SAFETY ASPECTS
LNG
FOR TRANSPORT
Mathijs Koot
LNG Process Engineer
DEFINITIONS AND CAUTIONARY NOTE
Reserves: Our use of the term “reserves” in this presentation means SEC proved oil and
gas...
3
NATURAL GAS
OPPORTUNITY
1
4
THE CASE FOR GAS
AFFORDABLE
Gas as a source for
power generation is a
lower cost alternative.
0 100 200 300
CCGT
Coal
Nu...
LNG AS A TRANSPORT FUEL
Natural gas cooled to about -162 degrees
Celsius, in liquid form.
LNG is a clear, odorless, non-to...
6
LNG CAN OFFER A COMPELLING
VALUE PROPOSITION
7
COMPOSITION AND
APPLICATIONS
2
WHAT DOES LNG CONSIST OF?
■ Although LNG consists mainly of
methane, the composition can vary
based on:
 Gas source;
 Co...
LNG CHARACTERISTICS
9
WHAT ARE THE KEY
CHARACTERISTICS OF LNG?
Comprises mainly methane (C1),
colourless, cryogenic liquid...
FUEL COMPARISON
LNG CNG
DISPENSING Cryogenically cooled to -162°C
(-260°F) for dispensing and storage
Compressed on site f...
11
LNG SAFETY
MEASURES
2
Copyright of Shell Projects & Technology
SAFETY MITIGATIONS AT RETAIL STATION
-Collision protection
-Emergency Stop
-Hose ...
Copyright of Shell Projects & Technology
SAFETY MITIGATIONS DURING TRANSPORT
13
No damage to inner tank
LNG Tankers at ris...
Copyright of Shell Projects & Technology
Joint safety studies conducted with external parties
 TNO: Hose rupture test, ES...
LNG AS TRANSPORT FUEL IN EUROPE
15
Gasnor, 100% Shell subsidiary.
2012&2013 2015
Shell charters LNG-powered
Offshore Suppl...
Jan, 2014
of 16

Natural gas and bio methane as fuel for transport m. koot

Natural gas and bio methane as fuel for transport m. koot
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Government & Nonprofit      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural gas and bio methane as fuel for transport m. koot

  • 1. SAFETY ASPECTS LNG FOR TRANSPORT Mathijs Koot LNG Process Engineer
  • 2. DEFINITIONS AND CAUTIONARY NOTE Reserves: Our use of the term “reserves” in this presentation means SEC proved oil and gas reserves. Resources: Our use of the term “resources” in this presentation includes quantities of oil and gas not yet classified as SEC proved oil and gas reserves. Resources are consistent with the Society of Petroleum Engineers 2P and 2C definitions. Organic: Our use of the term Organic includes SEC proved oil and gas reserves excluding changes resulting from acquisitions, divestments and year-average pricing impact. Resources plays: our use of the term ‘resources plays’ refers to tight, shale and coal bed methane oil and gas acreage. The companies in which Royal Dutch Shell plc directly and indirectly owns investments are separate entities. In this presentation “Shell”, “Shell group” and “Royal Dutch Shell” are sometimes used for convenience where references are made to Royal Dutch Shell plc and its subsidiaries in general. Likewise, the words “we”, “us” and “our” are also used to refer to subsidiaries in general or to those who work for them. These expressions are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular company or companies. ‘‘Subsidiaries’’, “Shell subsidiaries” and “Shell companies” as used in this presentation refer to companies in which Royal Dutch Shell either directly or indirectly has control, by having either a majority of the voting rights or the right to exercise a controlling influence. The companies in which Shell has significant influence but not control are referred to as “associated companies” or “associates” and companies in which Shell has joint control are referred to as “jointly controlled entities”. In this presentation, associates and jointly controlled entities are also referred to as “equity-accounted investments”. The term “Shell interest” is used for convenience to indicate the direct and/or indirect ownership interest held by Shell in a venture, partnership or company, after exclusion of all third-party interest. This presentation contains forward-looking statements concerning the financial condition, results of operations and businesses of Royal Dutch Shell. