Preservation/Preservation/
ConservationConservation
ProgramProgram
byby
Fe Angela M. VerzosaFe Angela M. Verzosa
Records M...
Preservation/ConservationPreservation/Conservation
ConceptsConcepts
Scope & Approaches ofScope & Approaches of
Conservatio...
Preservation vs Conservation – ANYPreservation vs Conservation – ANY
DIFFERENCE?DIFFERENCE?
What’s the difference?What’s the difference?
PreservationPreservation is ais a branchbranch
of library and informationof l...
PRESERVATIONPRESERVATION
 deals with thedeals with the acquisition,acquisition,
organization, and distributionorganizatio...
ConservationConservation
is the concentrated active
care of damaged or fragile
documents in any format.
It involves invasi...
CONSERVATIONCONSERVATION
 program that deals withprogram that deals with
the physical or chemicalthe physical or chemical...
Conservation FunctionsConservation Functions
 examination -- procedure takenprocedure taken to determine the original
mak...
Principles inPrinciples in
ConservationConservation
rule of reversibilityrule of reversibility --
no procedure or treatme...
more principles ...more principles ...
rule on restorationrule on restoration - how far reconstruc-- how far reconstruc-
...
Causes of Damage/DeteriorationCauses of Damage/Deterioration
acidacid – internal factors affecting quality of paper– inte...
Causes of Damage/DeteriorationCauses of Damage/Deterioration
Water damageWater damage is a fairly common cause and oneis ...
retarding deteriorationretarding deterioration
 temperature and humidity controltemperature and humidity control
 filtra...
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
acidity controlacidity control
light controllight control
pest controlpest c...
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
 store materials in acid-free containersstore materials in acid-free container...
DeacidificationTreatmentDeacidificationTreatment
 Mass deacidification – along with microfilm and lamination– along with ...
Deacidification Methods
Barrow’s method
demonstrates how to use the Book Keeper deacidification spray unit.
BCP - Bückeburg Conservation Procedure
Deacidification Methods
PaperSave Swiss uses magnesium titanium
alkoxide (available in Swiss, Leipzig models)
Mass Deacidification MethodsMass Dea...
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_lLPVqiUZg
ZFB:2
Mass Deacidification
ZFB 2 mass deacidification process using
ca...
When to deacidify? Which methodWhen to deacidify? Which method
select paper in relativelyselect paper in relatively good ...
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
 store materials away from lightstore materials away from light
 keep lights ...
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
 check incoming materials for signs of infestationcheck incoming materials for...
Food and drink are not permittedFood and drink are not permitted
because they can damage collectionsbecause they can damag...
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
 temperature of 20 to 25temperature of 20 to 25 00
C or 60-65C or 60-65
00
FF
...
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
Acidity controlAcidity control
light controllight control
pest controlpest c...
Conservation Measures: the basicsConservation Measures: the basics
 FumigationFumigation
 Dry cleaning, washing andDry c...
Wei T‘o freeze drying
machine, a process
that kills a variety of
pests, including mold.
Freeze-dryingFreeze-drying
Materia...
Reinforcing / binding processReinforcing / binding process
Book-bindingBook-binding
process…process…
Lamination process…Lamination process…
Lamination process…Lamination process…
 Lamination was popular from the 1930s through the 1970s, butLamination was popula...
EncapsulationEncapsulation
Unlike lamination, encapsulation is completely and easily reversible.
Encapsulated pages can be...
Basic Repair ProceduresBasic Repair Procedures
 relaxing and flattening documentsrelaxing and flattening documents
 remo...
Pressing mended documents using flat iron…Pressing mended documents using flat iron…
Mending with Japanese tissueMending with Japanese tissue
UseUse appropriate means of attachment likeappropriate means of attachment like
ribbons to secure damaged booksribbons to ...
Do not use post-it notes, paper clips, pressure sensitive
tape, rubber bands….
Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures
 handle materials as little as possiblehandle materials as little as possible
...
Handling of archival materialsHandling of archival materials
 do not leave users unattendeddo not leave users unattended
...
Keep
manuscripts/records in
acid-free folders and
boxes.
Remove only one folder
at a time.
Maintain the order or
arrangeme...
Never remove
manuscript pages
from folders.
When leaving for
a short time,
close the volume,
folder or box.
Wear gloves when handling photographs.
Always use a pencil,
never a pen or
marker
Do not rest your hand,
arm, or place any
object on a book or
manuscript.
Keep folders and pages flat on table,
do not hold in hands..
Keep volumes flat on table,
do not hold in hands.
..
Use a book cradle and special weights, if they are provided
Notify staff if any materials are damaged or out of sequence.
Do not attempt to re-arrange them yourself.
✔✔Preservation/ConservationPreservation/Conservation
ConceptsConcepts
✔✔Scope & Approaches ofScope & Approaches of
Conserv...
