Quantitative investigation of
microstructures within porous rocks
by using very high resolution X-ray
micro-CT imaging
Ger...
2 /
GE /
Content
1. Introduction & Fundamentals
2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison
3. Scan results for geological sampl...
3 /
GE /
X-ray tubes Microfocus - nanofocus
Introduction & Fundamentals
Copyright General Electric 2014
4 /
GE /
Fundamentals
Geometry and Resolution
Advantage of nanofocus tube:
resolution & Penumbra effect
Focal spot size:
m...
5 /
GE /
Resolution and Detail Detectability
Detail detectability of the nanofocus tube
Conclusion:
detail detectability
i...
6 /
GE /
Resolution and Detail Detectability
Resolution
2 µm bars 2 µm bars
2.5 µm 
Focal spot size influence:
1.5 µm ...
7 /
GE /
Content
1. Introduction & Fundamentals
2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison
3. Scan results for geological sampl...
8 /
GE /
nanotom m
ultra-high resolution
nanoCT system
X-ray tube:
nanofocus < 800 nm spot size
180 kV / 15 W, tube coolin...
9 /
GE /
Principle of CT
Acquisition of
(2D) projections
whilst the object
turns through 360°
rotation steps << 1°
nanotom...
10 /
GE /
Principle of CT
Acquisition
movie
nanotom CT
Sample rotation + acquisition images
Copyright General Electric 2014
11 /
GE /
Principle of CT: Reconstruction Method
Example: spark plug
back-projectionprojection inversion log + filter line...
12 /
GE /
resolution comparison
1 mm
Improved sharpness (+80%) & increased CNR (+100%) due to diamond
window and low noise...
13 /
GE /
resolution comparison
Improved sharpness (+80%) & increased CNR (+100%) due to diamond
window and low noise dete...
14 /
GE /
resolution comparison
Comparison example (metal alloy*)
CT result close to synchrotron-based CT
State of the art...
15 /
GE /
Content
1. Introduction & Fundamentals
2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison
3. Scan results for geological samp...
16 /
GE /
Cretaceous
reservoir
sandstone
“Bentheimer”
Standard
petrophysical
analysis
Scan data of geological samples
Bent...
17 /
GE /
Cretaceous
reservoir
sandstone
“Bentheimer”
X-ray CT
(Ø 5 mm)
Vx = 1 µm
Scan data of geological samples
1 mm
A
B...
18 /
GE /
Cretaceous
reservoir
sandstone
“Bentheimer”
(Ø 5 mm)
Vx = 1 µm
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
Bentheimer s...
19 /
GE /
Cretaceous
reservoir
sandstone
“Bentheimer”
(Ø 5 mm)
Vx = 1 µm
Scan data of geological samples
Comparison of san...
20 /
GE /
Scan data of geological samples
Bentheimer sandstone
Digital Rock Evaluation
segmentation percolation test
conne...
21 /
GE /
Scan data of geological samples
Bentheimer sandstone
Digital Rock Evaluation
quantitative evaluationskeletonizat...
22 /
GE /
Cretaceous
reservoir
sandstone
“Bentheimer”
(Ø 5 mm)
Vx = 1 µm
Avizo
fluid flow
simulation
Scan data of geologic...
23 /
GE /
Pyroclastic
rock
(Ø 1 mm)
Vx = 1 µm
yz-slice
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
yz-slice with different grains...
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GE /
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
Zoom into yz-slice with measurement of thin wall: 1.8 µm
3 mm
Pyroclastic
r...
25 /
GE /
Pyroclastic
rock
(fresh’11)
(Ø 10 mm)
Vx = 5 µm
xy-slice
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
xy-slice through 5...
26 /
GE /
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
3 mm
Pyroclastic
rock
(fresh’11)
(Ø 10 mm)
Vx = 5 µm
3D volume
The surface ...
27 /
GE /
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
Pyroclastic
rock
(fresh’11)
(Ø 10 mm)
Vx = 5 µm
3D volume
The volume render...
28 /
GE /
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
Pyroclastic
rock
(fresh’11)
(Ø 10 mm)
Vx = 5 µm
Avizo
fluid flow
simulation...
29 /
GE /
1 mm
Scan data of geological samples
The color slice intersects the velocity field calculated
with XLab Hydro an...
30 /
GE /
Content
1. Introduction & Fundamentals
2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison
3. Scan results for geological samp...
31 /
GE /
Conclusions
• State of the art high resolution tube based X-ray CT with
the phoenix nanotom m offers
• Comparabl...
32 /
GE /
Outlook
• More quantitative data analysis (like permeability, particle
size distribution, density distribution, ...
33 /
GE /
Contact and further information:
www.ge-mcs.com/en/phoenix-xray.html
www.ge-mcs.com/de/phoenix-xray/applications...
