Outline <ul><li>Case-study of land use around metro network in Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>Underutilized land and mass trans...
Overview <ul><li>Introduction to Chennai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers for growt...
Introduction to Chennai Fig 1(a) (above) – Location of Chennai, located by highlighted portion Fig 1(b) (right) – Chennai ...
Introduction to Chennai <ul><li>located on the east coast along the Bay of Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>City limits shaded in ...
Introduction to Chennai <ul><li>Central Business District located in Georgetown (highlighted in light pink in Fig 1 ( c)) ...
Infrastructure <ul><li>Main Roads form radial network from CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Metro rail networks (highlighted in yello...
Drivers for growth <ul><li>'Detroit of India' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to Ford, Hyundai, GM and BMW </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Pattern of growth <ul><li>up to 1970's (Fig 1(e)) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban nodes developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tambaram (...
Pattern of growth <ul><li>1970's - 80's (Fig 1(f)) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth along transit corridors to urban nodes </li></...
Pattern of growth <ul><li>Since 90's (Fig 1(g)) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift of bus-terminus and central market from CBD to Koy...
Master Plans <ul><li>First Master Plan - 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>restrict density and population growth in the city </l...
Critic on First Master Plan <ul><li>Only growth along transit corridors and dispersal of activities from CBD to Koyambe...
Current trends <ul><li>Current concentration for development measures (Fig 1(h)) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MM Nagar (1) </li><...
Current trends <ul><li>Environmental hazards in current mode of development </li></ul><ul><li>Residential development on r...
Current trends <ul><li>Current trends could lead to continuous sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Not sustainable growth, as shown i...
Under-utilization of resources <ul><li>Per Development Control Rules for Chennai, building heights were restricted to 20 s...
Under-utilization of resources <ul><li>Trend in percentage use of bus vs use of train </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1970, 41.5 ...
Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Away from the business districts, Chennai shows an identical pattern of organic, ...
Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Images from West Mambalam, well developed residential area along the metro-rail n...
Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Images from Tambaram Sanatorium, a much less developed residential area along the...
Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Segregation of residential and industrial spaces meant transit dependent developm...
Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Images from Ranganathan St and Usman Road, Mambalam; the preeminent middle-class ...
Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Image from Tambaram Sanatorium; Main Road connects Madras Export Processing Zone ...
Alternative solution <ul><li>Development of pedestrian-based 'transit towns' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizes use of existi...
Conceptual Image of new development <ul><li>Similar to developments in Canary Wharf, London and Moscow City, Moscow; with ...
Road-blocks to achieving vision <ul><li>Consolidation of fragmented land </li></ul><ul><li>Political inertia, especially i...
Catalytic Developers <ul><li>Frequently involved in 'downtown revitalization' projects in America </li></ul><ul><li>Provid...
Indian Railways as 'Catalytic Developer' <ul><li>Owns vast tracts of land in close proximity to railway stations </li></ul...
Conclusion <ul><li>Transit towns are a viable alternative for development in Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively cheaper ...
Acknowledgments <ul><li>1. Dr. S. Narasimhan, Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mr. Suart Cameron, Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>...
of 31

Narasimhan 7537

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narasimhan 7537

  • 2. Outline <ul><li>Case-study of land use around metro network in Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>Underutilized land and mass transit resources in Chennai are pushing new development to the suburbs, causing unhealthy sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>With India poised for enormous growth in the next decade, the current pattern of development could be catastrophic to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>The built-form in the city needs a major overhaul, what with an organic, unregulated and unrestrained pattern of growth creating an unhygienic environment </li></ul>
  • 3. Overview <ul><li>Introduction to Chennai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pattern of growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Master Plan (1976) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critic on First Master Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent developments and trends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underutilization of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of Mambalam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentation and unregulated, organic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image of renewed vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roadblocks in achieving renewed vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Railways as catalytic developer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 4. Introduction to Chennai Fig 1(a) (above) – Location of Chennai, located by highlighted portion Fig 1(b) (right) – Chennai Urban Agglomeration
  • 5. Introduction to Chennai <ul><li>located on the east coast along the Bay of Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>City limits shaded in red in Fig 1(b) </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan boundary shaded in orange in Fig 1(b) </li></ul><ul><li>4th largest city in India </li></ul><ul><li>capital of Tamil Nadu </li></ul><ul><li>population of 7.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>land area of 1180 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>34th largest urban agglomeration in the world </li></ul>
  • 6. Introduction to Chennai <ul><li>Central Business District located in Georgetown (highlighted in light pink in Fig 1 ( c)) </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of offices located along (highlighted in pink) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Road, which radiates south-west from the CBD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poonamalle High Road, which radiates west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kamaraj Salai, which runs south along the coast  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NH Road and RK Salai connecting all the radial roads </li></ul></ul>Fig 1( c) – Location of CBD @ Georgetown