Surrogating/ReformattingSurrogating/Reformatting
SurrogatingSurrogating is the creation of copies of original documents in...
Preservation Strategy:Preservation Strategy:
Surrogating/ReformattingSurrogating/Reformatting
• Provision of surrogatesPro...
Microfilming as preservation strategy
•Durable format, polyester film expected to last 500 years
•Meets archival standards...
Preservation StrategyPreservation Strategy::
reprographicsreprographics
 where the copying process iswhere the copying pr...
usually refers to the conversion ofusually refers to the conversion of
printed text or images intoprinted text or images ...
What is Digital Preservation?What is Digital Preservation?
Digital preservation isDigital preservation is the active manag...
Issues and ConcernsIssues and Concerns
Can digitization be considered a preservationCan digitization be considered a pres...
 The inherent tensionThe inherent tension
between the nature ofbetween the nature of
digital information anddigital infor...
Challenges to digital preservationChallenges to digital preservation
 Digital media is not as durable as paper and otherD...
Digitization for preservationDigitization for preservation
 Original materials areOriginal materials are
fragile, damaged...
Legal and ethical IssuesLegal and ethical Issues
•Intellectual Property RightsIntellectual Property Rights
•Reproduction r...
Elements of a conservation programElements of a conservation program
SurveysSurveys
Management SupportManagement Support...
Conservation surveysConservation surveys
 comprehensive -- a recognized tool in collectiona recognized tool in collection...
Comprehensive surveysComprehensive surveys
 pre-survey planning -pre-survey planning - reviews a full range ofreviews a f...
Environmental SurveyEnvironmental Survey
 the building itselfthe building itself: roof and walls - leaks? insulation?: ro...
Condition SurveyCondition Survey
 best means of gathering data needed to evaluate treatmentbest means of gathering data n...
Collection Location
Date of survey Conducted by
Box and folder no. Type of material Inclusive dates
Format Media Type/Qual...
Conservation prioritiesConservation priorities
high-quality informational contenthigh-quality informational content
signif...
Preservation PolicyPreservation Policy
 A policy for preservation cannot be prepared in isolation; it mustA policy for pr...
PreservationPreservation Policy StatementPolicy Statement
A document embracing a range of programmes to be appliedA docume...
PreservationPreservation Policy StatementPolicy Statement
security measures and contingency plans forsecurity measures an...
Conservation FacilitiesConservation Facilities
 air conditioningair conditioning
 dehumidifierdehumidifier
 fumigation ...
Conservation SuppliesConservation Supplies
 Japanese tissue paperJapanese tissue paper
 Mylar polyester sheetsMylar poly...
Who is responsible in preservation?Who is responsible in preservation?
 library managerlibrary manager
 archivistarchivi...
Conservation StaffConservation Staff
 restoration work must be done only by trainedrestoration work must be done only by ...
TipsTips in implementing ain implementing a
conservation programconservation program......
examine the environment
improve...
Do not use any measure, treatment,Do not use any measure, treatment,
or program that:or program that:
 cannot be reversed...
Summary of preservation strategiesSummary of preservation strategies
conditions actions
damagedfragile and endangered
frag...
Workshop ExerciseWorkshop Exercise
Imagine you are responsible for developing a conservation program forImagine you are re...
Conservation videosConservation videos
 https://www.youtube.com/wathttps://www.youtube.com/wat
ch?v=CArraKc81Kwch?v=CArra...
Acknowledgement/CreditsAcknowledgement/Credits
and referencesand references::
 Library Preservation at HarvardLibrary Pre...
Contact famverzosa@yahoo.com
Questions?
Preservation-Conservation Program for Laoag
Preservation-Conservation Program for Laoag
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Preservation-Conservation Program for Laoag

Lecture presented by Fe Angela M. Verzosa at the Records Management Seminar sponsored by InfoManagement Specialists on 16-18 April at Plaza del Norte Convention Center and Hotel, Laoag City
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Preservation-Conservation Program for Laoag

  • 1. Preservation/Preservation/ ConservationConservation ProgramProgram byby Fe Angela M. VerzosaFe Angela M. Verzosa Records Management Seminar-workshop, Plaza del Norte Hotel, Laoag City, 16-18 April 2015
  • 2. Preservation/ConservationPreservation/Conservation ConceptsConcepts Scope & Approaches ofScope & Approaches of ConservationConservation Causes of damage/deteriorationCauses of damage/deterioration Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures Preservation strategiesPreservation strategies Establishing a Preservation /Establishing a Preservation / Conservation ProgramConservation Program Topics to be covered
  • 3. Preservation vs Conservation – ANYPreservation vs Conservation – ANY DIFFERENCE?DIFFERENCE?