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are statements of future expectations that are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning the potential exposure of Royal Dutch Shell to market risks and statements expressing management’s expectations, beliefs, estimates, forecasts, projections and assumptions. These forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as ‘‘anticipate’’, ‘‘believe’’, ‘‘could’’, ‘‘estimate’’, ‘‘expect’’, ‘‘intend’’, ‘‘may’’, ‘‘plan’’, ‘‘objectives’’, ‘‘outlook’’, ‘‘probably’’, ‘‘project’’, ‘‘will’’, ‘‘seek’’, ‘‘target’’, ‘‘risks’’, ‘‘goals’’, ‘‘should’’ and similar terms and phrases. There are a number of factors that could affect the future operations of Royal Dutch Shell and could cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements included in this presentation, including (without limitation): (a) price fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas; (b) changes in demand for Shell’s products; (c) currency fluctuations; (d) drilling and production results; (e) reserves estimates; (f) loss of market share and industry competition; (g) environmental and physical risks; (h) risks associated with the identification of suitable potential acquisition properties and targets, and successful negotiation and completion of such transactions; (i) the risk of doing business in developing countries and countries subject to international sanctions; (j) legislative, fiscal and regulatory developments including potential litigation and regulatory measures as a result of climate changes; (k) economic and financial market conditions in various countries and regions; (l) political risks, including the risks of expropriation and renegotiation of the terms of contracts with governmental entities, delays or advancements in the approval of projects and delays in the reimbursement for shared costs; and (m) changes in trading conditions. All forward-looking statements contained in this presentation are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Additional factors that may affect future results are contained in Royal Dutch Shell’s 20-F for the year ended 31 December, 2013 (available at www.shell.com/investor and www.sec.gov ). These factors also should be considered by the reader. Each forward- looking statement speaks only as of the date of this presentation, 23 June, 2015. Neither Royal Dutch Shell nor any of its subsidiaries undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or other information. In light of these risks, results could differ materially from those stated, implied or inferred from the forward-looking statements contained in this presentation. There can be no assurance that dividend payments will match or exceed those set out in this presentation in the future, or that they will be made at all. We use certain terms in this presentation, such as discovery potential, that the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) guidelines strictly prohibit us from including in filings with the SEC. U.S. Investors are urged to consider closely the disclosure in our Form 20-F, File No 1-32575, available on the SEC website www.sec.gov. You can also obtain this form from the SEC by calling 1-800-SEC-0330. 2
  • 3. 3 NATURAL GAS OPPORTUNITY 1
  • 4. 4 THE CASE FOR GAS AFFORDABLE Gas as a source for power generation is a lower cost alternative. 0 100 200 300 CCGT Coal Nuclear Wind Onshore Wind Offshore (25km) Wind Offshore (75 km) ABUNDANT Gas resources can supply >230 years of current global gas production LNG supplies could meet one-fifth of global gas needs by 2020 Source: IEA World Energy Outlook, WoodMackenzie, Shell Interpretation ACCEPTABLE Replacing coal with gas for electricity generation is the cheapest and fastest way to meet CO2 reduction targets Gas fired power plants emit around 50% less CO2 than coal fired plants. Capital CostTotal Cost CCGT: Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Total Cost = Capital + Fuel + Operating Source: DECC (Mott MacDonald) June 2010
  • 5. LNG AS A TRANSPORT FUEL Natural gas cooled to about -162 degrees Celsius, in liquid form. LNG is a clear, odorless, non-toxic liquid that can be transported and stored more easily than natural gas because it occupies up to 600 times less space. Shell is developing LNG as an alternative for diesel in heavy duty applications such as trucks (supply chain example below), ships, mining, rail, wells equipment and power generation Liquefaction to LNG Transportation of LNG fuel Onsite storage and refueling CH4 Natural Gas LNG fuelled Trucks
  • 6. 6 LNG CAN OFFER A COMPELLING VALUE PROPOSITION