  • 7. Infrastructure <ul><li>Main Roads form radial network from CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Metro rail networks (highlighted in yellow in Fig 1(d)) also form radial pattern from CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Top class educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd busiest airport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd largest sea port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>largest bus terminus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>headquarters of Southern Railway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>part of golden quadrilateral of India </li></ul></ul>Fig 1(d)
  • 8. Drivers for growth <ul><li>'Detroit of India' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to Ford, Hyundai, GM and BMW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most attractive city for offshore services per A.T. Kearney's Indian Cities Services Attractiveness Index 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Various consolidated industrial zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidel Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahindra Industrial Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siruseri Biotech Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambattur Industrial Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madras Export Processing Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other major international companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Gobain </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Pattern of growth <ul><li>up to 1970's (Fig 1(e)) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban nodes developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tambaram (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poonamalle (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambattur (3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ennore (4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Thomas Mount (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Estates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guindy Industrial Estate (6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambattur Industrial Estate (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manali Industrial Estate (8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ennore Industrial Estate (9) </li></ul></ul>Fig 1(e)
  • 10. Pattern of growth <ul><li>1970's - 80's (Fig 1(f)) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth along transit corridors to urban nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of growth along south-west corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite town of MM Nagar (1) (isolated cyan dot towards south-west in Fig 1(f)) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Inner Ring Road </li></ul>Fig 1(f)
  • 11. Pattern of growth <ul><li>Since 90's (Fig 1(g)) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift of bus-terminus and central market from CBD to Koyambedu (shown in dark blue in Fig 1(g)) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of MRTS system </li></ul><ul><li>Growth along southern corridor along the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Chennai By-Pass road to serve developments in Koyambedu </li></ul>Fig 1(g)
  • 12. Master Plans <ul><li>First Master Plan - 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>restrict density and population growth in the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restrict industrial and commercial developments within metropolitan area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage growth along metro rail transit corridors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creation of urban nodes at metro rail termini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dispersal of certain activities from CBD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of satellite towns at MM Nagar, Thiruvallur and Gummidipoondi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First draft 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last draft 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not yet finalized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority of development pattern still governed by goals set during First Master Plan </li></ul>
  • 13. Critic on First Master Plan <ul><li>Only growth along transit corridors and dispersal of activities from CBD to Koyambedu were implemented successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation was very slow, and issues were very different at time of implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Segregated land-use between residential zones (connected on the metro-rail network) and industrial zones (not connected on the metro-rail network) </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to create satellite towns, laying down the seeds for future sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>In its defense, though </li></ul><ul><li>In 1976, India was a predominantly socialistic country, and Chennai's economy was predominantly based on secondary manufacturing sector </li></ul><ul><li>Today's liberalized, open-market, technology-driven economy was a political impossibility </li></ul>
  • 14. Current trends <ul><li>Current concentration for development measures (Fig 1(h)) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MM Nagar (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Corridor @ Old Mahabalipuram Road (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poonamalle- Sripreumbudur corridor (3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widespread sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of automobiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased from <600k in 1991 to 1.6 million in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of industrial parks and resultant satellite towns resemble growth of single-use American suburbs </li></ul>Fig 1(h)
  • 15. Current trends <ul><li>Environmental hazards in current mode of development </li></ul><ul><li>Residential development on reclaimed wetlands by treating them as urban land-fills </li></ul><ul><li>Could have an ecological impact as far as Siberia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siberian migratory birds visit Vedanthangal bird sanctuary near Chennai to breed in the wetlands of the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such development trends could affect their sanctuary </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Current trends <ul><li>Current trends could lead to continuous sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Not sustainable growth, as shown in value patterns in American suburban development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss in property value could be detrimental to economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental hazards of automobile based growth and increased development footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion and longer commutes affect quality of life </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Under-utilization of resources <ul><li>Per Development Control Rules for Chennai, building heights were restricted to 20 stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tallest building in Chennai until 2000 was LIC Building with 14 stories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Built-space in CBD and the business districts of Mount Road, NH Road and RK Salai limited in supply </li></ul><ul><li>Density of development and limited supply of built-space creates high price when demand is high </li></ul><ul><li>Land-use surrounding metro-rail network is predominantly residential, with a commercial main road that leads to the railway station </li></ul><ul><li>Built-form is haphazard and clumsy due to fragmented ownership and organic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace situated away from rail network, increasing under-utilization of rail network </li></ul>
