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Natural Resources in Afghanistan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800135-6.00013-1
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc...
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Figure 13.1 (A)
Rare aerial
photograph of
Kabul University as
it existed in about
1...
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Remote sensing satellite imagery of Afghanistan became a viable alternative,
albeit at ...
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from a set of large-scale US Department of Defense (DOD), Joint Operations
Graphic...
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Figure 13.3 (A) Low-altitude oblique aerial photograph of Yakawlang graben area in
cent...
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Some of the imagery provided included that of the Return Beam Vidicon
(RBV) imagin...
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After the full Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979, the war between
the Mujahid...
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Figure 13.5 (A) Portion of the Kabul III satellite-image mosaic sheet produced by t...
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Figure 13.6
Small portion of
the back of the
Kabul III sheet
with the passes
e...
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physical character of Afghanistan was made available. For the first time, the
whol...
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where they deployed one four-engine turboprop NP-3D Orion aircraft to the
Kandahar airf...
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392
environment was not optimal for scientific research where maximum control
of takeo...
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Table 13.1 Comparison of Published Rampant Lion I and II Operations in 2006
and 2008, R...
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394
Figure 13.10 A photograph from part of a mosaic of high-resolution digital image
a...
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pixels and covered the wavelength range 0.43–2.48 microns in 128 channels
with four det...
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396
between rocks of different types, as well as between uplifted mountains, sedi-menta...
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generally sea level. Bouguer gravity anomalies are generally more negative
in mountains...
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Geophysical manipulation of the data even allow estimation of the sedimentary
rock...
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Figure 13.15
Plot of the
preliminary data
set of magnetic
anomalies of
Afghani...
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Figure 13.17 Plot of the corrected and merged multiple Afghanistan magnetic
anomal...
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Figure 13.18 Comparison of magnetic to gravitational anomalies over Afghanistan. 1,
Mag...
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38º0'N 38º0'N
70º0'E
72º0'E
36º0'N
74º0'E
34º0'N
EXPLANATION
Mineral area of...
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Figure 13.20 Hyperspectral anomaly located in the Aynak AOI, which is based upon
the co...
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well as for the country as a whole (Kokaly et al., 2011; King et al., 2011c). The
...
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Dimarzio, K., Shroder Jr., J.F., Rundquist, D., 1977. Satellite-Image Mosaic of Afghanis...
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Sarikaya, M.A., Bishop, M.P., Shroder, J.F., Olsenholler, J.A., 2012. Space-based o...
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Natural Resources in Afghanistan, Chapters 13, by John F. Shroder, PhD (Elsevier 2014)

Natural Resources in Afghanistan: Geographic and Geologic Perspectives on Centuries of Conflict summarizes four decades of the author's research — both land- and air-based — that addresses Afghanistan's physical environment, natural hazards, climate change impacts, and vast natural resource potential in a country divided by ethnic and military conflict. Here, we provide Chapter 13, which you can download: "Air and Space Technology in Resource Delineation: Peace and War"
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural Resources in Afghanistan, Chapters 13, by John F. Shroder, PhD (Elsevier 2014)

  • 1. 381 Natural Resources in Afghanistan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800135-6.00013-1 Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Air and Space Technology in Resource Delineation: Peace and War Abstract The use of air and space technologies in resource delineation in Afghanistan was a product of the development of new remote-sensing technologies, coupled with favorable circumstances produced by limited vegetation because of the great aridity and human-caused removal of much of the rest. The result was a series of new satellite-image mosaics and other analytical means that enabled the use of hyperspectral remote sensing, in which the spectral signatures of particular minerals of interest can be recognized from high altitude or in space. These data sources, along with such other information as gravity and magnetic maps and other ancillary information, enable the establishment of detailed mineral assessments that can used to acquire appropriate preliminary assessments, and obtain the permits and financing to facilitate the processes necessary to mine the resources. Keywords: GLIMS project; Gravity anomaly; Hyperspectral remote sensing; Magnetic anomaly; Operation Rampant Lion; Satellite image mosaic; Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO). Some 40 years ago—back in antiquity as students say—when the sci-ence of remote sensing was just getting going, the idea was a big sur-prise that a satellite orbiting hundreds of kilometers above the Earth could literally snap pictures or scan the ground using advanced technologies that could detect all sorts of different electromagnetic radiations. Prior to that time, most geoscientists used aerial photography to figure out exactly what was where on the ground. The science of aerial photogram-metry was developed to a robust degree in WWII, and the science of remote sensing was a similar product of the Cold War to detect what the enemy was doing. Afghanistan was a country that had been flown over repeat-edly in the late 1950s and early 1960s to make aerial photographs by both American and Soviet aircraft, which countries were individually respon-sible for producing topographic maps (Glicken, 1960; Shroder, 1983), but the photographs were secret and not easily available (Figure 13.1(A and B)).
