbon dioxide and hence exhibit a lower pH. Another major difference is that chloride ion concentrations tend to be significantly lower in refinery sour services than in oil production sour services. 1.3.6 The hydrogen charging potential increases with increasing temperature provided the aqueous phase is not eliminated by the elevated temperature. Elevated temperature promotes dissociation of H2S (thereby producing more monatomic hydrogen), and increases the diffusion rates of monatomic hydrogen in metals, thereby promoting hydrogen charging.
  • 9. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 3 However, cracking potential is maximized at near-ambient temperature. This distinction is important because metals can become charged during high-temperature exposure and subsequently crack during excursions to lower temperatures (such as during shutdowns). 1.3.7 The time to failure decreases as material strength, total tensile stress, and environmental charging potential increase. Exposure time to cause SSC can be very short if the other SSC factors favor susceptibility. Some susceptible equipment can fail even during short sour water excursions such as those encountered during equipment shutdowns. 1.3.8 The end user shall determine whether the parameters necessary to cause SSC exist in the process environment, and whether the equipment falls within the scope of this standard. The end user may rely on experience, risk-based analysis, or the above guidance (notably that related to environmental conditions provided in Paragraphs 1.3.5 and 1.3.6) to make this determination. When determining whether the equipment falls within the scope of this standard, consideration should be given to all plant operating scenarios and the likely impact on the materials of construction, i.e., normal operations, operational upsets, alternate (possible future) operations, and start-up/shutdown conditions (e.g., presulfiding of catalysts). 1.4 Materials Included in This Standard 1.4.1 Materials included in this standard are resistant to, but not necessarily immune to, SSC. Materials have been included based on their demonstrated resistance to SSC in field applications, in SSC laboratory testing, or both. 1.4.2 Listed materials do not all exhibit the same level of resistance to SSC. Standard laboratory SSC tests, such as those addressed in NACE Standard TM0177, 7 are accelerated and severe tests. Materials that successfully pass these tests are generally more resistant to cracking in sour service than materials that fail the tests. Many alloys included in this standard perform satisfactorily in sour service even though they may crack in laboratory tests. 1.4.3 Improper design, processing, installation, or handling can cause resistant materials to become susceptible to SSC. 1.4.4 No effort has been made in this standard to rank materials based on their relative resistance to SSC. Selection of the appropriate material for a given application depends on a number of factors, including mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and relative resistance to SSC, and is beyond the scope of this standard. 1.5 Hardness Requirements 1.5.1 Hardness is related to tensile strength, a primary factor in SSC susceptibility. Because hardness testing is nondestructive and requires relatively minor component/specimen preparation compared with tensile testing, it is commonly used by manufacturers in production quality control and by users in field inspection. As such, a maximum allowable hardness is specified as a primary requirement for many of the materials in this standard. 1.5.2 Several different hardness scales are used in this standard. The most commonly used scales are Rockwell “C” (HRC), Rockwell “B” (HRBS), Brinell (HBW), and Vickers 49 N (5 kgf) or 98 N (10 kgf) (HV 5 or HV 10). Background information on these hardness scales and the logic behind the various references is provided in Appendix B (nonmandatory). 1.5.3 Hardness testing and reporting shall be performed in strict compliance with the methods described in the appropriate ASTM or ISO standards, which are listed in the References section. Appendix B also lists the appropriate standards for the various test methods. 1.5.4 The standard test parameters (indenters, loads, and major-load dwell time) shall be used for all Rockwell hardness tests. The specimen temperature for Rockwell hardness testing shall be 10 to 35 °C (50 to 95 °F). No lubricant shall be used. Because Brinell hardness tests are only indicated for steel materials in this standard, all Brinell hardness tests shall be performed using 29.4 kN (3,000 kgf) load, a 10 mm indenter, and the standard dwell time of 10 to 15 s. 1.5.5 In some cases, maximum allowable hardness values are provided in both HRC (or HRBS) and HBW. In those instances, either scale may be used. 1.5.6 When hardness requirements are stated in HBW, and testing using stationary Brinell hardness equipment is not viable, testing shall be performed using the comparison hardness test method (commonly, but incorrectly, referred to as portable Brinell hardness testing). 1.5.7 When applicable, the conversion tables in ASTM E140 8 or ISO 18265 9 shall be used for conversion of hardness values obtained by other test methods to HRC, HRBS, or HBW values. However, tables for many materials do not exist in
  • 10. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 4 NACE International those standards. The tables should be used only for materials that are specifically listed. Conversions may be performed based on empirical data for materials that are not covered when approved by the user. When converted hardness values are used, they shall be reported in accordance with the requirements specified in ASTM E140 or ISO 18265. 1.5.8 Sufficient hardness tests shall be made to establish the actual hardness of the material being examined. Individual hardness readings exceeding the permitted value may be considered acceptable if the average of several readings taken within close proximity does not exceed the permitted value and no individual reading exceeds the specified value by more than 2 HRC (or by more than 5% in the case of HBW or HV 10). 1.5.9 Acceptance criteria for microhardness testing using Knoop or Vickers hardness test methods (see ASTM E384 10 ) are outside the scope of this standard. See Appendix B for more information. 1.5.10 The use of portable hardness testing methods to verify compliance with the requirements of this standard is prohibited unless explicitly approved by the end user. The one exception that does not require end user approval is the use of comparison hardness testing in accordance with ASTM A833 11 to evaluate weld deposits as specified in NACE SP0472. See Appendix B (nonmandatory). 1.6 Procedure for the Addition of New Materials or Processes 1.6.1 NACE’s standard letter balloting process shall be used for the addition of new materials and/or processes to this standard. 1.6.2 Materials may be balloted based on field experience and/or laboratory test data. 1.6.3 Field Experience Data Requirements 1.6.3.1 Field experience data shall fully document the alloy composition(s), condition(s), and hardness level(s), the process fluid parameters that influence SSC, and the exposure history. 1.6.3.2 In certain alloy families (such as duplex stainless steels), microstructure is also a critical variable, and shall also be documented. 1.6.4 Laboratory Test Data Requirements 1.6.4.1 The laboratory testing of materials shall be performed to a level of severity in accordance with NACE Standard TM0177. If actual service conditions are outside these limits, SSC of approved materials may be possible. 1.6.4.2 The candidate material must be tested in accordance with the test procedures established in NACE Standard TM0177. The tensile bar, C-ring, bent beam, and double-cantilever beam test specimens described in NACE Standard TM0177 are accepted test specimens. Any of these test specimens may be used. 1.6.4.3 A minimum of three test specimens from each of three different commercially prepared heats must be tested in the condition balloted for inclusion. The composition of each heat and the heat treatment(s) used shall be furnished as part of the ballot. The candidate material’s composition range and/or UNS number and its heat-treated condition requested for inclusion in this standard must be included with the ballot. 1.6.4.4 The hardness of each test specimen must be determined and reported as part of the ballot. The average hardness of each test specimen shall be the hardness of that test specimen. The minimum test specimen hardness obtained for a given heat/condition shall be the hardness of that heat/condition for the purpose of balloting. The maximum hardness requested for inclusion of the candidate material in this standard must be specified in the ballot and shall be supported by the data provided. 1.6.4.5 In certain alloy families (such as duplex stainless steels), microstructure is also a critical variable, and shall also be documented for each heat/condition. 1.6.4.6 For each of the tests performed, the testing details shall be reported as part of the ballot item being submitted. 1.7 New Restrictions and Deleted Materials
  • 11. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 5 1.7.1 The revision/ballot process may be used to impose new restrictions on materials or to delete materials from this standard. New restrictions may include such items as imposition of a maximum hardness requirement, reduction of a maximum hardness requirement, elimination of a previously acceptable heat-treatment condition, and elimination of a previously acceptable manufacturing process. 1.7.2 Affected materials in use at the time of the change that complied with a prior edition of this standard and that have not experienced H2S-enhanced environmental cracking in their current application are considered in compliance with this standard. 1.7.3 When affected materials (see Paragraph 1.7.2) are eventually removed from their current application, replacement materials must be selected from acceptable materials in the current edition of this standard to be in compliance with this standard, except as noted in Paragraph 1.7.4. 1.7.4 New equipment manufactured from affected materials, as well as equipment refurbished using new components manufactured from affected materials, may be qualified for use in specific applications in accordance with Paragraph 1.8. 1.8 Qualification of Unlisted Alloys, Conditions, and/or Processes for Specific Applications 1.8.1 Alloys, conditions, and processes that are not listed in this standard may be qualified for use in specific sour applications. This section provides the minimum requirements for compliance with this standard when unlisted alloys, conditions, and/or processes for specific applications are qualified. 1.8.2 The user shall be responsible for determining the suitability of an unlisted alloy, condition, and/or process for a specific application based on laboratory test data, field experience, and/or risk-based analysis. 1.8.3 If laboratory testing is used as an acceptance basis, testing should be performed in accordance with accepted standard test methods such as those documented in NACE Standard TM0177. 1.8.4 If field experience and/or risk-based analysis is used as an acceptance basis, a number of factors should be considered: (a) The stress level, material form, forming process, heat-treatment condition, microstructure, and mechanical properties (particularly hardness) of the field experience specimen should be well documented. (b) The environmental conditions to which the field experience specimen is exposed should be well documented. (c) The field experience exposure time should be adequate to ensure that the unlisted alloy, condition, and/or process provides resistance to SSC. 1.8.5 The suitability of the unlisted alloy, condition, and/or process for a specific application should be determined based on an evaluation of the environmental conditions in the intended specific application compared with the environmental conditions in the laboratory tests and/or the field experience. 1.8.6 The composition, material form, forming processes, heat-treatment condition, and mechanical properties of equipment manufactured using an unlisted alloy, condition, and/or process should be controlled based on the corresponding information for the laboratory test specimens and/or field experience specimens. 1.8.7 Unlisted alloys, conditions, and/or processes qualified for specific applications based on the requirements in this section shall not become part of this standard unless they are approved through the NACE balloting process. 1.9 Standard Road Map For ease of use, Table 1 provides general information by material/application group, as well as references to specific paragraphs that cover applicable material and fabrication requirements.