  • 7. 7 COMPOSITION AND APPLICATIONS 2
  • 8. WHAT DOES LNG CONSIST OF? ■ Although LNG consists mainly of methane, the composition can vary based on:  Gas source;  Contaminants;  LPG extraction/injection and  Boil-off gas (“aging”). AND HOW IS ITS VALUE MEASURED?  Key parameters for combustion:  LHV / HHV – energy content;  Wobbe Index – gas interchangeability and  Methane Number (for LNG in transport). COMPOSITION AND QUALITY BUTANE LNG impurities condensate LPG METHANE 80-95 mol% C5+ CO2 WATER NITROGEN PROPANE ETHANE 8 CNG
  • 9. LNG CHARACTERISTICS 9 WHAT ARE THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF LNG? Comprises mainly methane (C1), colourless, cryogenic liquid Atmospheric boiling point of -163ºC to -160ºC Density of 458 – 463 kg/m3 (Depending on composition) 1 m3 of LNG at atmospheric pressure equals 600 Sm3 of natural gas …AND WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THESE CHARACTERISTICS? High energy density, 2.5 times that of CNG 0.9kg LNG contains the same energy as 1.0kg diesel (however LNG has a lower volumetric energy content due to lower density) LNG can cause cold burns if contacts skin LNG vaporises quickly in ambient conditions  Normally kept in cryogenic insulated storage Even when stored in a cryogenic tank, some LNG will vaporise – ‘boil off’  Should be addressed in tank design, boil-off impacts upon gas quality (drop in MN)
  • 10. FUEL COMPARISON LNG CNG DISPENSING Cryogenically cooled to -162°C (-260°F) for dispensing and storage Compressed on site for dispensing and storage, typically 3,600 psi DISTRIBUTION Liquefied at an LNG plant where it is stored until being transported to fuel sites Existing natural gas pipeline and distribution system can be used for delivery to the site VEHICLE TANKS Stored on the vehicle in one or more cryogenic tanks at approx. -162°C (-260°F) Stored on the vehicle in one or more cylinders at over 3,000 psi 10 Product Lower Flammability Limit (%) Upper Flammability Limit (%) Diesel 0.6 7.5 Fuel Oil 0.7 5.0 Gasoline 1.2 7.1 LPG (Butane / Propane) 2.1 9.5 Hydrogen 4 75 LNG / CNG (Methane) 5 15
  • 11. 11 LNG SAFETY MEASURES 2
  • 12. Copyright of Shell Projects & Technology SAFETY MITIGATIONS AT RETAIL STATION -Collision protection -Emergency Stop -Hose immobilizer -Operating Instructions -PPE -Double walled insulated tank -Security measures (fencing / CCTV) -Gas detector -Flame detector -Overfill protection -Zero boil-off gas -Separation distances -ESD link between station & road tanker Double walled insulated tanker -Hose failure detection -Drive away protection -Competent drivers -Emergency Stop Similar hazards present on a Retail Station – Spill, Fire, Explosion
  • 13. Copyright of Shell Projects & Technology SAFETY MITIGATIONS DURING TRANSPORT 13 No damage to inner tank LNG Tankers at risk of roll over like any other RTW  Shell only uses double wall construction reduces risk of LNG release significantly  Makes for strong design and excellent thermal properties (reduces risk of BLEVE)
  • 14. Copyright of Shell Projects & Technology Joint safety studies conducted with external parties  TNO: Hose rupture test, ESD function testing  Gexcon: Dispersion analysis  Lloyds R: Australian study risks of LNG fuelled trucks  Shell: Fire testing  TNO: LNG-hose safety study  Shell: Hose failure probability survey Example Participation in Regulatory Development  ISO LNG Vehicle design (i.e. ISO 19723, 12617, 12614) & Refueling station design (i.e. ISO 16924, 16903)  CEN 408  PGS 33 “The HSE Risk associated with an LNG fuelled truck is therefore assessed to be similar to that as a diesel fuelled truck“ -Lloyd‘s Register UNDERSTANDING LNG & COLLABORATION IS KEY
  • 15. LNG AS TRANSPORT FUEL IN EUROPE 15 Gasnor, 100% Shell subsidiary. 2012&2013 2015 Shell charters LNG-powered Offshore Supply Vessel in the Gulf of Mexico. Shell opens first European LNG truck refuelling station in Rotterdam – the first of an initial network in the Netherlands. 2014 2014 Shell time charters Greenstream World’s 1st 100% LNG propelled barge. US TA site opened in May. Shell is the first customer of a new LNG for transport infrastructure at Gate terminal. Shell orders 6,500cu.m bunker vessel to deliver LNG to marine customers in North West Europe.
  • 16. Jan, 2014

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