  • 2. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Figure 13.1 (A) Rare aerial photograph of Kabul University as it existed in about 1961. Photograph by Fairchild Aerial Surveys Company. (B) Google Earth™ view of 2011 (north is to the top). Among other observations of change over time, note in particular the squatter’s houses on the rocky ground to the north that have sprung up in the interim. No sewage or water pipes exist in those locations. 382
  • 3. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Remote sensing satellite imagery of Afghanistan became a viable alternative, albeit at low resolutions so that the radiations from many small features on the ground were averaged together into a picture element (pixel) some hun-dreds of meters on a side. The result was the ability to map the entire country of Afghanistan using this new remote sensing imagery that civilians could pur-chase if they could afford it. With the start-up of the new Afghanistan Studies Center at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, purchase of imagery for the whole country was a necessary expense. (Shroder, 1978). One of the first jobs undertaken was to build a mosaic of the 70–80 odd images that had to be “stitched” together in some fashion to cover the whole country. In today’s technology, this can be done entirely electronically, but in those days each image was printed on photographic paper and the edges of each rectan-gular image were torn off very carefully to leave a thin “feathered” edge that could be glued down over its matching but neighboring images on all sides. In this fashion, a mosaic of photographic images was built up with carefully but manually registered sections (Figure 13.2). The resulting mosaic measured 1 × 2 m on a side and was mounted on a piece of Masonite construction board and then rephotographed to make multiple copies of the whole. The interna-tional borders were carefully transferred by eye and white ink onto the mosaic 383 Figure 13.2 Satellite-image mosaic of Afghanistan produced at the University of Nebraska at Omaha in 1977 from mosaicked contact prints of early Landsat imagery. DiMarzio et al., 1977
  • 4. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 384 from a set of large-scale US Department of Defense (DOD), Joint Operations Graphic (JOG) series of maps at a scale of 1:250,000 that had been released to the author by the US Department of State under Henry Kissenger’s purview for the Atlas project. A full-sized version of the satellite-image mosaic of Afghanistan was taken by Thomas Gouttierre, Director of UNO’s new Afghanistan Studies Center, to Kabul in the mid-1970s to present to the government of Afghanistan as an example of the help being given to them by Americans. In a ceremony presided over by Presi-dent Daoud and his ministers, Mr Gouttierre unrolled the big mosaic and talked about how Americans were up in space looking down with “cameras” that could make pictures like this. At this time, of course, during the height of the Cold War, it was illegal for anyone to make aerial photographs anywhere in the country. After a pregnant pause while everyone was assimilating what Mr Gouttierre was saying, the voice of a distant government minister piped up, “Can you see our women?” Mr Gouttierre assured the assembled ministers and President Daoud that the sanc-tity of their women was safe with the low-resolution imagery of the time. This was the beginning of some of the very first uses of satellite imagery for Afghanistan. In 1977–1978 when I was teaching at Kabul University, running the Kabul Uni-versity Seismic Station, and acting as the Director of the project to produce a first National Atlas of Afghanistan, a major objective was to gain as much infor-mation about the terrain of the country as possible. One method to do this was to travel around the country on the reasonable to rudimentary roads as much possible, as well as trekking off road on foot wherever the danger from bel-licose tribal warriors or bandits was minimal. An even better, but quite different method was to take to the skies in US Ambassador Theodore Eliot’s airplane. Ambassador Eliot was required by the nature of his job at the time to travel to numerous other cities in the region to serve as the ceremonial ­American rep-resentatives at various dedication, inaugural, and opening ceremonies, among other things. He had a multiseat passenger aircraft flown by two US Air Force officers out-of-uniform, whose job was to ferry him around the country. I was invited on several occasions to be a back-seat passenger with cameras to shoot photographs of whatever interesting features were being flown over, even though this was not quite legal according to the law of that land. The result was a series of low-altitude, oblique aerial photographs that in many subse-quent years served well as records to enable analysis of landforms and human landscapes (Figure 13.3(A and B)). After the communist coup in late April of 1978, the days of the Atlas project in Afghanistan could be seen to be numbered, so the best course of action was to safeguard all the Atlas maps and photographs. The materials were carried by my cook, the late Abdul Waheed, on his bicycle a few at a time across Kabul to the US Embassy and given to the gunny sergeant of the US Marine guard at the gate. From there the vital Atlas materials were shipped back to UNO via
  • 5. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Figure 13.3 (A) Low-altitude oblique aerial photograph of Yakawlang graben area in central Afghanistan where the bedrock has been pulled apart by a bend in the right-lateral diplomatic pouch, which ensured their safe arrival. A few important rock speci-mens were shipped that way too, although a later request for a greater weight of such was politely rejected. I myself was placed under house arrest for several months in the fall of 1978, before being deported to Germany on a Lufthansa jet in mid-November of that year. At least the plane ticket was free. The next big project involved with satellite imagery of Afghanistan was an effort by Ritchie Williams and Jane Ferrigno at the US Geological Survey (USGS). They had decided that the world-wide coverage of snow and ice with satellite imag-ery in the 1970s would be able to give a good measure of the health of the glaciers of the world in the face of the long-predicted climate change since the nineteenth century. Accordingly, they were casting about to find those willing to take on the challenge of assessing ice in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya, and discovered my ongoing work on such glaciers. That led to provision of plenti-ful and free imagery from the USGS in the late 1970s and early 1980s, which coupled with the plentiful and large-scale (1:100,000) topographic maps from the US Department of Defense (DOD) of high mountain areas in Afghanistan that were generally denied to most other people, led to the very beginnings of a first glacier inventory of the Hindu Kush (Shroder, 1980) (Figure 13.4). 385 strike-slip fault. The river below is near the headwaters of the Balkh Ab. The photograph was taken from US Ambassador Theodore Elliot’s aircraft in 1977. Photograph by J. Shroder. (B) Ground view of the same scene in approximately the same direction at the southeast end of the pull-apart rhombochasm. From M. AliStani on Google Earth™.
  • 6. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 386 Some of the imagery provided included that of the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) imaging device that was put into orbit in the late 1970s. In a subse-quent cost-saving measure by the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, SD, dur-ing the President Reagan years, the RBV image files were destroyed, which left the author with the only known copies of such imagery of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Later these became important when the author’s postdoc-toral researcher, Dr Umesh Haritashya, assessed the glacier changes in the Wakhan Pamir (Haritashya et al., 2009). A paper to describe the glaciers of Afghanistan was submitted in the early 1980s, the benchmark time period for the Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, USGS Professional Paper 1386A-K, but because there were subsequent decades of delays in publishing, the work needed to be updated by adding references to more recent work while intentionally retaining the original benchmark information (Shroder and Bishop, 2010). Figure 13.4 Return-beam vidicon (RBV) scene of glaciers in the Little Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan (top third of image), as well as glaciers in the Hindu Raj mountains of northwest Pakistan in 1977. Such temporally valuable imagery was provided by the USGS to work on glacier configuration and change, but all RBV images were subsequently erased from storage media at the EROS Date Center in Sioux Falls, SD, in an ill-advised cost-cutting measure during the Reagan presidency in the late 1980s.