  • 12. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 6 NACE International Table 1 “Road Map” for This Standard Material Groups Material Group or Application Conditions Allowed Applicable Material Requirement Paragraph(s) Applicable Fabrication Requirement Paragraph(s) Carbon Steels (a) Hot-rolled (b) Annealed (c) Normalized (d) Normalized and tempered (e) Normalized, austenitized, quenched, and tempered (f) Austenitized, quenched, and tempered. 2.1 2.1.8, Section 4 Alloy Steels (a) Annealed (b) Normalized (c) Normalized and tempered (d) Normalized, austenitized, quenched, and tempered (e) Austenitized, quenched, and tempered. 2.1 2.1.8, Section 4 Ferritic Ductile Iron Annealed 2.2.2 2.2.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels Annealed 2.3 Section 4 Specific Low-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steels Quenched and double-tempered 2.4.2 2.4.3, Section 4 Austenitic Stainless Steels Solution-annealed 2.5 Section 4 Specific Austenitic Stainless Steels Solution-annealed or hot-rolled 2.6 Section 4 Highly Alloyed Austenitic Stainless Steels Solution-annealed or solution-annealed and cold-worked 2.7 Section 4 Duplex Stainless Steels Solution-annealed 2.8 2.8.2, Section 4 Precipitation- Hardenable Stainless Steels Solution-annealed and precipitation- hardened 2.9 Section 4 Solid-Solution Nickel Alloys Solution-annealed 3.1.1 Section 4 Precipitation- Hardenable Nickel Alloys Various 3.1.2 Section 4 Cobalt-Nickel- Chromium- Molybdenum Alloys Various 3.2 Section 4 Cobalt-Nickel- Chromium-Tungsten Alloys Not specified 3.3 Section 4 Titanium Alloys Various 3.4 Section 4 Aluminum Alloys Not specified 3.5 Section 4 Copper Alloys Not specified 3.6 Section 4
  • 13. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 7 Material Groups Material Group or Application Conditions Allowed Applicable Material Requirement Paragraph(s) Applicable Fabrication Requirement Paragraph(s) Applications Material Group or Application Conditions Allowed Applicable Material Requirement Paragraph(s) Applicable Fabrication Requirement Paragraph(s) Fabrication Various Section 4 Section 4 Bolting Various Section 5 N/A Platings, Coatings Various Section 6 N/A Special Components Various Section 7 Section 4 Valves Various Section 8 Section 4 Compressors and Pumps Various Section 9 Section 4 _________________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Ferrous Materials 2.1 Carbon and Alloy Steel Materials 2.1.1 For the purposes of this standard, the terms “carbon steel” and “alloy steel” refer to alloys that meet the corresponding definitions in ASTM A941. 12 2.1.2 Carbon and alloy steels shall: (a) not contain intentional additions of elements such as lead, selenium, or sulfur to improve machinability; (b) meet the criteria of Paragraphs 2.1.7, 2.1.8, and Section 4; and (c) be used in one of the following heat-treatment conditions: i. hot-rolled (carbon steels only); ii. annealed; iii. normalized; iv. normalized and tempered; v. normalized, austenitized, quenched, and tempered; or vi. austenitized, quenched, and tempered. 2.1.3 Carbon steels listed as P-No. 1 Group 1 or 2 materials in Section IX of the ASME BPVC shall meet one of the conditions listed in Paragraph 2.1.2(c). Base-metal hardness controls are not required. 2.1.3.1 Welding of P-No. 1 carbon steels shall be controlled in accordance with Paragraph 2.1.8. 2.1.3.2 Bends in P-No. 1 piping formed by heating to above the upper critical temperature (Ac3) are allowed. The material shall have met one of the conditions listed in Paragraph 2.1.2 (c) prior to forming. The hardness in the bend area shall not exceed 225 HBW. 2.1.3.3 Weld repairs in P-No. 1 castings shall be performed in accordance with the welding requirements specified in Paragraph 2.1.8.3.
  • 14. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 8 NACE International 2.1.4 Other carbon steels shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC (237 HBW). 2.1.5 Alloy steels included under the ASME BPVC Section IX P-numbers listed in Table 2 shall not exceed the indicated maximum hardness levels. Table 2 Maximum Hardness Requirements for P-Numbered Alloy Steels Alloy Steel Maximum Hardness P-No. 3 225 HBW P-No. 4 225 HBW P-No. 5A 235 HBW P-No. 5B 235 HBW P-No. 5C 235 HBW P-No. 6 235 HBW P-No. 7 235 HBW P-No. 10A 225 HBW P-No. 10B 225 HBW P-No. 10C 225 HBW P-No. 10F 225 HBW P-No. 11 225 HBW P-No. 15E 248 HBW 2.1.6 Other alloy steels shall have a maximum hardness of 22 HRC (237 HBW). 2.1.7 Cold forming of carbon and alloy steels is allowed. The material shall have met one of the conditions listed in Paragraph 2.1.2(c) prior to cold forming. Cold-formed material shall be thermally stress relieved following any cold deforming by rolling, cold forging, or another manufacturing process that results in a permanent outer fiber deformation greater than 5%. Thermal stress relief shall be performed in accordance with the applicable ASME codes, except that the minimum stress- relief temperature shall be 593 °C (1,100 °F). After stress relieving, carbon steels listed as P-No. 1 materials in Section IX of the ASME BPVC shall meet a hardness requirement of 200 HBW maximum. Other carbon and alloy steels shall meet the appropriate hardness requirements in accordance with Paragraph 2.1.4, 2.1.5, or 2.1.6. 2.1.7.1 This requirement does not apply to cold work imparted by pressure testing in accordance with the applicable code. Cold-rotary straightened pipe is allowed only when permitted in API specifications. Cold-worked line pipe fittings of ASTM A53 13 Grade B, ASTM A106 14 Grade B, API Spec 5L 15 Grade X-42, or lower-strength grades with similar chemical compositions shall contain no more than 15% cold strain, and the hardness in the strained area shall not exceed 190 HBW. 2.1.8 Welding and Overlays on Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels 2.1.8.1 Fabrication welding and weld overlays shall be performed in accordance with the general requirements listed in Section 4. 2.1.8.2 Overlays applied to carbon and alloy steels for use in sour environments shall meet the requirements listed in Paragraphs 4.2 and 4.4 and in the following subparagraphs. 2.1.8.2.1 When applied to P-No. 1 carbon steels, partial weld overlays that do not qualify as cladding in accordance with Paragraph 4.4 shall be applied in such a way that the process-contacted interface between the overlay and the base metal has a HAZ and base metal hardness within the specified limits. Methods used to control the HAZ and base metal hardness, and acceptance criteria, shall be in accordance with NACE SP0472. 2.1.8.2.2 When applied to alloy steels or to non-P-No. 1 carbon steel materials, partial weld overlays that do not qualify as cladding in accordance with Paragraph 4.4 shall be post-weld heat treated in accordance with procedures that have been shown to return the process-contacted interface between the overlay and base metal to the specified HAZ and base metal condition (i.e., hardness). Hardness acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with limits provided in Paragraphs 2.1.3 through 2.1.6, and/or 2.1.8.4, as appropriate.