  • 4. What’s the difference?What’s the difference? PreservationPreservation is ais a branchbranch of library and informationof library and information science concerned withscience concerned with maintaining or restoringmaintaining or restoring access to artifacts,access to artifacts, documents and recordsdocuments and records through the study, diagnosis,through the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention oftreatment and prevention of decay and damage.decay and damage. ConservationConservation refers torefers to the treatment and repairthe treatment and repair of individual items toof individual items to slow decay or restoreslow decay or restore them to a usable state.them to a usable state. (Source:(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preservation_(library_and_archival_science)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preservation_(library_and_archival_science)
  • 5. PRESERVATIONPRESERVATION  deals with thedeals with the acquisition,acquisition, organization, and distributionorganization, and distribution ofof resources (resources (human, physical,human, physical, monetarymonetary) to ensure adequate) to ensure adequate protection and access to historicalprotection and access to historical and cultural information of enduringand cultural information of enduring value for present and futurevalue for present and future generations of users.generations of users.  encompasses three aspects:encompasses three aspects: planningplanning implementationimplementation preventionprevention
  • 6. ConservationConservation is the concentrated active care of damaged or fragile documents in any format. It involves invasive procedures, which alter the state of documents in order to stabilize or repair them.
  • 7. CONSERVATIONCONSERVATION  program that deals withprogram that deals with the physical or chemicalthe physical or chemical treatment of documentstreatment of documents  encompasses threeencompasses three functions:functions: examinationexamination preservationpreservation restorationrestoration
  • 8. Conservation FunctionsConservation Functions  examination -- procedure takenprocedure taken to determine the original makeup of an item and extent of its deterioration,makeup of an item and extent of its deterioration, alteration, and loss.alteration, and loss.  preservation -- action takenaction taken to retard/prevent deterioration or damage by control of their environment and/oror damage by control of their environment and/or treatment to maintain their original state, as far astreatment to maintain their original state, as far as possible.possible.  restoration -- action takenaction taken to return a deteriorated ora deteriorated or damaged item to its original form.damaged item to its original form.
  • 9. Principles inPrinciples in ConservationConservation rule of reversibilityrule of reversibility -- no procedure or treatmentno procedure or treatment should be undertaken thatshould be undertaken that cannot later be undone.cannot later be undone. compatibility ofcompatibility of problem and solutionproblem and solution.. The chosen treatment to be applied should not beThe chosen treatment to be applied should not be greater or weaker than the problem. It may be bestgreater or weaker than the problem. It may be best to do nothing at allto do nothing at all if no acceptable treatmentif no acceptable treatment solution is compatible to the problem.solution is compatible to the problem.
  • 10. more principles ...more principles ... rule on restorationrule on restoration - how far reconstruc-- how far reconstruc- tion may be undertaken without losing ortion may be undertaken without losing or diminishing the integrity of the item ordiminishing the integrity of the item or document.document. documentationdocumentation - maintaining a complete- maintaining a complete and accurate record of all treatments.and accurate record of all treatments. Narrative descriptionNarrative description checklist of work donechecklist of work done photographic record (before, during, and after)photographic record (before, during, and after)
  • 11. Causes of Damage/DeteriorationCauses of Damage/Deterioration acidacid – internal factors affecting quality of paper– internal factors affecting quality of paper  lightlight - ultraviolet rays in sunlight and fluorescent- ultraviolet rays in sunlight and fluorescent light cause chemical changes in the paper andlight cause chemical changes in the paper and accelerate the process of fadingaccelerate the process of fading temperature and humiditytemperature and humidity - accelerates the growth- accelerates the growth of mold and the internal decomposition of paperof mold and the internal decomposition of paper air pollutionair pollution - causing discoloration, embrittlement- causing discoloration, embrittlement and disintegration of the paper fibersand disintegration of the paper fibers Insects and rodentsInsects and rodents
  • 12. Causes of Damage/DeteriorationCauses of Damage/Deterioration Water damageWater damage is a fairly common cause and oneis a fairly common cause and one that should be anticipated in most disasterthat should be anticipated in most disaster prevention/ planning programsprevention/ planning programs PhotocopyingPhotocopying frequently damages bound volumesfrequently damages bound volumes Shelving -Shelving - Leaning books cause undue strain on theLeaning books cause undue strain on the spine, and tightly packed books are harmed withspine, and tightly packed books are harmed with shelving and removal.shelving and removal. Book dropsBook drops Wear and tear from useWear and tear from use
  • 13. retarding deteriorationretarding deterioration  temperature and humidity controltemperature and humidity control  filtration screens against dirt and air pollutantsfiltration screens against dirt and air pollutants  filters againstfilters against ultraviolet and infrared raysultraviolet and infrared rays  deacidificationdeacidification  acid-free/rust-free storage facilitiesacid-free/rust-free storage facilities  careful handlingcareful handling  good housekeeping (and pest control)good housekeeping (and pest control)
  • 14. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures acidity controlacidity control light controllight control pest controlpest control temperature andtemperature and humidity controlhumidity control basic repairbasic repair handling ofhandling of materials by staffmaterials by staff handling ofhandling of materials by usersmaterials by users
  • 15. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures  store materials in acid-free containersstore materials in acid-free containers  remove paper clips, staple wires, pins, string, tape, etc.remove paper clips, staple wires, pins, string, tape, etc. while processing (use plastic clips, fasteners, etcwhile processing (use plastic clips, fasteners, etc instead)instead)  use metal shelving at least 4- 5 inches above floor leveluse metal shelving at least 4- 5 inches above floor level Acid:
  • 16. DeacidificationTreatmentDeacidificationTreatment  Mass deacidification – along with microfilm and lamination– along with microfilm and lamination - was developed during the early- and mid-20th century to- was developed during the early- and mid-20th century to retard deterioration of paper due to acidity.retard deterioration of paper due to acidity.  Barrows Method William J. Barrow invented an aqueous process toWilliam J. Barrow invented an aqueous process to neutralize acid in paper while depositing an alkaline bufferneutralize acid in paper while depositing an alkaline buffer that would retard the rate of decay.that would retard the rate of decay.