  • 7. Natural Resources in Afghanistan After the full Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979, the war between the Mujahideen and the Soviet troops escalated, and I returned to Peshawar, ­Pakistan, to work with Pakistani geologists, as well as to aid the Afghan resis-tance in education. At the same time, the US government was funding a vari-ety of projects to aid the progress of the war against the Soviets (Crile, 2003; Coll, 2004; Tomsen, 2011). One of the issues was to get many forms of assis-tance (books, school supplies, guns, ammunition, and Stinger missiles) through the mountain passes from Pakistan into Afghanistan. To do this, the US Cen-tral Intelligence Agency (CIA) made a new set of mosaicked satellite images of Afghanistan that were printed at a scale of 1:500,000 (Shroder, 2008). The seven sheets (Sheet I, Herat; Sheet II, Mymanah; Sheet III, Kabul; Sheet IV, Islamabad; Sheet V, Zaranj; Sheet VI, Qandahar; Sheet VII, Ghazni) were false color images (red, green, and blue, with the red being used for the portrayal of vegetation spectral signatures). The large-sized sheets were overlain with useful designations and a legend portraying the international borders, internal administrative boundaries, Federally Administered Tribal Areas Boundary in Pak-istan, district of Agency boundaries, Internal administrative capitals, railroads, paved roads, unpaved roads, tracks and trails, airfields, and spot elevations in meters (Figure 13.5(A and B)). Passes through the mountains along the bor-ders of the country were numbered. On the reverse side of each sheet was a variety of bilingual gazetteer information, with names of the passes if known; otherwise, left blank for insertion of a name if found out by a covert operative (Figure 13.6). Many of the American civilians living in Peshawar during the war got to know some of these people who went over the passes during the war, even though otherwise everyone officially was not supposed to do this; a few ignored the warnings anyway and came back with interesting stories to relate over drinks in the American Club and elsewhere. After the Soviets went home in some ignominy and the Second Afghan civil war erupted in the 1990s, work on satellite imagery of Afghanistan at UNO was lim-ited to an occasional look at glaciers and landforms for various reasons. In the late 1990s, when the USGS was first looking for scientists worldwide to work on the GLIMS Project (Global land Ice Measurements from Space), in connec-tion with a new NASA rocket and satellite program, the Earth Observing Sys-tem’s (EOS) flagship satellite “Terra,” named for Earth. Terra collected data about the Earth’s changing climate and carried five state-of-the-art sensors that studied interactions among the Earth’s atmosphere, lands, oceans, and radi-ant energy, but the one that was used for Afghanistan the most in this con-text was Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER was a cooperative effort between NASA, the USGS, Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), and Japan Space Systems (J-spacesystems). ASTER data were used to create detailed maps of land-surface temperatures, reflectance, and elevation. The coordinated system of EOS satel-lites, including Terra, has been a major component of NASA’s Science Mission 387
  • 8. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 388 Figure 13.5 (A) Portion of the Kabul III satellite-image mosaic sheet produced by the US CIA in the 1980s as a part of the effort to aid the Afghan resistance against Soviet occupation. Part of Kabul city is located in the extreme upper left and the Safed Koh (Spin Ghar) mountain range occurs, running east–west through the lower center of the map, north of the North–West Frontier Province of Pakistan running along the bottom quarter of the map. Passes through the mountains that are used for smuggling all manner of people, guns, weapons, and untaxed consumer goods are enumerated. (B) Title part of Kabul III sheet showing the numbers and names of the other six sheets, as well as the standard legend for all sheets. Directorate and the Earth Science Division. The goal of NASA Earth Science has been to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated sys-tem, its response to change, and to better predict the variability and changing trends in climate, weather, and natural hazards. Afghanistan, more than most
  • 9. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 389 Figure 13.6 Small portion of the back of the Kabul III sheet with the passes enumerated and named, if known, but a blank left for the name to be filled in later if discovered by covert operatives. countries, exists right at the edge of major environmental problems and climatic livability, so that some of their environmental problems, which might be less extreme elsewhere, can take on more severe import that satellite monitoring is able to detect more rapidly or easier than most other places. It is a country on the margins, where the brink may not be far away between livability, and some-thing more extreme. ASTER satellite data provided hosts of new information to enable new looks at the problems (Shroder and Bishop, 2010; Shroder, 2012). In the course of working with the ASTER data on Afghanistan and Pakistan, for which UNO became the Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan) Regional Center for GLIMS, terabytes of reasonably high (30 m)-resolution, satellite-image data of Afghanistan were collected, which enabled detailed looks at many features, not only ice. In 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was flown by NASA onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor to obtain ele-vation data on a near-global scale. This gave a new ability to see the topogra-phy of the Earth recreated in three dimensions on the computer screen with 90 m resolution. ASTER also had stereographic overlap side-to-side with its image acquisitions, which with its higher resolution added to the topographic data or digital elevation models (DEMs) available for the whole of Afghani-stan. By draping a single ASTER image over the new DEM, a simulated relief map could be generated that gave the appearance of actual topography as viewed from any angle above the surface. This gave an unparalleled ability to see and interpret landforms in three dimensions (3D) at a range of scales. Then when Google Earth™ came online in 2005, an even greater ability to map the
  • 10. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 390 physical character of Afghanistan was made available. For the first time, the whole physical character of the country was revealed from space and could be accessed at a moment’s notice on almost any modern computer. This enabled unprecedented and rapid access to the surface of Afghanistan, at least in a vir-tual sense. Many hours of pouring over apparent low-altitude, high-resolution Google Earth™ imagery revealed many newly recognized features. From these data sets, a variety of new applications were then made concerning glaciers, water resources, and natural hazards (Hagen et al., 2010; Haritashya et al., 2009; Sarikaya et al., 2012; Shroder, 2009; Shroder and Weihs, 2010; Shroder et al., 2007, 2011a,b). Continual research progress made in the remote-sensing community ulti-mately enabled comprehensive mapping of about 70 percent of Afghanistan using an advanced remote sensing technique known as hyperspectral imaging (Brozena et al., 2007). Such work is quite expensive because it requires spe-cially equipped aircraft, massive equipment expenditures, and hundreds of hours of flight time and data-processing work, but was possible for a country like Afghanistan because the budget could be justified through US national security funding channels. Hyperspectral remote sensing collects and processes information across much of the electromagnetic spectrum, including visible light as well as the near infrared. Hyperspectral sensors deployed from aircraft were viewed as an ideal tool for mapping the mineral provinces of the coun-try because of its rugged topographic relief, lack of substantial ground cover of soil and vegetation that can obscure the bedrock, and the substantial secu-rity issues that precluded normal geological exploration on the ground. Such hyperspectral sensors measure light spectra reflected from the Earth and can be interpreted to identify mineral compositions, man-made materials, snow and ice, and vegetation. Areas can be mapped quickly to show mineral resources, natural hazards, agricultural conditions, and development of infrastructure. If the Afghanistan Geological Survey had attempted the standard geologic ground reconnaissance that has been characteristic of such work all over the world for several centuries, it would have taken 15–20 years to do the work, the time that the country cannot afford. Accordingly, the USAID, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the US National Geospatial Intelligence Agency provided about $11 million to Operation Rampant Lion I and II in the summers of 2006 and 2008 (McKinney, 2009), and the HyMap Data Collection Program by the USGS in summer 2007. All three of the summer flight operations were hampered to a cer-tain extent by dust-storm weather that is characteristic of the badi sado bist roz or wind of 120 days in summer in the west of Afghanistan. Such windstorms occur when air masses rush south from Central Asia through the lowlands around the western edges of the Hindu Kush to meet the monsoonal low-pressure intertropi-cal convergence zone (ITCZ) coming in from over Pakistan. The US government picked the Navy’s Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1; “Warlocks”) to conduct the Rampant Lion Operations in Afghanistan,
  • 11. Natural Resources in Afghanistan where they deployed one four-engine turboprop NP-3D Orion aircraft to the Kandahar airfield to execute the research flights (Figures 13.7 and 13.8). Forty research survey flights were flown 37,000 km over the course of 43 days and 28 flights, totaling 226 flight hours covering over two-thirds of the country (440,000 km2). This excluded most border areas, where buffers of about 46 km were established around all borders except Iran, where the buffer zone was a larger ∼65 km. The higher altitudes in the center and northeast of the country were excluded as well because of ceiling limitations of about 8.6 km for the air-craft. This meant that the aircraft could not fly over ground above much above 3.7 km altitude and had to maintain a relatively high flying altitude to avoid weapons fired from the ground (Figure13.9). Approximately 50 military personnel and civilian scientists were involved in the Rampant Lion efforts, keeping the 38-year-old aircraft ready to fly in spite of extremely hot temperatures ranging from 40–54 °C (105°–130 °F). The Figure 13.7 Specially equipped Lockheed Orion NP-3D aircraft taxiing at the Kandahar International Airfield in June 2006 in connection with Operation Rampant Lion to gather hyperspectral and other valuable geophysical data over Afghanistan. Photo by USGS. 391 Figure 13.8 The sensor systems installed on the Lockheed Orion NP-3D research aircraft for the aerogeophysical survey of Afghanistan. CASI-1500 HIS is the hyperspectral imaging camera. Photograph is after Brozena et al. (2007).