  • 15. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 9 2.1.8.2.3 When thermal-spray coatings are applied to P-No. 1 carbon steel materials in such a manner that any portion of the base metal exceeds the lower critical temperature (e.g., in the case of a spray and fuse coating), the procedures used shall ensure that the base metal has HAZ and base metal hardness within the specified limits. Methods used to control the HAZ and base metal hardness, and acceptance criteria, shall be in accordance with NACE SP0472. 2.1.8.2.4 When thermal-spray coatings are applied to alloy steels or to non-P-No. 1 carbon steel materials in such a manner that any portion of the base metal exceeds the lower critical temperature (e.g., in the case of a spray and fuse coating), post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be performed in accordance with procedures that have been shown to return the base metal to the specified HAZ and base metal condition (i.e., hardness). Hardness acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with limits provided in Paragraphs 2.1.3 through 2.1.6 and/or 2.1.8.4 as appropriate. 2.1.8.3 Weldments in carbon steels listed as P-No. 1 materials in Section IX of the ASME BPVC shall be produced using one or more of the methods outlined in NACE SP0472 to prevent excessive weldment hardness. 2.1.8.4 Some industry codes (such as ASME B31.3 16 and ANSI/NBBVI (9) NB-23 17 ) allow welding of P-No. 3, P-No. 4, and P-No. 5A alloy steels without PWHT in certain circumstances. Non-PWHT procedures of this type may be used provided a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C (mandatory) has been performed on a specimen taken from the welding procedure qualification test (WPQT) coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness limits. No individual hardness reading shall exceed 248 HV 10. Other alloy steel materials shall always receive PWHT when this standard applies to ensure low hardness in the weld deposit and HAZ. When PWHT is performed, a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C shall be performed on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the PWHT time and temperature to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness limits. 2.2 Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Materials 2.2.1 Gray, austenitic, and white cast irons shall not be used as pressure-containing members. These materials may be used in internal components related to API and other appropriate standards, provided their use has been approved by the purchaser. 2.2.2 Ferritic ductile iron in accordance with ASTM A395 18 is allowed for equipment when API, ANSI, and/or other industry standards approve its use. 2.2.3 Welding is not permitted on gray cast iron or ductile iron components. 2.3 Ferritic Stainless Steel Materials 2.3.1 Ferritic stainless steels shall be in the annealed condition and shall meet the criteria of Section 4. The hardness shall not exceed 22 HRC. 2.3.2 Weldments in ferritic stainless steels shall be produced using a weld procedure qualified by performing a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness (248 HV 10 maximum). 2.4 Martensitic Stainless Steel Materials 2.4.1 Martensitic stainless steels (UNS S41000, S42000, J91150 [CA15], and J91151 [CA15M]), either cast or wrought, shall be heat treated in accordance with Paragraph 2.4.1.1 and shall meet the criteria of Section 4. The hardness shall not exceed 22 HRC. Variations containing alloying elements such as lead, selenium, or sulfur to improve machinability shall not be used. Martensitic stainless steels that are in accordance with this standard have provided satisfactory field service in some sour environments. These materials may, however, exhibit threshold stress levels in NACE Standard TM0177 laboratory tests that are lower than the levels for other materials included in this standard. 2.4.1.1 Heat-Treatment Procedure (Three-Step Process) for UNS S41000, S42000, J91150 (CA15), and J91151 (CA15M) Martensitic Stainless Steel 2.4.1.1.1 Austenitize and quench or air cool.
  • 16. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 10 NACE International 2.4.1.1.2 Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) minimum; then air cool to ambient temperature. 2.4.1.1.3 Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) minimum, but lower than the first tempering temperature; then air cool to ambient temperature. 2.4.2 Low-carbon, 12Cr-4Ni-Mo martensitic stainless steels, either cast UNS J91540 (CA6NM) or wrought UNS S42400, shall be heat treated in accordance with Paragraph 2.4.2.1. The hardness shall not exceed 23 HRC. (10) Variations containing alloying elements such as lead, selenium, or sulfur to improve machinability shall not be used. 2.4.2.1 Heat-Treatment Procedure (Three Step Process) 2.4.2.1.1 Austenitize at 1,010 °C (1,850 °F) minimum and air or oil quench to ambient temperature. 2.4.2.1.2 Temper at 649 to 691 °C (1,200 to 1,275 °F) and air cool to ambient temperature. 2.4.2.1.3 Temper at 593 to 621 °C (1,100 to 1,150 °F) and air cool to ambient temperature. 2.4.3 Welding and Overlays on Martensitic Stainless Steels 2.4.3.1 Weldments in martensitic stainless steels listed in Paragraph 2.4.1 shall undergo a PWHT at 621 °C (1,150 °F) minimum. The welding procedure shall be qualified by performing a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness (248 HV 10 maximum). 2.4.3.2 Weldments in low-carbon martensitic stainless steels identified in Paragraph 2.4.2 shall undergo a double-cycle PWHT after first being cooled to ambient temperature. The double-cycle PWHT shall consist of heating at 671 to 691 °C (1,240 to 1,275 °F), cooling to ambient temperature, followed by heating at 579 to 621 °C (1,075 to 1,150 °F). The welding procedure shall be qualified by performing a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness (255 HV 10 maximum). 2.4.3.3 Welding shall only be performed on base materials listed in Paragraph 2.4.2 that have previously been austenitized, quenched, and double-tempered. Welding between martensitic stainless steels and other materials (including carbon steels, alloy steels, and austenitic stainless steels) is outside the scope of this standard. 2.4.3.4 Overlays applied to martensitic stainless steels by thermal processes such as welding, silver brazing, or thermal-spray systems are allowed for use in sour environments. In those cases in which the lower critical temperatures are exceeded, the component shall be heat treated or thermally stress relieved in accordance with procedures that have been shown to return the base metal to the specified maximum hardness level. The procedure shall be qualified by performing a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness (248 HV 10 maximum in the case of martensitic stainless steel materials identified in Paragraph 2.4.1, and 255 HV 10 maximum in the case of low-carbon martensitic stainless steel materials identified in Paragraph 2.4.2). 2.5 Austenitic Stainless Steel Materials 2.5.1 Austenitic stainless steels shall meet the chemical composition requirements specified in Paragraph 2.5.2, shall not exceed 22 HRC, shall be in the solution-annealed and quenched or solution-annealed and thermally stabilized condition, and shall be free of cold work intended to enhance their mechanical properties. Austenitic stainless steels containing lead or selenium for the purpose of improving machinability are not allowed. 2.5.2 Chemical composition requirements for the fully austenitic wrought product forms are shown in Table 3. _______________________________ (10) Brinell hardness measurements obtained on duplex stainless steels cannot be converted to Rockwell C hardness values using existing tables in ASTM E140. Use of empirically derived tables for this hardness conversion is subject to the approval of the user.
  • 17. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 11 Table 3 Chemical Composition Requirements for Austenitic Stainless Steels (A) Element Mass Percent C 0.10 max Cr 16.0 min Ni 8.0 min Mn 2.0 max Si 2.0 max P 0.045 max S 0.04 max (A) The chemical compositions of the cast “austenitic” stainless steels often vary from those of their fully austenitic wrought counterparts to optimize casting characteristics. Many of these alloys are intentionally balanced to contain some ferrite, which renders them partially magnetic. 2.5.3 Unlisted elements, such as molybdenum, nitrogen, titanium, and niobium (columbium), are allowed, provided the chemical composition requirements in Paragraph 2.5.1 are met. 2.5.4 Higher carbon contents for UNS S30900 and UNS S31000 are allowed up to the limits of their respective specifications. 2.5.5 Welding and Overlays on Austenitic Stainless Steels Welding procedures used for welding and overlaying austenitic stainless steels do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ. 2.6 Specific Austenitic Stainless Steel Grades 2.6.1 Austenitic stainless steel UNS S20910 shall be in the solution-annealed, hot-rolled (hot/cold-worked), or cold-worked condition. The hardness shall not exceed 35 HRC. 2.6.2 Welding procedures used for welding and overlaying UNS S20910 do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ. 2.7 Highly Alloyed Austenitic Stainless Steels 2.7.1 Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels shall meet the chemical composition requirements specified in Paragraph 2.7.2 and shall be in the solution-annealed condition or solution-annealed and cold-worked condition. The hardness shall not exceed 35 HRC. Free-machining highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are not allowed. 2.7.2 The chemical composition requirements for the highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are as follows: %Ni + (2 x %Mo) > 30 and Mo > 2% or Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PREN) > 40% Where PREN is determined as shown in Equation (1): PREN = %Cr + 3.3 (%Mo + 0.5 × %W) + 16 × %N (1) NOTE: For the purposes of this standard, PREN is used only to identify a group of alloys from a chemical composition standpoint. Use of PREN to predict relative corrosion resistance is outside the scope of this standard. 2.7.3 Welding procedures used for welding and overlaying the highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ.