  • 17. Deacidification Methods Barrow’s method
  • 18. demonstrates how to use the Book Keeper deacidification spray unit.
  • 19. BCP - Bückeburg Conservation Procedure Deacidification Methods
  • 20. PaperSave Swiss uses magnesium titanium alkoxide (available in Swiss, Leipzig models) Mass Deacidification MethodsMass Deacidification Methods
  • 21. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_lLPVqiUZg ZFB:2 Mass Deacidification ZFB 2 mass deacidification process using calcium carbonate Deacidification processDeacidification process……
  • 22. When to deacidify? Which methodWhen to deacidify? Which method select paper in relativelyselect paper in relatively good conditiongood condition, usually with, usually with solid bindings and text blocks (when dealing with boundsolid bindings and text blocks (when dealing with bound materials).materials). use is crucial. Items that areuse is crucial. Items that are heavily usedheavily used are excellentare excellent candidates for deacidification.candidates for deacidification. importance—if an item is a crucial part of an importantimportance—if an item is a crucial part of an important collection, deacidifcation is the best choice even if thecollection, deacidifcation is the best choice even if the item is not in pristine condition. Again, theitem is not in pristine condition. Again, the long-termlong-term importance of the item and its potential useimportance of the item and its potential use to scholarsto scholars in the future are significant considerationsin the future are significant considerations..
  • 23. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures  store materials away from lightstore materials away from light  keep lights off or lowkeep lights off or low  install ultraviolet filtersinstall ultraviolet filters  avoid using original items in displaysavoid using original items in displays and exhibitsand exhibits  monitor light levels regularly (50 to 150monitor light levels regularly (50 to 150 lux)lux) Light control:
  • 24. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures  check incoming materials for signs of infestationcheck incoming materials for signs of infestation  separate infested materials for treatmentseparate infested materials for treatment  never eat/drink in storage/research areasnever eat/drink in storage/research areas  keep archives/library clean and unclutteredkeep archives/library clean and uncluttered  set traps/poison baits to catch rodentsset traps/poison baits to catch rodents  contact services of an exterminatorcontact services of an exterminator insects and rodents:
  • 25. Food and drink are not permittedFood and drink are not permitted because they can damage collectionsbecause they can damage collections and attract vermin and insects.and attract vermin and insects.
  • 26. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures  temperature of 20 to 25temperature of 20 to 25 00 C or 60-65C or 60-65 00 FF  wide fluctuations should be avoidedwide fluctuations should be avoided  low RH (below 20%) leads tolow RH (below 20%) leads to dessication and embrittlement ofdessication and embrittlement of paperpaper  high RH (over 60%) accelerateshigh RH (over 60%) accelerates chemical and biologicalchemical and biological deteriorationdeterioration  recommended level is 50 %recommended level is 50 % temperature & humidity:
  • 27. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures Acidity controlAcidity control light controllight control pest controlpest control temperature andtemperature and humidity controlhumidity control basic repairbasic repair handling ofhandling of materials by staffmaterials by staff handling ofhandling of materials by usersmaterials by users
  • 28. Conservation Measures: the basicsConservation Measures: the basics  FumigationFumigation  Dry cleaning, washing andDry cleaning, washing and bleachingbleaching  Mending,Mending, reinforcement/binding, andreinforcement/binding, and support using Japanese papersupport using Japanese paper  laminationlamination  encapsulationencapsulation
  • 29. Wei T‘o freeze drying machine, a process that kills a variety of pests, including mold. Freeze-dryingFreeze-drying Materials await treatment inside a chest freezer
  • 30. Reinforcing / binding processReinforcing / binding process
  • 31. Book-bindingBook-binding process…process…
  • 32. Lamination process…Lamination process…
  • 33. Lamination process…Lamination process…  Lamination was popular from the 1930s through the 1970s, butLamination was popular from the 1930s through the 1970s, but has sincehas since fallen out of favorfallen out of favor..  Lamination changes the appearance of the document,Lamination changes the appearance of the document, causingcausing damagedamage and irreparable distortions.and irreparable distortions.  The current equivalent of (or alternative to) lamination isThe current equivalent of (or alternative to) lamination is encapsulationencapsulation, which protects deacidified papers within a sealed, which protects deacidified papers within a sealed plastic sleeve.plastic sleeve.