  • 12. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 392 environment was not optimal for scientific research where maximum control of takeoffs, landings, navigation, and altitude are required because the region was an active combat theater, with avoidance of other aircraft, tanker traffic, and ground fire being necessary as well (Burgess, 2006, Brozena et al., 2007). The plane required outfitting with the addition of a flare/chaff dispenser, opti-cal launch warning systems to counter any possible firing of surface-to-air mis-siles, infrared strobes, secure communications channels, a low-observable paint scheme (gray), as well as foamed fuel tanks to reduce the danger from ground-weapons fire. The aircrafts in 2006 and 2008 were specially equipped with a unique suite of state-of-the-art remote-sensing technology, including dual gravimeters, scalar and vector magnetometers, a hyperspectral imager, L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar, and digital photogrammetric camera (Figure 13.8). A kilometric global positioning system (KGPS) that enabled pinpoint location of the aircraft within a few centimeters established a stable air platform from which to control the experiments. The combination of all these sensors in one aircraft was a unique configuration that enabled high comparative precision between data sets. Data from all sources was precisely coregistered to the ground by a combination of interferometric KGPS and inertial measurements. The mission advanced the state of the art in integrated multisensor airborne remote sensing as a result. Hyperspec-tral imaging for Afghanistan Rampant Lion I divided the spectrum into 288 spec-tral bands (0.4–1.0 μm) that were averaged down to 72 bands in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratios (Brozena et al., 2007). In Rampant Lion II, the spectral Figure 13.9 Map of the 40 Rampant Lion I mission flights over Afghanistan that produced more than 125,000 line km of airborne survey tracks and some 330,000 km2 of imagery. After Brozena et al. (2007).
  • 13. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Table 13.1 Comparison of Published Rampant Lion I and II Operations in 2006 and 2008, Respectively (After Brozena et al. (2007); Anonymous (2008); McKinny (2009).), and USGS HyMap Flights in 2007 (Kokaly et al., 2008; Anonymous, 2012) bands were extended from 0.4 μm up to 2.5 μm, a thermal imaging camera was added, as well as a high-altitude scanning topographic LiDAR system (Table 13.1). Some 65,000 high-resolution photogrammetric images were collected over Afghanistan with a 4000 × 4000 pixel, three-color Applanix Digital Sensor System with a pixel resolution of 85–135 cm on the ground, and a locational positioning accuracy on the order of 1–2 m or less. A 60 percent along-path overlap allowed stereographic viewing to see the topography in 3D and stereo models for ele-vation and slope estimates could be made as well. Such scenes are capable of considerable enlargement “zoom” to larger scales without losing detail. These images were ortho-corrected to remove parallax distortion errors, and are unclas-sified so that they can be used freely by ground troops in the field, who are oth-erwise prohibited from carrying sensitive and classified maps and images. In fact, some images were provided to ground combat forces within 48 h of landing, which is an unprecedented rate of delivery of information from aerial information acquisition in a combat theater (Brozena et al., 2007) (Figure 13.10). In contrast to the Rampant Lion missions, the USGS HyMap operation in 2007 utilized an NASA WB-57F high-altitude research jet that was deployed to 393 Operation Flights Flight Hours Altitude Data Amount Data Collected Rampant Lion I 37 226 6–9 km 50 TB 1.5 × 105 km2 hyper-spectral coverage 3.3 × 105 km2 stereo true color images 1.13 × 105 line km magnetic data 7.3 × 104 line km gravity data 1.1 × 105 line km SAR (radar) data USGS HyMap 28 – ∼16 km – 39,546 line km hyperspectral cover 438,012 line km area coverage Rampant Lion II 40 335 6–9 km 30 Not released The sources do not agree on all parameters but a general consensus for some data is possible; much is not released as well, probably because of the necessity of military security and the uses in fighting the Taliban to which some of the information was put. TB = terabytes.