  • 18. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 12 NACE International 2.8 Duplex Stainless Steel Materials 2.8.1 Wrought and cast duplex stainless steel products shall be in the solution-annealed and liquid-quenched condition. Tubing shall be rapidly cooled by liquid quenching, or by air or inert gas cooling to below 315 °C (600 °F). The ferrite content shall be 35 to 65 vol%. Aging heat treatments to increase strength and/or hardness are prohibited because of the formation of embrittling phases. 2.8.1.1 The hardness of grades with PREN ≤ 40% according to Equation (1) shall not exceed 28 HRC. (10) 2.8.1.2 The hardness of grades with PREN > 40% according to Equation (1) shall not exceed 32 HRC. (10) 2.8.2 Welding of Duplex Stainless Steels 2.8.2.1 Fabrication and repair welds in all wrought and cast duplex stainless steels shall be produced using a welding procedure qualified by performing the following tests on specimens taken from the WPQT coupon(s): 2.8.2.1.1 A hardness survey shall be performed in accordance with Appendix C. The average hardness shall not exceed 310 HV, and no individual reading shall exceed 320 HV. 2.8.2.1.2 Metallographic ferrite measurements shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E562. 19 The average ferrite content in the weld deposit and HAZ shall be within the range of 35 to 65%, with a relative accuracy of 10% or lower. 2.8.2.1.3 Technical considerations for qualification of welding procedures for duplex stainless steels are included in Appendix D (nonmandatory). 2.9 Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steel Materials 2.9.1 Austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel with chemical composition in accordance with UNS S66286 shall be in either the solution-annealed and aged or solution-annealed and double-aged condition. The hardness shall not exceed 35 HRC. 2.9.2 UNS S17400 and UNS S15500 wrought martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steels shall be in either the H1150D condition (heat treated in accordance with Paragraph 2.9.2.2) or H1150M condition (heat treated in accordance with Paragraph 2.9.2.3). The hardness shall not exceed 33 HRC. ASTM A747 20 CB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2 castings shall be in the H1150 DBL condition (heat treated in accordance with Paragraph 2.9.2.2). The hardness shall not exceed 310 HBW (30 HRC). Precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steels that are in accordance with this standard have provided satisfactory field service in some sour environments. These materials may, however, exhibit threshold stress levels in NACE Standard TM0177 laboratory tests that are lower than those of other materials included in this standard. 2.9.2.1 The following restrictions apply to UNS S17400 and UNS S15500 when these materials are used for pressure- retaining bolting: (a) UNS S17400 and UNS S15500 shall not be used for pressure-retaining bolting applications in the double- H1150 condition. (b) When UNS S17400 or UNS S15500 is used for pressure-retaining bolting in the H1150M condition, the hardness shall not exceed 29 HRC. 2.9.2.2 Double-H1150 (H1150D, H1150 DBL) Heat-Treatment Procedure (a) Solution anneal at 1,038 ± 14 °C (1,900 ± 25 °F) and air cool, or suitable liquid quench, to below 32 °C (90 °F). (b) Harden at 621 ± 14 °C (1,150 ± 25 °F) for 4 h minimum at temperature and cool in air to below 32 °C (90 °F). ___________________________ (10) Brinell hardness measurements obtained on duplex stainless steels cannot be converted to Rockwell C hardness values using existing tables in ASTM E140. Use of empirically derived tables for this hardness conversion is subject to the approval of the user.
  • 19. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 13 (c) Harden at 621 ± 14 °C (1,150 ± 25 °F) for 4 h minimum at temperature and cool in air. (d) Additional cycles at 621 ± 14 °C (1,150 ± 25 °F) may be used if required to produce the specified hardness level. 2.9.2.3 H1150M Heat-Treatment Procedure (a) Solution anneal at 1,038 ± 14 °C (1,900 ± 25 °F) and air cool, or suitable liquid quench, to below 32 °C (90 °F). (b) Harden at 760 ± 14 °C (1,400 ± 25 °F) for 2 h minimum at temperature and cool in air to below 32 °C (90 °F) before the second precipitation-hardening step. (c) Precipitation harden at 621 ± 14 °C (1,150 ± 25 °F) for 4 h minimum at temperature and cool in air. (d) Additional cycles at 621 ± 14 °C (1,150 ± 25 °F) may be used if required to produce the specified hardness level. 2.9.3 Wrought UNS S45000 martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel shall be heat treated in accordance with the following two-step heat-treatment procedure. The hardness shall not exceed 31 HRC. 2.9.3.1 Two-Step Heat-Treatment Procedure (a) Solution anneal. (b) Precipitation harden at 621 °C (1,150 °F) for a minimum of 4 h. 2.9.4 Weldments in precipitation-hardenable stainless steels shall be produced using a weld procedure qualified by performing a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness in accordance with Table 4. Welding shall not be performed on UNS S17400 and UNS S15500 bolting. Table 4 Maximum Hardness Requirements for Weldments in Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels Alloy(s) Maximum Hardness UNS S66286 345 HV 10 UNS S17400, UNS S15500 327 HV 10 UNS J92200 (CB7Cu-1), UNS J92110 (CB7Cu-2) 302 HV 10 (HAZ) 327 HV 10 (weld deposit) UNS S45000 310 HV 10 _________________________________________________________________________ Section 3: Nonferrous Materials 3.1 Nickel Alloys 3.1.1 Solid-Solution Nickel Alloys 3.1.1.1 Wrought or cast solid-solution nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys with compositions as specified in Paragraph 3.1.1.1.1 shall be in the solution-annealed condition. 3.1.1.1.1 The chemical composition requirements for the solid-solution nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys are: 19.0% Cr minimum, 29.5% Ni + Co minimum, and
  • 20. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 14 NACE International 2.5% Mo minimum. or 14.5% Cr minimum, 52% Ni + Co minimum, and 12% Mo minimum. 3.1.1.2 Wrought UNS N06600 shall not exceed 35 HRC. 3.1.1.3 Wrought UNS N08800 shall not exceed 35 HRC. 3.1.1.4 Only those solid-solution nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys listed in Table 5 shall be used in the cold-worked condition. The other requirements specified in Table 5 shall also be met. Table 5 Cold-Worked Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys and Maximum Hardness Requirements UNS Number Previous Condition Maximum Hardness N06002 -- 35 HRC N06022 Solution-Annealed 40 HRC N06625 -- 35 HRC N06686 Solution-Annealed 40 HRC N06985 -- 39 HRC N08825 -- 35 HRC N10276 Solution-Annealed 35 HRC 3.1.1.5 Wrought UNS N04400 and N04405, and cast ASTM A49421 Grades M35-1, M35-2, and M30C shall not exceed 35 HRC. 3.1.1.6 Welding procedures used for welding and overlaying the solid-solution nickel alloys do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ. 3.1.2 Precipitation-Hardenable Nickel Alloys 3.1.2.1 Only those precipitation-hardenable nickel alloys listed in Table 6 are allowed. The conditions and corresponding maximum hardness requirements listed in Table 6 shall be met. 3.1.2.2 Weldments in precipitation-hardenable nickel alloys shall be produced using a weld procedure qualified by performing a hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness in accordance with Table 6.