  • 34. EncapsulationEncapsulation Unlike lamination, encapsulation is completely and easily reversible. Encapsulated pages can be bound without significant damage to individual pages and can be a viable alternative for valuable and delicate materials.
  • 35. Basic Repair ProceduresBasic Repair Procedures  relaxing and flattening documentsrelaxing and flattening documents  removal of paper fasteners (pins, clips) / adhesivesremoval of paper fasteners (pins, clips) / adhesives  appropriate means of attachmentappropriate means of attachment  surface cleaning of paper recordssurface cleaning of paper records  testing for ink solubilitytesting for ink solubility  ph-testing for acidityph-testing for acidity  mending with Japanese papermending with Japanese paper
  • 36. Pressing mended documents using flat iron…Pressing mended documents using flat iron…
  • 37. Mending with Japanese tissueMending with Japanese tissue
  • 38. UseUse appropriate means of attachment likeappropriate means of attachment like ribbons to secure damaged booksribbons to secure damaged books..
  • 39. Do not use post-it notes, paper clips, pressure sensitive tape, rubber bands….
  • 40. Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures  handle materials as little as possiblehandle materials as little as possible  never use ink or adhesive tapenever use ink or adhesive tape  do not write on any part of the material except to makedo not write on any part of the material except to make notations using soft pencilnotations using soft pencil  substitute copies for originalssubstitute copies for originals  do not overpack in boxes or in shelvesdo not overpack in boxes or in shelves handling of materials:
  • 41. Handling of archival materialsHandling of archival materials  do not leave users unattendeddo not leave users unattended  only issue a limited number of documents or folders, or oneonly issue a limited number of documents or folders, or one box at a timebox at a time  do not allow material to be taken out from reading roomdo not allow material to be taken out from reading room  do not allow materials to be rearrangeddo not allow materials to be rearranged  only staff should take charge of photocopyingonly staff should take charge of photocopying  examine materials after useexamine materials after use
  • 42. Keep manuscripts/records in acid-free folders and boxes. Remove only one folder at a time. Maintain the order or arrangement of documents in each folder
  • 43. Never remove manuscript pages from folders. When leaving for a short time, close the volume, folder or box.
  • 44. Wear gloves when handling photographs.
  • 45. Always use a pencil, never a pen or marker Do not rest your hand, arm, or place any object on a book or manuscript.
  • 46. Keep folders and pages flat on table, do not hold in hands..
  • 47. Keep volumes flat on table, do not hold in hands.
  • 48. .. Use a book cradle and special weights, if they are provided
  • 49. Notify staff if any materials are damaged or out of sequence. Do not attempt to re-arrange them yourself.