  • 14. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 394 Figure 13.10 A photograph from part of a mosaic of high-resolution digital image acquisition over the Kajakai Dam and reservoir on the Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan. The dam was built by the USA in the 1950s but is now a hotbed of insurgent Taliban fighters, as well as opium farming. This and other images were provided to ISAF personnel fighting Taliban in the region in 2006. Photograph after Brozena et al. (2007). Figure 13.11 Photograph of NASA WB-57F aircraft 928 on the ground at the Kandahar International Airport, working for the US Geological Survey without its usual NASA logo on the tail. Originally built as a Martin RB-57 Canberra tactical bomber in the 1960s, it was rebuilt by NASA for high-altitude weather research but has also been put to a number of other uses (communications, hyperspectral image capture, etc.). Apparently when on non-NASA missions, the logo is removed. Afghanistan with the NASA logos removed, probably because it was being used by USGS to collect Airborne Visible Infra Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for assessments of mineral assemblages, rather than a strictly NASA-oriented project (Figure 13.11). The HyMap imaging spectrometer had 512 cross-track
  • 15. Natural Resources in Afghanistan pixels and covered the wavelength range 0.43–2.48 microns in 128 channels with four detectors in visible and near-infrared, near-infrared, shortwave infra-red 1, and shortwave infrared 2 in the sensor. This would allow production of thematic maps showing distributions of certain selected minerals and vegeta-tion, with applications in detecting commercial mineral deposits, natural haz-ards, hydrology, and infrastructure assessments (Kokaly et al., 2008). Unlike the propeller-driven Orion aircraft of the Rampant Lion operations that had a lower altitude flight ceiling of about 6–9 km, the WB-57F could fly at about 16 km alti-tude over the higher altitudes so that much more of the high Hindu Kush could be imaged (Figure 13.12). The data from the three missions have not all been released, but enough has been interpreted and given out so that one can observe the general geophysi-cal foundations of much of Afghanistan in a remarkable fashion that is actu-ally more complete than that of the USA, or indeed, most other countries of the world. For example, the gravity-anomaly material (Brozena et al., 2007; Jung et al., 2012) allows the interpretation of structural relations (faults, folds) 395 Figure 13.12 Plot of the actual flight lines used by the NASA aircraft WB-57F during the USGS HyMap mission of 2007 over Afghanistan to collect hyperspectral data. The cyan line is the border of Afghanistan with the neighboring countries. Map after Kokaly et al. (2008).
  • 16. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 396 between rocks of different types, as well as between uplifted mountains, sedi-mentary plateaus, plains, and sedimentary basins. Gravity anomalies are the differences between the observed acceleration of Earth’s gravity and the val-ues predicted from some model of how the gravity would be predicted to appear. Positive anomalies show more gravity than expected, whereas nega-tive anomalies exhibit less. The free-air anomaly is the rate of change of grav-ity with distance up from the datum, which is generally about sea level. The free-air gravity anomaly map of Afghanistan (Figure 13.13) shows the moun-tains as relative gravity highs (positive), presented as warm reddish colors, and compared to the relative lows (negative) in the plains of the sedimentary basins (cool blues). Salt domes, which can be excellent oil traps, generally show grav-ity low because of the low density of the mobile salt (cool blues), compared to the surrounding sedimentary rocks they intrude, which themselves can be bowed up into oil-trapping anticlinal domes, which without salt can be the red-dish positive highs. Both types show in the north of Afghanistan at this scale as interesting potential oil traps, but at the large scales also possible to produce from these data sets, the resolution will be even more detailed and interest-ing to guide hydrocarbon exploration. At larger scales, local positive anomalies might otherwise indicate metallic ores of higher density. The complete Bouguer gravity anomaly is a correction for the height at which it was measured, plus the attraction of the terrain itself. It is actually the free-air anomaly, plus the mass of the material that exists above the same datum, Figure 13.13 Plot of the free-air gravity anomaly map of Afghanistan showing the relative gravity highs produced by the mass of the mountains (warm reddish colors), in contrast to the relative lows of the plains (cool blue greens). After Brozena et al. (2007).
  • 17. Natural Resources in Afghanistan generally sea level. Bouguer gravity anomalies are generally more negative in mountains because of isostasy wherein mountains of lower density crustal rocks tend to have deep roots of lower density rocks, rather like low-density icebergs floating in water, where 9/10 of the berg mass is below the waterline. The crustal roots of mountains have a lower rock density “floating” and sur-rounded in a sea of higher density mantle material down at depth. They are ideal for geophysics because they show many effects of different rock densities concealed below the surface. The complete Bouger gravity anomaly map of Afghanistan (Figure 13.14) is produced by removing the estimates of the mass effects of the topography and the altitude. Subsurface mass variations, plus deviations produced by some of the assumptions used in the initial modeling control the overall resid-ual Bouguer gravity anomaly. At a small scale like this, the Bouguer gravity anomaly is indicative of crustal thickening in the mountain regions where mil-lions of years of accreting, largely lower density sedimentary rock terrains have piled up into mountains to produce a negative anomaly (cool blue colors). This is compared to thick sections of even less-dense less-consolidated sedi-ments that fill the Helmand sedimentary basin to the south and the Afghan– Tajik basin to the north (warm red colors) indicating a positive anomaly where a sedimentary basin has been strongly downwarped along some east–west trending crustal flexural zones, which show clearly on both types of gravity maps (Figures 13.13 and 13.14). 397 Figure 13.14 Plot of complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map produced by removing the estimated effects of the mass variations of topography and of altitude. The resulting residual anomaly is an indicator of subsurface mass variation as well as some assumptions made in the modeling used as a base. After Brozena et al. (2007).