  • 21. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 15 Table 6 Precipitation-Hardenable Nickel Alloys, Conditions, and Maximum Hardness Requirements UNS Number Condition(s) Maximum Hardness N05500 Hot-worked and age-hardened or solution-annealed or solution- annealed and age-hardened 35 HRC (335 HV) N07031 Solution-annealed 35 HRC (335 HV) Solution-annealed and aged at 760 to 871 °C (1,400 to 1,600 °F) for a maximum of 4 h. 40 HRC (382 HV) N07048 Solution-annealed and aged 40 HRC (382 HV) N07626 Hot compacted powder, solution-annealed (927 C [1,700 F] min) and aged (538 to 816 C [1,000 to 1,500 F]), max tensile strength 1,380 MPa (200 ksi) 40 HRC (382 HV) N07716 Solution-annealed and aged 43 HRC (416 HV) N07718 Solution-annealed or hot-worked or hot-worked and aged 35 HRC (335 HV) Solution-annealed and aged or cast, solution-annealed, and aged 40 HRC (397 HV) N07725 Solution-annealed and aged 43 HRC (416 HV) N07750 Solution-annealed or solution-annealed and aged or hot worked or hot- worked and aged 35 HRC (335 HV) N07773 Solution-annealed and aged 40 HRC (382 HV) N07924 Solution-annealed and aged 35 HRC (335 HV) N09777 Solution-annealed and aged 40 HRC (382 HV) N09925 Cold-worked or solution-annealed 35 HRC (335 HV) Solution-annealed and aged 38 HRC (362 HV) Cold-worked and aged or hot-finished and aged 40 HRC (382 HV) Cast, solution-annealed, and aged 35 HRC (335 HV) 3.2 Cobalt-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys 3.2.1 UNS R30003, UNS R30004, UNS R30035, and BS 2HR 3 22 shall not exceed 35 HRC except as otherwise noted below. 3.2.1.1 Welding requirements for UNS R30003, UNS R30004, UNS R30035, and BS 2HR 3 are outside the scope of this standard. Welding requirements shall be in accordance with the agreement between the end user (or the end user’s agent) and the manufacturer. 3.2.2 UNS R30035 is allowed in the cold-reduced and high-temperature aged heat-treated condition in accordance with one of the aging treatments listed in Table 7. The hardness shall not exceed 51 HRC. Table 7 UNS R30035 Heat Treatments Minimum Time (h) Temperature 4 704 °C (1,300 °F) 4 732 °C (1,350 °F) 6 774 °C (1,425 °F) 4 788 °C (1,450 °F) 2 802 °C (1,475 °F) 1 816 °C (1,500 °F) 3.2.3 Wrought UNS R31233 shall be in the solution-annealed condition. The hardness shall not exceed 33 HRC. 3.2.3.1 Welding procedures used for welding UNS R31233 do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ. 3.3 Cobalt-Nickel-Chromium-Tungsten Alloys UNS R30605 shall not exceed 35 HRC.
  • 22. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 16 NACE International 3.4 Titanium Alloys 3.4.1 Specific guidelines must be followed for successful applications of each titanium alloy specified in this standard. For example, hydrogen embrittlement of titanium alloys may occur if these alloys are galvanically coupled to certain active metals (e.g., carbon steel) in H2S-containing aqueous media at temperatures greater than 80 °C (176 °F). Hardness has not been shown to correlate with susceptibility to SSC, but has been included for alloys with high strength to indicate the maximum testing levels at which failure has not occurred. 3.4.2 Only those titanium alloys listed in Table 8 are allowed. The conditions and corresponding maximum hardness requirements listed in Table 8 shall be met. Table 8 Titanium Alloys, Conditions, and Maximum Hardness Requirements UNS Number Condition(s) Maximum Hardness R50400 None specified 100 HRBS R53400 Annealed at 774  14 C (1,425  25 F) for 2 h, air cool 92 HRBS R56260 Annealed or solution-annealed or solution-annealed and aged 45 HRC R56323 Annealed 32 HRC R56403 Annealed 36 HRC R56404 Annealed 35 HRC R58640 Annealed 42 HRC 3.4.3 Welding requirements for titanium alloys are outside the scope of this standard. Welding requirements shall be in accordance with the agreement between the end user (or the end user’s agent) and the manufacturer. 3.5 Aluminum Alloys 3.5.1 Aluminum alloys are allowed because they are not susceptible to SSC. However, they can suffer corrosion when exposed outside the pH range of about 4.0 to 8.5 and also pitting corrosion if chloride ions are present. 3.5.2 Welding procedures used for welding aluminum alloys do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ. 3.6 Copper Alloys 3.6.1 Copper alloys are allowed because they are not susceptible to SSC. However, they can suffer corrosion because of the sulfides and also stress corrosion cracking if NH3 is present, as often noted in sour refinery environments. 3.6.2 Welding procedures used for welding copper alloys do not require any hardness surveys or hardness testing to verify hardness in the HAZ. _________________________________________________________________________ Section 4: General Fabrication Requirements 4.1 Materials and fabrication processes shall meet the requirements of this section. 4.2 Overlays 4.2.1 Tungsten-carbide alloys and ceramics are allowed as overlays. Following application of the overlay, the base material shall meet the hardness requirement for that base metal specified in the pertinent paragraph in Section 2 or 3. 4.2.2 Joining of dissimilar materials, such as cemented carbides to alloy steels by silver brazing, is allowed. After brazing, the base material shall meet the hardness requirement for that base metal specified in the pertinent paragraph in Section 2 or 3.
  • 23. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 17 4.2.3 The base materials listed in Sections 2 and 3 are also allowed as weld overlays, provided they meet the provisions of their respective paragraphs after being applied as overlays. Following application of the overlay, the base material shall meet the hardness requirement for that base metal specified in the pertinent paragraph in Section 2 or 3. 4.2.4 Overlays of cobalt-chromium-tungsten, nickel-chromium-boron, and nickel-boron (see SAE (11) AMS4779 23 ) hardfacing alloys are allowed. Following application of the overlay, the base material shall meet the hardness requirement for that base metal specified in the pertinent paragraph in Section 2 or 3. 4.3 Welding 4.3.1 All weldments shall meet the general requirements listed in this section (Paragraph 4.3). Specific welding requirements are provided for some materials in the pertinent material paragraphs in Section 2 or 3, in which case those requirements shall also be met. In cases in which the specific welding requirements conflict with the requirements of this section, the specific material welding requirements shall override these general requirements. 4.3.2 Welders and welding procedures shall be qualified in accordance with AWS, (12) API, ASME, or other appropriate industry codes. 4.3.3 Dissimilar-metal welds, such as welds produced using filler metals that are more noble than the base metal and/or welds in which the two base metals are different, shall meet the following requirements: 4.3.3.1 The weld metal shall be closely equivalent in chemistry and properties to a base material that is allowed according to this standard. 4.3.3.2 If a Vickers hardness survey is required to be performed during weld procedure qualification for either base metal, or for a base metal that is equivalent to the deposited weld metal, a Vickers hardness survey in accordance with Appendix C shall be performed on a specimen taken from the WPQT coupon(s) to demonstrate the ability of the procedure to produce weldments that meet the specified hardness. The hardness criteria for each portion of the weldment shall be as specified in the pertinent material paragraph in Section 2 or 3 for that base metal, or, in the case of deposited weld metal, for the base metal that is equivalent to the deposited weld metal. 4.4 Cladding on Carbon Steels, Alloy Steels, and Martensitic Stainless Steels 4.4.1 For the purpose of this standard, cladding is defined as a metallurgically bonded layer of a corrosion-resistant alloy material applied to the entire wetted surface of a substrate material that is relatively less corrosion-resistant. 4.4.2 Allowed fabrication methods used for cladding include hot rolling, explosion bonding, and weld overlaying. 4.4.3 Cladding materials shall be selected from Section 2 or 3 of this standard, and shall meet all requirements for the selected alloy(s) specified in the pertinent paragraph(s). 4.4.4 A number of factors influence the SSC resistance of clad components, including, but not limited to: (a) Relative SSC resistance of the cladding material; (b) Corrosion resistance of the clad layer in the process environment (which affects the rate of hydrogen production); (c) Hydrogen diffusion rate in the clad layer; (d) Soundness of the clad layer; (e) Relative SSC resistance of the substrate material; (f) Fabrication methods used at junctions between neighboring clad components; (g) Fabrication methods used at junctions between clad components and neighboring unclad components; and ____________________________ (11) SAE International (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. (12) American Welding Society (AWS), 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126.