  • 50. ✔✔Preservation/ConservationPreservation/Conservation ConceptsConcepts ✔✔Scope & Approaches ofScope & Approaches of ConservationConservation ✔✔Causes ofCauses of damage/deteriorationdamage/deterioration ✔✔Conservation MeasuresConservation Measures Preservation strategiesPreservation strategies Establishing a PreservationEstablishing a Preservation /Conservation Program/Conservation Program Topics to be covered
  • 51. Surrogating/ReformattingSurrogating/Reformatting SurrogatingSurrogating is the creation of copies of original documents inis the creation of copies of original documents in various forms, to be used in place of damaged or fragilevarious forms, to be used in place of damaged or fragile originals, or originals which may become damaged or fragileoriginals, or originals which may become damaged or fragile through frequent use, and which continue to be preservedthrough frequent use, and which continue to be preserved under the appropriate storage conditions. Ex: facsimile ,under the appropriate storage conditions. Ex: facsimile , photocopy, scanned imagesphotocopy, scanned images ReformattingReformatting is the creation of new formats of the originalis the creation of new formats of the original documents to assure their continued access and preservation.documents to assure their continued access and preservation. Ex: microfilming and digitizationEx: microfilming and digitization
  • 52. Preservation Strategy:Preservation Strategy: Surrogating/ReformattingSurrogating/Reformatting • Provision of surrogatesProvision of surrogates - microfilm, microfiche, photocopy, digital copy- microfilm, microfiche, photocopy, digital copy • Where surrogating is required, both the original document and theWhere surrogating is required, both the original document and the surrogate copysurrogate copy must be preservedmust be preserved • Where surrogates are available,Where surrogates are available, original documents will only be producedoriginal documents will only be produced inin cases where researchers can prove a genuine need to consult the originalscases where researchers can prove a genuine need to consult the originals
  • 53. Microfilming as preservation strategy •Durable format, polyester film expected to last 500 years •Meets archival standards •Film can be converted to electronic format
  • 54. Preservation StrategyPreservation Strategy:: reprographicsreprographics  where the copying process iswhere the copying process is deemed to pose a risk of harmdeemed to pose a risk of harm to the originals,to the originals, nono photocopyingphotocopying will be allowed.will be allowed.  Reprographics will also beReprographics will also be restricted to the staff only –restricted to the staff only – users are not allowedusers are not allowed toto perform this function.perform this function.  Flash photography will not beFlash photography will not be allowed.allowed.  Only surrogate copies will beOnly surrogate copies will be allowed forallowed for loan/exhibition.loan/exhibition.
  • 55. usually refers to the conversion ofusually refers to the conversion of printed text or images intoprinted text or images into binary signals using some kindbinary signals using some kind of scanning device that enables theof scanning device that enables the result to be displayed on aresult to be displayed on a computer screen.computer screen. has been endorsed as anhas been endorsed as an accepted preservation reformattingaccepted preservation reformatting option for a range of materials.option for a range of materials. DigitizationDigitization
  • 56. What is Digital Preservation?What is Digital Preservation? Digital preservation isDigital preservation is the active managementthe active management of digital content over time to ensureof digital content over time to ensure ongoingongoing accessaccess.. This encompasses not just technical activities,This encompasses not just technical activities, but also all of the strategic andbut also all of the strategic and organizational considerations that relate toorganizational considerations that relate to thethe survival and management of digitalsurvival and management of digital materialmaterial.. Digital preservation is not a job to be left to theDigital preservation is not a job to be left to the experts. It should be part of everyone'sexperts. It should be part of everyone's daily work, to ensure that the digital objectsdaily work, to ensure that the digital objects created today will still be around tomorrow.created today will still be around tomorrow.
  • 57. Issues and ConcernsIssues and Concerns Can digitization be considered a preservationCan digitization be considered a preservation strategy?strategy? ““Digitization isDigitization is not preservationnot preservation – at least not yet”– at least not yet” (Smith, 1999)(Smith, 1999) ““Digitization isDigitization is NOT preservationNOT preservation”(Gertz, 2007)•”(Gertz, 2007)• ““Digitization can provide a form of insurance forDigitization can provide a form of insurance for preserving content, even though digital surrogatespreserving content, even though digital surrogates cannot replace physical originalscannot replace physical originals” (Lynch, 2006)” (Lynch, 2006)
  • 58.  The inherent tensionThe inherent tension between the nature ofbetween the nature of digital information anddigital information and preservationpreservation  Digitization creates newDigitization creates new resources that need to beresources that need to be preservedpreserved  Long-term maintenance isLong-term maintenance is needed to ensure thatneeded to ensure that digital master files remaindigital master files remain accessible, authentic, andaccessible, authentic, and intactintact Issues and ConcernsIssues and Concerns
  • 59. Challenges to digital preservationChallenges to digital preservation  Digital media is not as durable as paper and otherDigital media is not as durable as paper and other analog materialsanalog materials  Uncertainty about long-term access and retrieval ofUncertainty about long-term access and retrieval of digitized datadigitized data  Integrity and authenticity of digital objectsIntegrity and authenticity of digital objects  Loss of data and data corruptionLoss of data and data corruption  Stability of digital format, digital storageStability of digital format, digital storage  Technological obsolescenceTechnological obsolescence  Systems for access and retrieval of digital collectionsSystems for access and retrieval of digital collections
  • 60. Digitization for preservationDigitization for preservation  Original materials areOriginal materials are fragile, damaged, orfragile, damaged, or recorded on unstable analogrecorded on unstable analog mediamedia  There is no otherThere is no other preservation methodpreservation method availableavailable  It is part of a comprehensiveIt is part of a comprehensive approach to access andapproach to access and preservationpreservation Digitization can be considered a viable preservation strategy If…… :
  • 61. Legal and ethical IssuesLegal and ethical Issues •Intellectual Property RightsIntellectual Property Rights •Reproduction rights of LibrariesReproduction rights of Libraries and Archives in Copyright lawsand Archives in Copyright laws •Legal constraints in use ofLegal constraints in use of reprographic and digital copiesreprographic and digital copies • Access and security issuesAccess and security issues •Privacy and Confidentiality issues •Keeping the integrity of originals
  • 62. Elements of a conservation programElements of a conservation program SurveysSurveys Management SupportManagement Support program directiveprogram directive conservation prioritiesconservation priorities policy statementpolicy statement budgetbudget Conservation FacilitiesConservation Facilities Conservation staffConservation staff
  • 63. Conservation surveysConservation surveys  comprehensive -- a recognized tool in collectiona recognized tool in collection management; it evaluates the condition of a collection asmanagement; it evaluates the condition of a collection as a whole and proposes solutions to improve conditions.a whole and proposes solutions to improve conditions.  environmental -- assesses the suitability of the building andassesses the suitability of the building and its facilities for storage.its facilities for storage.  condition -- assessesassesses the physical condition and state ofthe physical condition and state of repair of the library’s holdings.repair of the library’s holdings.