  • 18. Under-utilization of resources <ul><li>Trend in percentage use of bus vs use of train </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1970, 41.5 to 11.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1984, 45.5 to 9.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1992, 37.9 to 4.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trend in automobile ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1991, <600,000  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 2005, >1.6 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combination of both trends, together with change in land-use trends, strongly indicate continued under-utilization of train resources </li></ul>
  • 19. Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Away from the business districts, Chennai shows an identical pattern of organic, unregulated growth </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enforcement of development control rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>localized planning bodies at community level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widespread corruption in building-plan approval process </li></ul><ul><li>Due to socialistic past and Urban Land Ceiling Act, land ownership is fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Further fragmentation of land ownership caused by converting single family residences to multi-family residences </li></ul><ul><li>Such developments increase strain on civic amenities due to higher than designed demand </li></ul>
  • 20. Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Images from West Mambalam, well developed residential area along the metro-rail network </li></ul>
  • 21. Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Images from Tambaram Sanatorium, a much less developed residential area along the metro-rail network </li></ul>
  • 22. Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Segregation of residential and industrial spaces meant transit dependent development </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of evening market in 'kada veedhi' or 'street of shops' or 'main road' </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics of 'main road' being enroute to residence connecting railway station and workplace connecting bus network creates high volume pedestrian traffic, and increased opportunity for growth of evening market </li></ul><ul><li>Organic growth of built-form mimics organic growth of businesses on the main road </li></ul><ul><li>Such economies thrive in pedestrian oriented areas </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferated growth indicates success of such an economic model, provides further emphasis for pedestrian oriented development in future </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with such prolific growth is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is fragmented growth causing under-achieving economic performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>built-form is haphazard and clumsy which does not allow full utilization of prime real estate </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Images from Ranganathan St and Usman Road, Mambalam; the preeminent middle-class market place </li></ul>
  • 24. Organic growth and fragmentation <ul><li>Image from Tambaram Sanatorium; Main Road connects Madras Export Processing Zone and Railway Station - shows prevalence of evening market </li></ul>
  • 25. Alternative solution <ul><li>Development of pedestrian-based 'transit towns' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizes use of existing infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces development footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows people to work close to home, or commute through train to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases cultural interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases economic potential of local vendors and street hawkers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>provides a blue-print for all future development </li></ul><ul><li>enables decentralization of economic activity, thereby enabling true sustainable development </li></ul>
  • 26. Conceptual Image of new development <ul><li>Similar to developments in Canary Wharf, London and Moscow City, Moscow; with a few additions to enable true eco-friendly transit-based development </li></ul>
  • 27. Road-blocks to achieving vision <ul><li>Consolidation of fragmented land </li></ul><ul><li>Political inertia, especially in the current scenario of coalition governments </li></ul><ul><li>Business indifference, concentration on profitability </li></ul>
  • 28. Catalytic Developers <ul><li>Frequently involved in 'downtown revitalization' projects in America </li></ul><ul><li>Provides slow capital with the aim of absorbing short-term losses till 'critical mass' is reached </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving 'critical mass' means area attracts people to visit, live and operate businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Once 'critical mass' is reached, the project moves forward in full throttle with a host of private developers involved </li></ul>
  • 29. Indian Railways as 'Catalytic Developer' <ul><li>Owns vast tracts of land in close proximity to railway stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are currently used as railway colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Badly in need of redevelopment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railways can undertake development of railway colonies as model transit towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single entity or through public-private partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railways currently under financial crunch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to subsidize passenger fares by increasing freight charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trucks are major freight handlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not sustainable business tactic, plus, gasoline dependent economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of transit towns gives Railways financial security for the future </li></ul>
  • 30. Conclusion <ul><li>Transit towns are a viable alternative for development in Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively cheaper alternative due to utilization of existing resources </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from efficient utilization of existing resources, solves the problems of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely dense population distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply and drainage issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>messy built-form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All this helps increase economic efficiency, and guarantees achievement of India's lofty growth forecasts </li></ul>
  • 31. Acknowledgments <ul><li>1. Dr. S. Narasimhan, Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mr. Suart Cameron, Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mr. S. Murali, New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mr. Balaji Srinivasan, Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>5. Mr. Sujay Raphael Mabel, Denver </li></ul><ul><li>6. Dr. Parthiban Rajasekaran, Blacksburg </li></ul>

Related Documents