  • 24. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 18 NACE International (h) Galvanic effects (if the substrate material becomes exposed or at junctions with neighboring unclad components). 4.4.5 Evaluation of these and other factors is outside the scope of this standard. Therefore, the end user shall specify whether or not the substrate material must meet the requirements of this standard. 4.5 Identification Stamping 4.5.1 Identification stamping using low-stress (dot, vibratory, and round V) stamps is allowed. 4.5.2 Conventional sharp V stamping is allowed in low-stress areas, such as the outside diameter of flanges. Sharp V stamping is not allowed in high-stress areas unless the item receives a subsequent thermal treatment to reduce the hardness to meet the maximum hardness requirement for the base metal specified in the applicable sections of this standard. 4.6 Threading 4.6.1 Machine-Cut Threads Machine-cut threading processes are allowed. 4.6.2 Cold-Formed (Rolled) Threads After threads have been cold formed, the threaded component shall meet the heat-treatment conditions and hardness requirements specified in either Section 2 or 3 for the parent alloy from which the threaded component was fabricated. 4.7 Cold-Deformation Processes 4.7.1 Cold-deformation processes such as burnishing that do not impart cold work exceeding that incidental to normal machining operations (such as turning or boring, rolling, threading, and drilling) are allowed. 4.7.2 Cold deformation by controlled shot peening is permitted when applied to base materials that meet the requirements of this standard, and when limited to the use of a maximum shot size of 2.0 mm (0.080 in) and a maximum of 10C Almen intensity. The process shall be controlled in accordance with SAE AMS2430. 24 _________________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Bolting 5.1 Materials used for bolting and fasteners that are exposed to sour environments (see Paragraph 1.3) shall meet the requirements of this section. The user shall be responsible for specifying whether bolting is exposed or unexposed in accordance with Paragraphs 5.2 and 5.3. 5.2 Exposed Bolting 5.2.1 Bolting that is exposed directly to the sour environment shall meet the requirements of Section 2 or Section 3. 5.2.1.1 External bolting and fasteners used underground, covered with insulation, equipped with flange protectors, or otherwise denied direct atmospheric exposure, and that are used on equipment that contains a sour environment, shall be considered exposed to a sour environment, and shall meet the requirements of Section 2 or Section 3. 5.2.1.2 Users and designers should be aware that it may be necessary to de-rate the strength of the joint and the pressure rating of the equipment in some cases when using bolting that meets these requirements. 5.2.1.3 Special restrictions apply to UNS S17400 and UNS S15500 when these alloys are used for pressure-retaining bolting. (See Paragraph 2.9.2.1.) 5.2.1.4 The bolting and nut materials listed in Table 9 were specifically established to meet the requirements of Section 2 or Section 3. Other materials meeting the requirements of Section 2 or Section 3 are also allowed. 5.2.1.5 Zinc or cadmium coatings should not be used on bolts, nuts, cap screws, or other fasteners in sour environments. These coatings enhance the generation of hydrogen on the surface and can contribute to hydrogen cracking.
  • 25. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 19 5.3 Unexposed Bolting 5.3.1 Unexposed bolting and fasteners may be furnished to applicable standards such as ASTM A193, 25 A194, 26 and A320. 27 To be considered “unexposed,” the bolting must be used externally on flanges or other parts that are not directly exposed to sour environments, and must be directly exposed to the atmosphere at all times (see Paragraph 5.2.1.1). Table 9 Common Bolting Materials That Meet Section 2 and Section 3 Requirements Bolting Component Material Specification Bolt, Stud, Cap Screw ASTM A193 Grade B7M ASTM A193 Grade B8MA, Class 1A ASTM A320 Grade L7M Nut ASTM A194 Grade 2HM ASTM A194 Grade 7M ASTM A194 Grade 8MA _________________________________________________________________________ Section 6: Plating, Coatings, and Diffusion Processes 6.1 Metallic coatings (electroplated or electroless), conversion coatings, and plastic coatings or linings are not allowed for preventing SSC of base metals. The use of such coatings for any other purpose (such as wear resistance or corrosion resistance) is outside the scope of this standard. 6.2 Nitriding is an allowed surface diffusion treatment when performed at a temperature below the lower critical temperature of the material being treated. Its use as a means of preventing SSC is not allowed. _________________________________________________________________________ Section 7: Special Components 7.1 Materials for special components including instrumentation, control devices, seals, bearings, and springs shall meet the requirements of this section if they are directly exposed to sour environments during normal operation of the device. Paragraph 1.2 provides guidelines to determine the applicability of the standard to specific uses. 7.2 Bearings 7.2.1 Bearings directly exposed to sour environments shall be made from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3, except as noted in Paragraph 7.2.2. Bearings made from other materials must be isolated from the sour environment to function properly. 7.2.2 Nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy UNS N10276 is allowed for bearing pins (e.g., core roll pins) in the cold- worked condition. The hardness shall not exceed 45 HRC. 7.3 Springs 7.3.1 Springs directly exposed to the sour environment shall be made from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3, except as noted in Paragraphs 7.3.2, 7.3.3, and 7.3.4. 7.3.2 Cobalt-nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy UNS R30003 is allowed for springs in the cold-worked and age-hardened condition. The hardness shall not exceed 60 HRC. UNS R30035 is allowed for springs in the cold-worked and age- hardened condition when aged for a minimum of 4 h at a temperature no lower than 649 °C (1,200 °F). The hardness shall not exceed 55 HRC. 7.3.3 Nickel-chromium alloy UNS N07750 is allowed for springs in the cold-worked and age-hardened condition. The hardness shall not exceed 50 HRC. 7.3.4 UNS N07090 is allowed for springs for compressor valves in the cold-worked and age-hardened condition. The hardness shall not exceed 50 HRC.
  • 26. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 20 NACE International 7.4 Instrumentation and Control Devices 7.4.1 Instrumentation and control device components directly exposed to sour environments shall be made from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3. 7.4.1.1 UNS S31600 austenitic stainless steel, highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (see Paragraph 2.7), or nickel alloy (see Paragraph 3.1) materials are allowed for compression fittings, screen devices, and instrument or control tubing even though these components may not satisfy the requirements stated for those materials in Section 2 or Section 3. 7.4.2 Diaphragms, Pressure-Measuring Devices, and Pressure Seals 7.4.2.1 Diaphragms, pressure-measuring devices, and pressure seals directly exposed to a sour environment shall be made from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3, except as noted in Paragraphs 7.4.2.2, 7.4.2.3, and 7.4.2.4. 7.4.2.2 Cobalt-nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys UNS R30003 and UNS R30004 are allowed for diaphragms, pressure-measuring devices, and pressure seals. The hardness shall not exceed 60 HRC. 7.4.2.3 Cobalt-nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy UNS R30260 is allowed for diaphragms, pressure- measuring devices, and pressure seals. The hardness shall not exceed 52 HRC. 7.4.2.4 Pressure seals shall comply with the material requirements in Section 2 or Section 3 or may be manufactured of wrought cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum alloy UNS R30159 with the primary load-bearing or pressure-containing direction parallel to the longitudinal or rolling direction of wrought product. The hardness shall not exceed 53 HRC. 7.4.3 Wrought UNS N08904 is allowed for use as instrument tubing in the annealed condition. The hardness shall not exceed 180 HV 10. 7.5 Seal Rings and Gaskets 7.5.1 Seal rings directly exposed to a sour environment shall be made from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3. 7.5.2 Austenitic stainless steel API compression seal rings and gaskets made of wrought or centrifugally cast ASTM A351 28 Grade CF8 or CF8M chemical compositions are allowed in the as-cast or solution-annealed condition. The hardness shall not exceed 160 HBW (83 HRBS). 7.6 Snap Rings 7.6.1 Snap rings directly exposed to a sour environment shall be made from applicable materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3, except as noted in Paragraph 7.6.2. 7.6.2 Precipitation-hardenable stainless steel alloy UNS S15700 originally in the RH950 solution-annealed and aged condition is allowed for snap rings when further heat treated in accordance with the three-step heat treatment procedure below. The hardness shall be 30 to 32 HRC. 7.6.2.1 Heat-treatment procedure (three-step process) shall be: (a) Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) for 4 h, 15 min. Cool to room temperature in still air. (b) Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) for 4 h, 15 min. Cool to room temperature in still air. (c) Temper at 566 °C (1,050 °F) for 4 h, 15 min. Cool to room temperature in still air. 7.7 Special Process Parts 7.7.1 Cobalt-chromium-tungsten and nickel-chromium-boron alloys, whether cast, powder-metallurgy processed, or thermomechanically processed, are allowed.
