Institute of Management & Sciences
PakAims
Presentation of Strategic Marketing By:
Muhammad Fahad Ali Mirza
Muhammad S...
PRICING STRATEGY
What is Price?
The amount of money expected,
required, or given in payment for
something.
What is Pricing Strategy?
A business can use a variety of pricing strategies when
selling a product or service. The Pric...
Pricing Strategy Objectives
• Long Run Profits
• Short Run Profits
• Increase Sales Volume
• Company Growth
• Match C...
Decisions in Pricing Strategy
• Fixed & Variable Cost
• Competition
• Company Objectives
• Proposed Positioning Strate...
Pricing Strategy for Challenging
Economic Times
• Pricing is a market consideration, not a cost consideration.
• Unders...
Factors Affecting Pricing
Pricing Strategies
• Marketing Skimming
• Value Pricing
• Loss Leader
• Psychological Pricing
• Going Rate (Price Lea...
Market Skimming Pricing
• High Price low volume
• Skim the Profit from the Market
• Suitable for the products that have...
Value Pricing
• Based on consumer Perception.
• Price charged according to the Customers
Perception.
• Price set by th...
Loss Leader Pricing
• Goods/services deliberately sold below cost
to encourage sales elsewhere
• Typical in supermarket...
Psychological Pricing
• Used to play on consumer perceptions
• Classic example - £9.99 instead of £10.99!
• Links with ...
Going Rate Pricing
• In case of price leader, rivals have difficulty in competing on price – too
high and they lose mark...
Tender Pricing
• Many contracts awarded on a tender basis
• Firm (or firms) submit their price for
carrying out the wor...
Price Discrimination Pricing
• Charging a different price for the same
good/service in different markets
• Requires eac...
Penetration Pricing
• Price set to ‘penetrate the market’
• ‘Low’ price to secure high volumes
• Typical in mass market...
Cost Plus Pricing
• Cost-plus pricing is a pricing strategy that is
used to maximize the rates of return of
companies. ...
Contribution Pricing
• Contribution = Selling Price – Variable
(direct costs)
• Prices set to ensure coverage of variab...
Target Pricing
• Setting price to ‘target’ a specified profit
level
• Estimates of the cost and potential revenue
at d...
Marginal Cost Pricing
• Marginal cost – the cost of producing ONE extra or ONE fewer item of production
• MC pricing – a...
Absorption Cost Pricing
• Full Cost Pricing – attempting to set price
to cover both fixed and variable costs
• Absorpti...
Destroyer Pricing
• Deliberate price cutting or offer of ‘free
gifts/products’ to force rivals (normally
smaller and we...
Influence of Elasticity Pricing
• Price Inelastic:
• % change in Q < % change in P
• e.g. a 5% increase in price would ...
Influence of Elasticity Pricing
• Price Elastic:
• % change in quantity demanded > % change in price
• e.g. A 4% rise i...
It is necessary that the marketing manager decide the
objective of pricing before actually setting price.
According to e...
Pricing Strategy ppt
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Pricing Strategy ppt

What is Pricing Strategy and what are the objectives and factors affecting the Pricing Strategy. There are Certain types of Pricing Strategies as well. Each and every strategy has its own affect on the product and services offered by an organization.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pricing Strategy ppt

  • 1. Institute of Management & Sciences PakAims Presentation of Strategic Marketing By: Muhammad Fahad Ali Mirza Muhammad Shakeel M. Naeem Yousaf
  • 2. PRICING STRATEGY
  • 3. What is Price? The amount of money expected, required, or given in payment for something.
  • 4. What is Pricing Strategy? A business can use a variety of pricing strategies when selling a product or service. The Price can be set to maximize profitability for each unit sold or from the market overall. It can be used to defend an existing market from new entrants, to increase market share within a market or to enter a new market. Businesses may benefit from lowering or raising prices, depending on the needs and behaviors of customers and clients in the particular market. Finding the right pricing strategy is an important element in running a successful business.
  • 5. Pricing Strategy Objectives • Long Run Profits • Short Run Profits • Increase Sales Volume • Company Growth • Match Competitors Price • Create Interest & Excitement about the Product • Discourage Competitors From cutting Price • Social, Ethical & Ideological Objectives • Discourage New Entrants • Survival
  • 6. Decisions in Pricing Strategy • Fixed & Variable Cost • Competition • Company Objectives • Proposed Positioning Strategies • Target Group & Willingness to Pay • External Market Demand • Internal Factors; Product Cost & Objectives of Company
  • 7. Pricing Strategy for Challenging Economic Times • Pricing is a market consideration, not a cost consideration. • Understand your customers’ primary goals. Be clear on what the customer wants first, then set pricing and bundling decisions. • Consider bundling products or services together. Always bundle a low- and high-valued product together. This will create higher sales and greater profitability. • Understand your value proposition. Have a clear understanding of if and how your product or service is differentiated from the competition. • Know where you are on the scale of "innovative-to-commoditized." • Build the customers’ perception of value. Constantly build on customer perception. The more subtle the differentiation of the product or service, the more often customers need to be reminded of the value of your product or service.