  • 64. Comprehensive surveysComprehensive surveys  pre-survey planning -pre-survey planning - reviews a full range ofreviews a full range of documentation, mission statement, policies & procedures,documentation, mission statement, policies & procedures, construction records, floor plans, existing preservationconstruction records, floor plans, existing preservation program, insurance, etc.program, insurance, etc.  on-site visit-on-site visit- a walk-through examination of the buildinga walk-through examination of the building and its facilities.and its facilities.  the report-the report- a technical report summarizing all the findingsa technical report summarizing all the findings and recommendations.and recommendations.  institutional actionsinstitutional actions-- implementing the recommendationsimplementing the recommendations  follow-upfollow-up
  • 65. Environmental SurveyEnvironmental Survey  the building itselfthe building itself: roof and walls - leaks? insulation?: roof and walls - leaks? insulation? dampness?dampness?  environment in the buildingenvironment in the building: temperature and humidity: temperature and humidity controls? lighting conditions?controls? lighting conditions?  building securitybuilding security: locks? alarms? extinguishers? sprinkler: locks? alarms? extinguishers? sprinkler system?system?  storage areas and workroomsstorage areas and workrooms: pest control? ventilation?: pest control? ventilation? types of shelves?types of shelves?
  • 66. Condition SurveyCondition Survey  best means of gathering data needed to evaluate treatmentbest means of gathering data needed to evaluate treatment prioritiespriorities  survey instrument should be as extensive as possiblesurvey instrument should be as extensive as possible  survey form should be simple to fill outsurvey form should be simple to fill out  survey data may include the following:survey data may include the following:
  • 67. Collection Location Date of survey Conducted by Box and folder no. Type of material Inclusive dates Format Media Type/Quality of storage containers Condition of collection: general appearance insect damage tears/abrasions harmful means of surface dirt/dust attachment (clips, pins) water/other stains enclosures (flowers, clip- discoloration pings, photos, etc) embrittlement other observations: evidence of mold/mildew __________________ Use of collection: Priority ranking of collection for treatment: _________ Recommended treatment: _____________________
  • 68. Conservation prioritiesConservation priorities high-quality informational contenthigh-quality informational content significant current/projected usesignificant current/projected use physical condition of original formatphysical condition of original format cost-effectiveness of treatmentcost-effectiveness of treatment
  • 69. Preservation PolicyPreservation Policy  A policy for preservation cannot be prepared in isolation; it mustA policy for preservation cannot be prepared in isolation; it must form an integral part of the overall policy for collection or repositoryform an integral part of the overall policy for collection or repository management.management.  It must take full account of the aims and objectives of theIt must take full account of the aims and objectives of the organization, the needs of users and the place of the collection ororganization, the needs of users and the place of the collection or repository within a local, regional, national or even internationalrepository within a local, regional, national or even international frameworkframework  The Policy must be written, and adheres to basic principles in conservation  The Policy contains a manual of procedures to serve as helpful guide and training aid, and  lists specific “do’s and don’ts”
  • 70. PreservationPreservation Policy StatementPolicy Statement A document embracing a range of programmes to be appliedA document embracing a range of programmes to be applied to materials as appropriate. Includes:to materials as appropriate. Includes: preventive measures to minimize the rate ofpreventive measures to minimize the rate of deteriorationdeterioration housekeeping - best practices to extend the lifehousekeeping - best practices to extend the life of the materialsof the materials training programmes for staff and users ontraining programmes for staff and users on correct handling of materialscorrect handling of materials
  • 71. PreservationPreservation Policy StatementPolicy Statement security measures and contingency plans forsecurity measures and contingency plans for disaster control and recoverydisaster control and recovery protective measures, such as boxing, binding,protective measures, such as boxing, binding, and wrapping, to reduce wear and tear onand wrapping, to reduce wear and tear on materialsmaterials a substitution programme for replacing valuablea substitution programme for replacing valuable or very brittle originals with surrogatesor very brittle originals with surrogates conservation treatments to repair damagedconservation treatments to repair damaged originalsoriginals
  • 72. Conservation FacilitiesConservation Facilities  air conditioningair conditioning  dehumidifierdehumidifier  fumigation chamber or vacuum fumigatorsfumigation chamber or vacuum fumigators  vacuum / freeze-drying chambervacuum / freeze-drying chamber
  • 73. Conservation SuppliesConservation Supplies  Japanese tissue paperJapanese tissue paper  Mylar polyester sheetsMylar polyester sheets  blotter paperblotter paper  soft brushessoft brushes  cleaning padscleaning pads  hygrometerhygrometer (RH instrument tool)(RH instrument tool)  polyethylene-linedpolyethylene-lined kraft paperkraft paper
  • 74. Who is responsible in preservation?Who is responsible in preservation?  library managerlibrary manager  archivistarchivist  conservatorconservator  personnelpersonnel  usersusers Librarians/archivists: •keep them under best conditions •determine which require special facilities or handling •decide which merit conservation Conservator: advises the best treatment undertakes the repair/conservation Personnel: Handle library materials gently. Set a good example for users. Users: Handle materials gently. Safeguard materials for future users.