  • 27. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 21 7.7.2 Tungsten-carbide alloys, whether cast or cemented, are allowed. _________________________________________________________________________ Section 8: Valves 8.1 Valves shall meet the requirements of this section if they are to be exposed to sour environments (see Paragraph 1.3). A common failure mode of gate valves exposed to sour environments and not fabricated with hardness-controlled components is a dropped gate, rendering the valve inoperable. 8.2 Valves (new or reconditioned), including internal components, shall be manufactured or remanufactured from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3. _________________________________________________________________________ Section 9: Compressors and Pumps 9.1 Compressor and pump components that are to be exposed to sour environments (see Paragraph 1.3) shall be manufactured from materials that meet the requirements in Section 2 or Section 3, except as noted in Paragraphs 9.2 and 9.3. 9.2 ASTM A278 29 Class 35 or 40 gray cast iron and ASTM A395 ductile iron are allowed as compressor cylinders, liners, pistons, and valves. Aluminum alloy ASTM B26 30 A03550-T7 is allowed for pistons. Aluminum, soft carbon steel, and soft, low-carbon iron are allowed as gaskets in compressors handling sour gas. 9.3 UNS G43200 and a modified version of UNS G43200 that contains 0.28 to 0.33% carbon are allowed for compressor impellers at a maximum yield strength of 620 MPa (90 ksi) provided they have been heat treated in accordance with Paragraph 9.3.1. 9.3.1 Heat-Treatment Procedure (Three-Step Process) 9.3.1.1 Austenitize and quench. 9.3.1.2 Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) minimum, but below the lower critical temperature. Cool to ambient temperature before the second temper. 9.3.1.3 Temper at 621 °C (1,150 °F) minimum, but lower than the first tempering temperature. Cool to ambient temperature. _________________________________________________________________________ References 1. NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 (latest revision), “Petroleum and natural gas industries—Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production” (Houston, TX: NACE). 2. NACE SP0296 (formerly RP0296) (latest revision), “Detection, Repair, and Mitigation of Cracking in Refinery Equipment in Wet H2S Environments” (Houston, TX: NACE). 3. NACE Publication 8X194 (latest revision), “Materials and Fabrication Practices for New Pressure Vessels Used in Wet H2S Refinery Service” (Houston, TX: NACE). 4. NACE Publication 8X294 (latest revision), “Review of Published Literature on Wet H2S Cracking of Steels Through 1989” (Houston, TX: NACE). 5. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX (latest revision), “Welding and Brazing Qualifications” (New York, NY: ASME). 6. NACE SP0472 (formerly RP0472) (latest revision), “Methods and Controls to Prevent In-Service Environmental Cracking of Carbon Steel Weldments in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments” (Houston, TX: NACE).
  • 28. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 22 NACE International 7. NACE Standard TM0177 (latest revision), “Laboratory Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulfide Stress Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking in H2S Environments” (Houston, TX: NACE). 8. ASTM E140 (latest revision), “Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals—Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, and Scleroscope Hardness” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 9. ISO 18265 (latest revision), “Metallic Materials - Conversion of Hardness Values” (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO). 10. ASTM E384 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Knoop and Vickers Hardness of Materials” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 11. ASTM A833 (latest revision), “Standard Practice for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Comparison Hardness Testers” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 12. ASTM A941 (latest revision), “Standard Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 13. ASTM A53/A53M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 14. ASTM A106/A106M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 15. API Spec 5L (latest revision), “Specification for Line Pipe” (Washington, DC: API). 16. ASME B31.3 (latest edition), “Process Piping” (New York, NY: ASME). 17. ANSI/NBBPVI NB-23, “National Board Inspection Code” (Columbus, Ohio: NBBPVI). 18. ASTM A395/A395M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 19. ASTM E562 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 20. ASTM A747/A747M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Stainless, Precipitation Hardening” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 21. ASTM A494/A494M (latest revision), “Standard Specifications for Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 22. BS 2HR 3 (latest revision), “Specification for Nickel-Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum-Aluminium-Titanium Heat-Resisting Alloy Billets, Bars, Forgings and Parts (Nickel Base, Co 20, Cr 14.8, Mo 5, Al 4.7, Ti 1.2)” (London, U.K: BSI). 23. SAE AMS4779 (latest revision), “Nickel Alloy, Brazing Filler Metal, 94Ni - 3.5Si - 1.8B, 1,800 to 1,950 °F (982 to 1,066 °C) Solidus-Liquidus Range” (Warrendale, PA: SAE). 24. SAE AMS2430 (latest revision), “Shot Peening, Automatic” (Warrendale, PA: SAE). 25. ASTM A193/A193M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 26. ASTM A194/A194M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 27. ASTM A320/A320M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low- Temperature Service” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 28. ASTM A351/A351M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM).
  • 29. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 23 29. ASTM A278/A278M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts for Temperatures Up to 650 °F (350 °C)” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 30. ASTM B26/B26M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Sand Castings” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 31. W.M. Haynes, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 72 nd ed. (Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1986). 32. ASTM E18 (latest revision), “Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 33. ISO 6508-1 (latest revision), “Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T)” (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO). 34. ASTM E10 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 35. ISO 6506-1 (latest revision), “Brinell hardness test — Part 1: Test method” (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO). 36. ASTM E92 (withdrawn), “Standard Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 37. ISO 6507-1 (latest revision), “Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method” (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO). 38. ASTM A956 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Leeb Hardness Testing of Steel Products” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 39. ASTM A1038 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Portable Hardness Testing by the Ultrasonic Contact Impedance Method” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM 40. ASTM E110 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 41. DIN (13) 50156-1 (latest revision), “Metallic materials - Leeb Hardness Test - Part 1: Test Method” (Berlin, Germany: DIN). 42. API TR 938-C (latest revision), “Use of Duplex Stainless Steels in the Oil Refining Industry” (Washington, DC: API). 43. ASTM A995/A995M (latest revision), “Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Stainless Steel, for Pressure-Containing Parts” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 44. ASME SFA-5.4/SFA-5.4M (latest revision), “Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding” (New York, NY: ASME). 45. ASME SFA-5.9/SFA-5.9M (latest revision), “Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods” (New York, NY: ASME). 46. ASTM E1245 (latest revision), “Standard Practice for Determining the Inclusion or Second-Phase Constituent Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 47. ISO/IEC (14) 17025 (latest revision), “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories” (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO). 48. ASTM A923 (latest revision), “Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). 49. ASTM G48 (latest revision), “Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM). (13) Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN), Burggrafenstrasse 6, D-10787 Berlin, Germany. (14) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), 3 rue de Varembe, P.O. Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.
  • 30. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 24 NACE International _________________________________________________________________________ Appendix A Sulfide Species Plot (Nonmandatory) This appendix is considered nonmandatory, although it may contain mandatory language. It is intended only to provide supplementary information or guidance. The user of this standard is not required to follow, but may choose to follow, any or all of the provisions herein. The plot in Figure A1 shows sulfide species as a function of pH. This plot was constructed based on the equilibrium constants for H2S in Section 8-41 of CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 72 nd Edition. 31 See Paragraph 1.3.5 for further explanation. Figure A1: Sulfide Species Plot For closed system at 25°C (77°F) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH MoleFractionofSulfurSpecies H2S(aq) HS- S2- Figure A1: Sulfide Species Plot for Closed System at 25 °C (77 °F).