  • 18. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 398 Geophysical manipulation of the data even allow estimation of the sedimentary rock thickness in the basins, with perhaps a 5 km thickness of sediments north of the Hindu Kush, which is a good indication for more potential oil traps in that region. Most high mountain valleys probably have sediment thicknesses of <1 km. The Helmand basin on the other hand does not have the large grav-ity low that might be expected if it was a thick sedimentary basin with oil and gas potential. It does have a number of positive anomalies that might be either batholiths or small deeper basins (Finn, 2007). The presence of the Khaneshin carbonatite (low density) volcano that deflected the Helmand River at about 64° east longitude and 30°30′ north latitude shows a slightly negative free-air anomaly and a slightly positive Bouguer anomaly, which lends credence to the notion of possible batholithic variations at depth, also thereby precluding oil and gas because of the possible presence of hydrocarbon-absent igneous rocks. Magnetic anomalies occur in rocks that have magnetically susceptible miner-als such as iron ore with magnetite minerals, or those with many ferromagnesian minerals typical of mafic igneous or metamorphic rocks. Areas occur with either a higher (positive) or a lower (negative) magnetic anomaly than the average mag-netic field of an area. Thus the igneous and metamorphic rocks are generally far more magnetic than sedimentary rocks where any iron-bearing ferromagnesian minerals tend to have never been there in the first place, or have weathered away. The result is that positive anomalies can be created by irregularities in the bur-ied basement rocks beneath a cover of sediments. Similarly, negative anomalies may form where sedimentary basins or troughs occur, as well as where faults have dropped down the basement in grabens or other structures. The Earth’s magnetic field is a composite of magnetic anomalies of different and varying frequencies. High-frequency magnetic events are created by geological variations in the shal-low subsurface, whereas the lowest frequency events are caused by contrasting magnetic properties at or beneath the surface of the crystalline basement rocks. Faulting, which abounds in a country such as Afghanistan, juxtaposes rocks of contrasting magnetic variation, and important lateral variations can result from some combination of faulting, deposition, and secondary mineralization emplaced by groundwater along structural displacements such as fault planes (Figure 13.15). Solar energy causes diurnal (daily) magnetic currents in the Earth’s crust that must be removed to see the true background magnetism of the rocks. For the best results, a base station must be located on the ground near the center of the area to be flown for detecting magnetic anomalies. The range of the base sta-tion is about 100 km. Accordingly in Afghanistan, five base-station magnetom-eters were established in Kandahar, Kabul, Herat, Faizabad, and Shiberghan, and the midnight readings averaged over 22 nights were used to calculate the diurnal variation to be removed. Other variations of data spikes and noise in the base-station records were removed with statistical filters, and additional processing removed line-leveling noise and elevation variations. Everything was projected to a nominal 5000 m above the terrain and the final magnetic anomaly grids were
  • 19. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 399 Figure 13.15 Plot of the preliminary data set of magnetic anomalies of Afghanistan that has only been corrected for diurnal variation at the Kandahar International Airfield. Other diurnal variation can be detected northwest of the Kandahar location where diurnal artifacts occur as streaks following the flight lines. After Brozena et al. (2007). merged with the ground magnetic survey data that were run in September 2006 by the Afghanistan Geological Survey along the Ghorband and Hari Rud river val-leys through the central, east–west running fault-trained valleys (Shenwary et al., 2011). The magnetic data were reduced to the pole to center the anomalies over their geologic sources (Finn, 2007) (Figure 13.16). The results of these surveys constitute a first detailed look at the magnetic anomalies of Afghanistan, in which a number of interesting and informa-tive anomalies show prospective mineral and hydrocarbon locations possibly Figure 13.16 Three engineer-geophysicists from the AGS operating a proton-precession magnetometer along the Ghorband River in central Afghanistan in September, 2006. After Shenwary (2011).
  • 20. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 400 Figure 13.17 Plot of the corrected and merged multiple Afghanistan magnetic anomaly grids showing that most of the diurnal variation of the magnetic fields has been removed. The serpentine magnetic values through the central Hindu Kush where only three linear flight line readings can be seen are the ground survey data collected by personnel of the AGS. The simulated elevation of the displayed magnetic grid is 5000 m above terrain, and the illumination is from the northeast. After Shenwary et al. (2011). worthy of exploitation (Figure 13.17). These magnetic data can detect accreted island arc terranes and other Precambrian crystalline basement blocks of inter-est because of their mineral resource potential. In addition, the magnetic highs associated with the Hari Rud, Helmand, and Chaman strike-slip fault systems separate highly magnetic from nonmagnetic rocks, which may allow modeling of fault dips that may in turn aid in assessing the seismic hazard potential. The geophysical data sets in combination commonly reinforce each other as well. For example, gravity and magnetics in combination (Figure 13.18) show that the Katawaz area close to the border with Pakistan has low mag-netic anomalies that could have oil and gas prospects, which supposition is reinforced by low rock densities on a gravity manipulation that also indicates hydrocarbon prospects (Aikins, 2010). An additional representation of a far more sophisticated combination of data sets is that done by Hubbard et al. (2011), in which a number of priority areas based on overlapping anomalies indicate the need for further work, particularly in the field on the ground. The anomalies are (1) geophysics (gravity and magnetics—GEO); (2) ASTER satellite
  • 21. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Figure 13.18 Comparison of magnetic to gravitational anomalies over Afghanistan. 1, Magnetic anomaly high at Khanneshin on the lower Helmand indicating the presence of rare-earth metals; 2, Low magnetic anomaly that could indicate hydrocarbon potential (oil, gas, and coal); 3, Magnetic anomaly high indicating presence of copper in the Aynak region; 4, Gravity low that further supports the hydrocarbon possibility of item 2. After Aikins (2010). spectral signatures (AST); and (3) HyMap hyperspectral data (HSD). Mineral anomaly locations number 334, with 225 overlapping anomalies, of which: 401 l 55 are AST and HSD; l 107 are HSD and GEO; l 34 are AST and GEO; l Several are AST, GEO, and HSD. Other influences on prioritizations are the following: l Number of data sets providing overlapped agreement. l Other known and nearby mineral occurrences. l Proximity to roads, infrastructure, and major population to provide work support. l General knowledge base about particular mineral types and associations. Five higher priority areas of interest (AOIs) were designated from this work (Figure 13.19): 1. Tourmaline AOI (tin vein, tungsten, precious and base-metal sulfides)—over-lap HSD, AST, and GEO. 2. Zarkashan AOI (lode gold)—overlap HSD, AST, and GEO.