  • 8. Factors Affecting Pricing
  • 9. Pricing Strategies • Marketing Skimming • Value Pricing • Loss Leader • Psychological Pricing • Going Rate (Price Leadership) • Tender Pricing • Price Discrimination • Penetration Pricing • Cost Plus Pricing • Contribution Pricing • Target Pricing • Marginal Cost Pricing • Absorption Cost Pricing • Destroyer Pricing • Influence of Elasticity
  • 10. Market Skimming Pricing • High Price low volume • Skim the Profit from the Market • Suitable for the products that have short life cycle or Which will face competition at some point in future. • Examples; Play Station, Digital Technology & DVD etc.
  • 11. Value Pricing • Based on consumer Perception. • Price charged according to the Customers Perception. • Price set by the company as per the perceived value. • Example; Status Products/ Exclusive Products.
  • 12. Loss Leader Pricing • Goods/services deliberately sold below cost to encourage sales elsewhere • Typical in supermarkets, e.g. at Christmas, selling bottles of gin at £3 in the hope that people will be attracted to the store and buy other things • Purchases of other items more than covers ‘loss’ on item sold • e.g. ‘Free’ mobile phone when taking on contract package
  • 13. Psychological Pricing • Used to play on consumer perceptions • Classic example - £9.99 instead of £10.99! • Links with value pricing – high value goods priced according to what consumers THINK should be the price
  • 14. Going Rate Pricing • In case of price leader, rivals have difficulty in competing on price – too high and they lose market share, too low and the price leader would match price and force smaller rival out of market • May follow pricing leads of rivals especially where those rivals have a clear dominance of market share • Where competition is limited, ‘going rate’ pricing may be applicable – banks, petrol, supermarkets, electrical goods – find very similar prices in all outlets
  • 15. Tender Pricing • Many contracts awarded on a tender basis • Firm (or firms) submit their price for carrying out the work • Purchaser then chooses which represents best value • Mostly done in secret
  • 16. Price Discrimination Pricing • Charging a different price for the same good/service in different markets • Requires each market to be impenetrable • Requires different price elasticity of demand in each market • Prices for rail travel differ for the same journey at different times of the day
  • 17. Penetration Pricing • Price set to ‘penetrate the market’ • ‘Low’ price to secure high volumes • Typical in mass market products – chocolate bars, food stuffs, household goods, etc. • Suitable for products with long anticipated life cycles • May be useful if launching into a new market
  • 18. Cost Plus Pricing • Cost-plus pricing is a pricing strategy that is used to maximize the rates of return of companies. • Cost-plus pricing is also known as mark-up pricing where cost + mark-up = selling price. • In practice, most firms use either value-based pricing or cost-plus pricing.
  • 19. Contribution Pricing • Contribution = Selling Price – Variable (direct costs) • Prices set to ensure coverage of variable costs and a ‘contribution’ to the fixed costs • Similar in principle to marginal cost pricing • Break-even analysis might be useful in such circumstances
  • 20. Target Pricing • Setting price to ‘target’ a specified profit level • Estimates of the cost and potential revenue at different prices, and thus the break-even have to be made, to determine the mark-up • Mark-up = Profit/Cost x 100
  • 21. Marginal Cost Pricing • Marginal cost – the cost of producing ONE extra or ONE fewer item of production • MC pricing – allows flexibility • Particularly relevant in transport where fixed costs may be relatively high • Allows variable pricing structure – e.g. on a flight from London to New York – providing the cost of the extra passenger is covered, the price could be varied a good deal to attract customers and fill the aircraft
  • 22. Absorption Cost Pricing • Full Cost Pricing – attempting to set price to cover both fixed and variable costs • Absorption Cost Pricing – Price set to ‘absorb’ some of the fixed costs of production
  • 23. Destroyer Pricing • Deliberate price cutting or offer of ‘free gifts/products’ to force rivals (normally smaller and weaker) out of business or prevent new entrants • Anti-competitive and illegal if it can be proved
  • 24. Influence of Elasticity Pricing • Price Inelastic: • % change in Q < % change in P • e.g. a 5% increase in price would be met by a fall in sales of something less than 5% • Revenue would rise • A 7% reduction in price would lead to a rise in sales of something less than 7% • Revenue would fall
  • 25. Influence of Elasticity Pricing • Price Elastic: • % change in quantity demanded > % change in price • e.g. A 4% rise in price would lead to sales falling by something more than 4% • Revenue would fall • A 9% fall in price would lead to a rise in sales of something more than 9% • Revenue would rise
  • 26. It is necessary that the marketing manager decide the objective of pricing before actually setting price. According to experts, pricing objectives are the overall goals that describe the role of price in an organizations long-range plans. The objectives help the marketing manager as guidelines to develop marketing strategies. Conclusion