  • 31. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 25 _________________________________________________________________________ Appendix B Background Information on Hardness Testing and Requirements (Nonmandatory) This appendix is considered nonmandatory, although it may contain mandatory language. It is intended only to provide supplementary information or guidance. The user of this standard is not required to follow, but may choose to follow, any or all of the provisions herein. B1. Accurate hardness testing requires strict compliance with the hardness test methods described in the appropriate ASTM standards. B2. Rockwell hardness test methods, performed in accordance with ASTM Standard E18 32 or ISO 6508-1, 33 are relatively quick, direct-reading tests, and as such they are commonly used in manufacturing environments. These hardness test methods use loads ranging from 147 N (15 kgf) to 1,470 N (150 kgf). Because of the relatively small loads that are used, the hardness indentations are small, and the measurements represent the hardness in a very localized volume of material. Therefore, these hardness test methods are very sensitive, and are suited for identifying localized hard spots. Drawbacks to these test methods are the size restrictions on components that can be tested, geometrical limitations that prevent testing in certain locations, and lack of portability. NOTE: Beginning in the 2002 revision of ASTM E18, tungsten carbide balls are allowed for “B” scale tests in addition to the hardened steel balls that were previously required. The scale designations for Rockwell “B” hardness measurements are now “HRBS” for tests performed with a steel ball, and “HRBW” for tests performed with a tungsten carbide ball. The hardness values required in this standard are all “HRBS” values, because all testing in the past used the steel ball indenter. HRBS and HRBW test results differ because of the different mechanical properties of the two ball indenters. There are currently no standardized conversion tables available for conversion of HRBS to HRBW. B3. The Brinell hardness test method, performed in accordance with ASTM Standard E10 34 or ISO 6506-1, 35 involves creation of an indentation, optical measurement of the indentation diameter, and calculation of the hardness value. Because of the relatively large test loads used, this test method produces a hardness value that represents an “average” of the material hardness over a relatively large volume of material. The Brinell test method is often used to measure the hardness of castings and forgings. Drawbacks to this test method are the size restrictions on components that can be tested, geometrical limitations that prevent testing in certain locations, and lack of portability. ASTM E10 now requires Brinell hardness testing to be performed with a tungsten carbide ball indenter. The symbol “HBW” denotes Brinell hardness testing performed in this manner. B4. Comparison hardness testers (commonly, but incorrectly, referred to as portable Brinell hardness testers) use a hammer blow to simultaneously indent the component being evaluated and a test bar of known hardness. The relative indentation sizes are measured and a calculation is performed to determine the hardness of the component. Comparison hardness testers are commonly used to check field weldments. Comparison hardness testing is performed in accordance with ASTM Standard A833. The hardness values obtained using comparison hardness testers correlate directly to Brinell hardness values obtained using testing parameters discussed in Paragraph B3. B5. The macro Vickers hardness test method, performed in accordance with ASTM E384 (which has replaced ASTM E92 36 ) or ISO 6507-1, 37 is similar to the Brinell hardness test method except it makes use of a diamond pyramid indenter. The advantage of the Vickers hardness test method is that it provides relatively load-independent hardness values when performed with loads ranging from 0.25 N (25 gf) to 1,180 N (120 gf). It is common practice to use 49 N (5 kgf) or 98 N (10 kgf) Vickers hardness testing for welding procedure qualifications because this produces an accurate assessment of the weldment HAZ hardness. Vickers hardness criteria have been specified for a few selected welding procedure qualifications in this standard, based on proven field experience. Further details are available in NACE SP0472. Vickers hardness is designated as HV, with the test load in kgf indicated by a suffix number (e.g., 248 HV 10 denotes a Vickers hardness of 248 determined using a 10 kgf load). B6. Hardness requirements specified in this standard in HBW units are generally lower than the equivalent “acceptable” HRC values (which applies to both conventional Brinell hardness testing and comparison hardness testing) to compensate for inhomogeneity of some material forms and weld deposits and/or to account for normal variations in field and/or production hardness testing using the comparison hardness tester. B7. HRC and HRBS are cited for particular materials or product forms under the following conditions:
  • 32. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 26 NACE International (a) When the raw material specification lists a hardness requirement in HRC or HRBS; (b) When the industry standard testing method for that product form is HRC or HRBS; or (c) When the material will be tested at the component level. B8. HBW is cited for particular materials or product forms under the following conditions: (a) When the raw material specification lists a hardness requirement in HBW; (b) When the industry standard testing method for that product form is HBW; or (c) When the hardness requirement pertains to evaluation of weld metal hardness, which is most commonly performed using a portable Brinell hardness tester. B9. A standard fixed-location hardness testing machine may not be capable of testing certain samples because of the sample size, weight, location, accessibility, or other requirements. In these circumstances, the use of a portable hardness tester may be the only option available. However, not all portable hardness testers meet the requirements of ISO or ASTM standard hardness test methods. A list of portable hardness test standards used for ferrous materials is provided in Table B1. Table B1 Portable Hardness Testing Standards ASTM A833 Comparison hardness ASTM A956 38 Leeb hardness testing ASTM A1038 39 Portable hardness testing by the ultrasonic contact impedance method ASTM E110 40 Indentation hardness of metallic materials by portable hardness testers DIN 50156-1 41 Leeb hardness testing B10. Portable hardness testers that do not meet any of the standards listed in Table B1 are deemed to be nonstandard testing equipment and are outside the scope of this standard. B11. There are two major types of portable hardness testers: B11.1 Portable hardness testers that follow the same test principles as those defined for a standard fixed-location hardness tester using the same test method, e.g., Brinell, Rockwell, and Vickers test methods that are included in ASTM E110. B11.2 Portable hardness testers that measure hardness by a means or procedure that is different from those defined for a standard fixed-location hardness tester, e.g., Brinell, Rockwell, and Vickers test methods that are included in ASTM A833, A956, A1038, and DIN 50156. B12. The most common sources of error when using portable hardness testers are the alignment of the indenter to the test surface and the timing of the test forces. The user is cautioned to take all necessary measures to keep the centerline of the indenter perpendicular to the test surface and to strictly follow to the standard test method procedures. B13. Portable hardness testers are subject to damage when they are moved from one test site to another. Therefore, the user must be aware of the test method verification requirements when the portable hardness tester is new, or when adjustments, modifications, and repairs are made that could affect the application of the test forces or depth measuring system. B14. The standard requirements for verification should be followed. Verification should be performed with the device oriented in the same position(s) that are used in production. Verification should be repeated occasionally during testing and after testing is completed. B15. Precision is the closeness of agreement between test results obtained under prescribed conditions. Bias is a systematic error that contributes to the difference between the mean of a large number of test results and an accepted reference value. Portable hardness testers, in comparison to fixed-location hardness testers, inherently introduce larger precision variances and bias errors that influence the test results.
  • 33. Providedby:www.spic.ir MR0103-2012 NACE International 27 B16. The user must understand that not all portable hardness testing standards include precision and bias rules that may be used to establish differences in test results that would be expected between portable and fixed-location instruments. B17. Precision rules, bias rules, and results differ not only between standard fixed location and portable hardness test methods, but also between standard portable hardness test methods. Consequently, the user is cautioned that all portable hardness testers should not be considered as equal and that the appropriate hardness testing standard(s) must be thoroughly reviewed and considered before its application is approved as meeting the hardness requirements in this standard for the equipment's intended service conditions. B18. For example, Equations (B1) and (B2) show ASTM E110 values of RPB (the typical amount of variation that can be expected between test results obtained for the same material by different operators using a different hardness tester on different days) at two different hardness levels. Test material hardness: 201 HBW RPB = 14 HBW (B1) Test material hardness: 543 HBW RPB = 39 HBW (B2) Note: ASTM A833 is a standard practice and not a test method. Consequently, it does not contain precision and bias rules and is not capable of establishing precision variances and bias errors that may influence the test results. B19. Hardness values obtained using portable methods shall be reported in accordance with the requirements of the corresponding specification, as follows: (a) ASTM A833 comparison hardness test result example: 197 HBC/200, where 197 is the hardness determined, HBC indicates that the hardness was obtained using the comparison hardness test, and 200 is the Brinell hardness of the comparative test bar. The manufacturer’s equipment and the diameters of the impressions in the test piece and comparative test bar must also be reported. (b) ASTM A956 or DIN 50156-1 Leeb hardness test result example: 187 HB (HLG), where 187 HB is the Brinell hardness that was converted from the Leeb hardness number, and HLG indicates Leeb hardness obtained using a type G impact device. (c) ASTM A1038 ultrasonic contact impedance hardness test result example: 250 HV (UCI) 10, where 250 HV is the Vickers hardness, UCI indicates that the hardness was measured using the ultrasonic contact impedance method, and 10 indicates that a force of 10 kgf was utilized. (d) ASTM E110 portable indentation hardness test result example: 22 HRC/P, where 22 HRC is the hardness of 22 on Rockwell C scale, and /P indicates that the measurement was made using a portable Rockwell hardness tester. B20. Conversion of hardness values from one hardness scale to another can introduce errors. ASTM E140 and ISO 18265 include warnings regarding the limitations and risks associated with conversion of hardness values, including indications that conversions are not always precise for all materials and may even be of questionable precision, bias, and uncertainty. These limitations and risks apply to hardness conversions involving the various standard fixed-location hardness test methods as well as the various portable hardness test methods. B21. Some fixed-location and portable hardness testers perform internal conversions between hardness scales using the tables in ASTM E140 or ISO 18265. There may also be some instances in which hardness scale conversions are handled outside of the ASTM E140 or ISO 18265 tables based on proprietary data or algorithms, especially in some portable instruments where no standardized conversion tables exist. In either case, conversions may be an additional source of inaccuracy and uncertainty. B22. Both ASTM E140 or ISO 18265 contain specific rules for reporting converted hardness numbers using their tables. Examples of reporting converted hardness numbers are as follows. (a) ASTM E140: When converted hardness numbers are reported, the measured hardness and test scale shall be indicated in parentheses as in the following example: 353 HBW (38 HRC) (b) ISO 18265: Conversion results shall be reported in a manner that clearly indicates which method was used to determine the original hardness value. In addition, the relevant annex to this international standard or the table used shall be given.

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