  • 22. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 402 38º0'N 38º0'N 70º0'E 72º0'E 36º0'N 74º0'E 34º0'N EXPLANATION Mineral area of interest Badakhshan North Takhar AOI Taluqan AOI Takhar AOI 68º0'E Kunduz Kunduz AOI Dudkash AOI Baghlan Panjsher Valley Anomaly overlap areas 1 - Tourmaline AOI 2 - Zarkashan AOI 3 - Bakhud and Kundalan AOIs 4 - Dudkash and Kunduz AOIs 5 - North Takhar AOI Major road Major city Kabul 66º0'E Balkhab AOI Baghlan AOI Haji-Gak AOI Aynak AOI Ghunday-Achin Ghazni Daykundi AOI Puli Khumri AOI AOI Nuristan AOI KABUL Katawas AOI Zarkashan overlap area Zarkashan AOI Qalat Tirin Kot Kundalan 64º0'E Nalbandon 36º0'N Kharnak-Kanjar AOI Bakhud AOI Group 1 Group 2 Kandahar AOI 66º0'E 30º0'N 68º0'E 70º0'E 32º0'N 0 100 200 MILES 200 KILOMETERS 100 0 62º0'E North Herat AOI Tourmaline Dusar-Shaida Farah Hirat AOI AOI AOI 34º0'N 32º0'N 30º0'N 62º0'E Khanneshin AOI South Helmand AOI 64º0'E 3. Bakhud and Kundalan AOI (fluorite and porphyry)—overlap HSD and GEO with gravity lows and magnetic highs, coupled with strong surface alteration. 4. Dudkash and Kunduz AOI (coal and/or bauxite)—overlap AST and HSD. 5. North Takhar AOI (placer gold)—overlap AST and GEO with magnetic high probably in basement and not relevant to more surficial placer deposits above it. The HyMap hyperspectral results obtained from the 2007 efforts are huge data sets that do take considerable time to process; nonetheless, many results have been released and reasonable observations can be made about what has been discovered (Brozena et al., 2007; King et al., 2011a,b,c, 2012; Kokaly et al., 2011). The HyMap results included more than 8 × 108 pixels of imaging spec-trometer data, which after conversion to reflectance and georegistration, were compared against a library of 97 standard reference spectra of various surfi-cial materials. The resulting maps have a fairly massive and bewildering break-down of recognized mineral types but are useful to the professional, especially in combination with the other imaging data sets. These imaging spectrome-ter data are presented in two maps: the first is the distribution of iron-bearing minerals with absorption features in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths Figure 13.19 Location map showing selected overlapping anomalies in mineral AOI defined by the source data (geophysical, GEO; ASTER spectral, AST; and HyMap hyperspectral, HSD. 1, Toutmaline AOI; 2, Zarkashan AOI; 3, Bakhud and Kundalan AOIs; 4, Dudkash and Kunduz AOIs; 5, North Takhar AOI). After Hubbard et al. (2011).
  • 23. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Figure 13.20 Hyperspectral anomaly located in the Aynak AOI, which is based upon the combined presence of chlorite or epidote, serpentine, illite clay mineral, dolomite minerals, ferric iron, and goethite minerals. After King et al. (2011b). (1 μm), and the second is the carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered min-erals, and other minerals that have their primary absorption features in the short-wave infrared wavelength region (2 μm). These designations were used for exposition of selected AOIs such as the Aynak copper site (Figure 13.20), as 403
  • 24. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 404 well as for the country as a whole (Kokaly et al., 2011; King et al., 2011c). The significance of these particular mineral designation types is that many of these minerals are indicative of zones of hydrothermal alteration, which is where good ore mineralization can be located; thus they are another prospecting guide, but ultimately the boots-on-the-ground geologist with hammer in hand is an essential element as well. This activity, however, is difficult and expensive when coupled with the necessary military security required for elemental sur-vival in the war-torn region. For this reason, the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) was set up by the US Department of Defense (DOD) to provide economic sta-bilization in order to reduce violence, enhance stability, and try to restore eco-nomic normalcy in those areas where unrest and insurgency have produced downward spiraling cycles of economic hardship and violence (Anonymous, 2013). TFBSO tries to create stabilization by developing economic opportuni-ties through a range of efforts including their own capabilities (water-well drill-ing, road building, etc.), as well as (1) encouraging investment in the mineral resources by US and international companies; (2) developing the resources in economically sound and environmentally responsible fashions; (3) assisting in industrial development; and (4) agricultural revitalization. This is nation build-ing at its finest, if it can possibly work in benighted Afghanistan. TFBSO’s only real problems are bureaucratic snarls typical of so many efforts directed from Washington and the Pentagon, coupled with some probable cultural or legal corner cutting to accomplish objectives in trying to operate from within the rather stultifying or Byzantine legal frameworks of Afghanistan. References Aikins, M., September 2010. The Treasure of the Safit Chir. Popular Science, 6 p. http://www.p opsci.com/science/article/2010-08/treasure-safit-chir. Anonymous, 2008. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data. US Geological Survey OF 2008-1089, 3 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/ 2008/1089/Afghan_grv.html. Anonymous, July 17, 2012. Afghanistan the First Country Mapped Using Broad Scale Hyper-spectral Data. US Geological Survey, New release; 2 p. http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/ article.asp?ID=3280. Anonymous, 2013. TFBSO Task Force for Business & Stability Operations. TFBSO Report; 2 p. http://tfbso.defense.gov/www/index.aspx. Brozena, J., Childers, V., Gardner, J., Liang, R., Jarvis, J., Bowles, J., 2007. A Multi-Sensor Aerogeo-physical Study of Afghanistan. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Review: 107–117 http:// mapserver.cmf.nrl.navy.mil/FA7rev.pdf. Burgess, R.R., 2006. Beneath the Surface: A Navy Flight Squadron Conducts a Geological Survey of Afghanistan. Navy League of the United States, News release; 5 p. http://www.navyleague. org/sea_power/nov06-20.php. Coll, S., 2004. Ghost Wars. Penguin Press, New York, 695 p. Crile, G., 2003. Charlie Wilson’s War: the Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, 550 p.