  • 75. Conservation StaffConservation Staff  restoration work must be done only by trainedrestoration work must be done only by trained personnelpersonnel  staff training is an ongoing responsibilitystaff training is an ongoing responsibility  training and orientation must be directed toward stafftraining and orientation must be directed toward staff at all levelsat all levels  the number of staff involved will depend on the sizethe number of staff involved will depend on the size and type of the institution, and on the extent ofand type of the institution, and on the extent of conservation programconservation program
  • 76. TipsTips in implementing ain implementing a conservation programconservation program...... examine the environment improve the environment examine the materials / establish priorities for treatment separate materials for in-house treatment from those requiring professional care establish a work room for remedial treatment supervise in-house repairs and restoration work with a professional conservator keep informed
  • 77. Do not use any measure, treatment,Do not use any measure, treatment, or program that:or program that:  cannot be reversed if necessarycannot be reversed if necessary  cannot be used properlycannot be used properly  will not last a long timewill not last a long time  is harmful to peopleis harmful to people  changes the physical property of materialchanges the physical property of material  dissolves or damages any part of the materialdissolves or damages any part of the material Conservation Tips
  • 78. Summary of preservation strategiesSummary of preservation strategies conditions actions damagedfragile and endangered fragile and endangeredfrequently used pest-infested • in-house treatment • deacidification • lab conservation • encapsulation • lamination • digitization • microfilming • photocopying • fumigation
  • 79. Workshop ExerciseWorkshop Exercise Imagine you are responsible for developing a conservation program forImagine you are responsible for developing a conservation program for your organization’s records/collections. Write a program proposalyour organization’s records/collections. Write a program proposal outlining the actions you would take to develop such a program,outlining the actions you would take to develop such a program, includingincluding  What type of survey to conductWhat type of survey to conduct  What types of records/collections will be prioritized for conservationWhat types of records/collections will be prioritized for conservation  What conservation measures/treatment option will be suitable for theWhat conservation measures/treatment option will be suitable for the different types of records/collectionsdifferent types of records/collections  Determine budget allocation, and requirements for facilities, supplies,Determine budget allocation, and requirements for facilities, supplies, staffingstaffing Participants should be as specific as possible; if they can relate thisParticipants should be as specific as possible; if they can relate this exercise to a real situation, they should do so.exercise to a real situation, they should do so.
  • 80. Conservation videosConservation videos  https://www.youtube.com/wathttps://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=CArraKc81Kwch?v=CArraKc81Kw Basics of PaperBasics of Paper ConservationConservation https://www.youtube.com/watchhttps://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=dcb3JwPjDjA?v=dcb3JwPjDjA Conservation of Jefferson Papers at U. of Virginia
  • 81. Acknowledgement/CreditsAcknowledgement/Credits and referencesand references::  Library Preservation at HarvardLibrary Preservation at Harvard http://preserve.harvard.edu/care/index.htmlhttp://preserve.harvard.edu/care/index.html  Library of Congress PreservationLibrary of Congress Preservation http://www.loc.gov/preserv/http://www.loc.gov/preserv/  NewYork University LibrariesNewYork University Libraries http://library.nyu.edu/preservation/http://library.nyu.edu/preservation/  Preservation HistoryPreservation History http://preservationhistory.wikispaces.com/Brittle+Paperhttp://preservationhistory.wikispaces.com/Brittle+Paper
  • 82. Contact famverzosa@yahoo.com Questions?