  • 25. Natural Resources in Afghanistan Dimarzio, K., Shroder Jr., J.F., Rundquist, D., 1977. Satellite-Image Mosaic of Afghanistan. Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory. University of Nebraska at Omaha. first published as a frontispiece in Debon, F., Afzali, H., Le Fort, P., Sonet, J. and Zimmerman, J.L., 1987. Plutonic Rocks and Associations in Afghanistan: Typology, Age and Geodynamic Setting. Mémoire No. 49, Mémoires Sciences de la Terre; Nancy, France; 132 p. Finn, C.A., 2007. Regional Gravity and Magnetic Data Help Map Subsurface Geology of Afghan-istan. Geological Society of America, Abstract #156–9; GSA Denver Annual Meeting https:/ 405 /gsa.confex.com/gsa/2007AM/finalprogram/abstract_129281.htm. Glicken, M., 1960. Making a map of Afghanistan. Photogrammetric Engineering 26, 743–745. Hagen, E., Shroder Jr., J.F., Lu, X.X., Teufert, J.F., 2010. Reverse engineered flood hazard map-ping in Afghanistan: a parsimonious flood map model for developing countries. Quaternary International 226 (1–2), 82–91. Haritashya, U.K., Bishop, M.P., Shroder, J.F., Bush, A.B.G., Bulley, H.N.N., 2009. Space-based assess-ment of glacier fluctuations in the Wakhan Pamir, Afghanistan. Climatic Change 94, 5–18. Hubbard, B.E., King, T.V.V., Johnson, M.R., Drenth, B.J., 2011. Chapter 6: discussion of anomaly overlap areas and potential for economic development. In: King, T.V.V., Johnson, M.R., Hubbard, B.E., Drenth, B.J. (Eds.), Identification of Mineral Resources in Afghani-stan – Detecting and Mapping Resource Anomalies in Prioritized Areas Using Geophysical and Remote Sensing (ASTER and HyMap) Data. US Geological Survey Open-file report 2011 – 1229. Jung, W., Brozena, J., Peters, M., 2012. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghani-stan. Geophysical Journal International Geophys 192, 586–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ gji/ggs038. http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/content/192/2/586.full.pdf+html. King, T.V.V., Johnson, M.R., Hubbard, B.E., Drenth, B.J. (Eds.), 2011a. Identification of Mineral Resources in Afghanistan – Detecting and Mapping Resource Anomalies in Prioritized Areas Using Geophysical and Remote Sensing (ASTER and HyMap) Data. US Geological Survey Open-file report 2011 – 1229. 327 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1229/. King, T.V.V., Kokaly, R.F., Hoefen, T.M., Dudek, K.B., Livo, K.E., 2011b. Surface Materials Map of Afghanistan: Iron-Bearing Minerals and Other Materials. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3152–B, one sheet, scale 1:1,100,000, Also available at http://pubs.usgs. gov/sim/3152/B/. King, T.V.V., Hoefen, T.M., Johnson, M.R., Kokaly, R.F., Livo, K.E., 2011c. Chapter 5: mapping anomalous mineral zones using HyMap imaging spectrometer—data for selected areas of interest in Afghanistan. In: King, T.V.V., Johnson, M.R., Hubbard, B.E., Drenth, B.J. (Eds.), Identification of Mineral Resources in Afghanistan – Detecting and Mapping Resource Anomalies in Prioritized Areas Using Geophysical and Remote Sensing (ASTER and HyMap) Data. US Geological Survey Open-file report 2011 – 1229, pp. 158–320. http://pubs.usgs. gov/of/2011/1229/. King, T.V.V., Kokaly, R.F., Hoefen, T.M., Johnson, M.R., 2012. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 93 (34), 325. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012EO340002/abstract. Kokaly, R.F., King, T.V.V., Livo, K.E., 2008. Airborne hyperspectral survey of Afghanistan 2007: Flight line planning and HyMap Data Collection. USGS Afghanistan Project Product No. 186. USGS Open-file report 2008 – 1235, 14 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1235/dow nloads/OF08-1235_508.pdf. Kokaly, R.F., King, T.V.V., Hoefen, T.M., Dudek, K.B., Livo, K.E., 2011. Surface Materials Map of Afghanistan: Carbonates, Phyllosilicates, Sulfates, Altered Minerals, and Other Materials. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3152–A, one sheet, scale 1:1,100,000, Also available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3152/A/. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3152/A/. McKinney, D., January 26, 2009. NRL’s Rampant Lion II Survey Builds on Success of Rampant Lion I. Naval research Laboratory, News Release 2 p. http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/ 2009/nrls-rampant-lion-ll-survey-builds-on-success-of-rampant-lion-l.
  • 26. Natural Resources in Afghanistan 406 Sarikaya, M.A., Bishop, M.P., Shroder, J.F., Olsenholler, J.A., 2012. Space-based observations of eastern Hindu Kush glaciers between 1976 and 2007, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Remote Sensing Letters 3 (1), 77–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.536181. Shenwary, G.S., Kohistany, A.H., Hussain, Sardar, Ashan, Said, Mutty, A.S., Daud, M.A., Wussow, M.W., Sweeney, R.E., Phillips, J.D., Lindsay, C.R., Kucks, R.P., Finn, C.A., Drenth, B.A., Anderson, E.D., Abraham, J.D., Liang, R.T., Jarvis, J.L., Gardner, J.M., Childers, V.A., Ball, D.C., Brozena, J.M., 2011. Aeromagnetic surveys in Afghanistan—an updated website for distri-bution of data. U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2011 – 1055, 8 p. http://pubs.usgs. gov/of/2011/1055/. Shroder Jr., J.F., 1978. Remote sensing of Afghanistan. Afghanistan Journal 5, 123–128. Shroder Jr., J.F., 1980. Special Problems of Glacial Inventory in Afghanistan. World Glacier Inven-tory Proceedings Reideralp Workshop, September 1978. (IAHS-AISH) Publication No. 126. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin: 142–147. Shroder, Jr., J.F., 1983. The U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan Mineral Resources. In: International Mineral Resources a National Perspective, ed. A. Agnew, American Association for Advancement of Science, p. 115–153. Shroder, J., 2008. Remote sensing and GIS as counterterrorism tools for homeland security: the case of Afghanistan. In: Sui, D. (Ed.), Geospatial Technologies and Homeland Security, 94. Springer Science & Business Media B.V.; Geojournal Library, pp. 11–33. Shroder Jr., J.F., 2009. Saving Afghanistan: redevelopment one resource at a time. Earth 54 (7), 38–47. Shroder Jr., J.F., 2012. Afghanistan: rich resource base and existing environmental despoliation. Environmental Earth Sciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1638-7. Shroder Jr., J.F., Weihs, B.J., 2010. Geomorphology of the Lake Shewa landslide dam, Badak-shan, Afghanistan, using remote sensing data. Geografiska Annaler 92A (4), 471–486. Shroder Jr., J.F., Bishop, M.P., 2010. Glaciers of Afghanistan. In: Williams Jr., R.S., Ferrigno, J.G. (Eds.), Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World – Asia. U.S. Geological Survey Profes-sional Paper 1386–F3, pp. 167–199. Shroder Jr., J.F., Weihs, B., Schettler, M., 2011a. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 36, 1267–1286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. pce.2011.03.003. Shroder, J.F., Schettler, M.J., Weihs, B.J., 2011b. Loess failure in northeast Afghanistan. Jour-nal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 36, 1287–1293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. pce.2011.03.001. Shroder Jr., J.F., Bishop, M.P., Bulley, H.N.N., Haritashya, U.K., Olsenholler, J., 2007. Global land ice monitoring from space (GLIMS) project regional center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). In: Baudo, R., Tartari, G., Vuillermoz, E., Shroder Jr., J.F. (Eds.), Mountains, Witnesses of Global Changes: Research in the Himalaya and Karakoram. Under the Auspices of SHARE-Asia (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment in Asia). Develop-ments in Earth Surface Processes 10. Elsevier. Tomsen, P., 2011. The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Fail-ures of the Great Powers. Public Affairs, Perseus Books, New York, 849 p.
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