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Porous rock evaluation with micro ct zacher_ge_copyright

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Porous rock evaluation with micro ct zacher_ge_copyright

  • 1. Quantitative investigation of microstructures within porous rocks by using very high resolution X-ray micro-CT imaging Gerhard Zacher1, Matthias Halisch², Peter Westenberger3 and Frank Sieker1 1) GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies, Wunstorf, Germany ²) Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics, Hannover, Germany ³) FEI Visualization Sciences Group, Düsseldorf, Germany Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 2. 2 / GE / Content 1. Introduction & Fundamentals 2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison 3. Scan results for geological samples 4. Conclusion & Outlook
  • 3. 3 / GE / X-ray tubes Microfocus - nanofocus Introduction & Fundamentals Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 4. 4 / GE / Fundamentals Geometry and Resolution Advantage of nanofocus tube: resolution & Penumbra effect Focal spot size: microfocus: F = 3 µm nanofocus: F = 0.6 µm M=FDD/FOD ; Vx=P/M Introduction & Fundamentals mikrofocus nanofocus limiting factor for image resolution = F detail detectability about 1/3 F Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 5. 5 / GE / Resolution and Detail Detectability Detail detectability of the nanofocus tube Conclusion: detail detectability is no measure for sharpness Focal Spot 2.5 µm  0.8 µm 500 nm 500 nm 5 µm 5 µm Introduction & Fundamentals Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 6. 6 / GE / Resolution and Detail Detectability Resolution 2 µm bars 2 µm bars 2.5 µm  Focal spot size influence: 1.5 µm  0.8 µm  0.6 µm bars Introduction & Fundamentals Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 7. 7 / GE / Content 1. Introduction & Fundamentals 2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison 3. Scan results for geological samples 4. Conclusion & Outlook
  • 8. 8 / GE / nanotom m ultra-high resolution nanoCT system X-ray tube: nanofocus < 800 nm spot size 180 kV / 15 W, tube cooling X-ray detector: Cooled flat panel, 7.4 Mpixel, 11 Mpixel virtual detector 100 µm pixel size Manipulator: 5 axis stepper motors, granite-based, high-precision air bearing nanotom CT Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 9. 9 / GE / Principle of CT Acquisition of (2D) projections whilst the object turns through 360° rotation steps << 1° nanotom CT X-ray source CNC Detector CT / volume reconstruction Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 10. 10 / GE / Principle of CT Acquisition movie nanotom CT Sample rotation + acquisition images Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 11. 11 / GE / Principle of CT: Reconstruction Method Example: spark plug back-projectionprojection inversion log + filter line profile Acquisition of 600 projections 600 back projections 3D visualization nanotom CT Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 12. 12 / GE / resolution comparison 1 mm Improved sharpness (+80%) & increased CNR (+100%) due to diamond window and low noise detector State of the art nanotom m metallic foam: material development & characterization, automotive Contrast resolution Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 13. 13 / GE / resolution comparison Improved sharpness (+80%) & increased CNR (+100%) due to diamond window and low noise detector metallic foam: material development & characterization, automotive Contrast resolution Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 14. 14 / GE / resolution comparison Comparison example (metal alloy*) CT result close to synchrotron-based CT State of the art nanotom m AlMg5Si7 Alloy: material research, University & Industrial metallography labs Synchrotron-based CT (ESRF Grenoble/France) 100 µm * J. Kastner, B. Harrer, G. Requena, O. Brunke, A comparative study of high resolution cone beam X-ray tomography and synchrotron tomography applied to Fe- and Al-alloys. NDT&E Int. vol. 43, pages 599-605 Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 15. 15 / GE / Content 1. Introduction & Fundamentals 2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison 3. Scan results for geological samples 4. Conclusion & Outlook
  • 16. 16 / GE / Cretaceous reservoir sandstone “Bentheimer” Standard petrophysical analysis Scan data of geological samples Bentheimer sandstone Electron microscope images and thin sections with highly weathered feldspar (left); porosity permeability cross plot from experimental analysis (right) 38 mm Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 17. 17 / GE / Cretaceous reservoir sandstone “Bentheimer” X-ray CT (Ø 5 mm) Vx = 1 µm Scan data of geological samples 1 mm A B AA BB A B Bentheimer sandstone 2D slice and 3D volume of CT scan. Quartz (grey), (A) clay (brown), (B) feldspar (blue) and zirconia (red). Right: pore space is separated (green) 5 mm
  • 18. 18 / GE / Cretaceous reservoir sandstone “Bentheimer” (Ø 5 mm) Vx = 1 µm 1 mm Scan data of geological samples Bentheimer sandstone Increasing inhomogeneity of samples Representative?  Scale problem? For different sandstones (Bentheimer, Oberkirchener and Flechtinger) porosity has been evaluated by different methods. Range differs a lot.
  • 19. 19 / GE / Cretaceous reservoir sandstone “Bentheimer” (Ø 5 mm) Vx = 1 µm Scan data of geological samples Comparison of sandstones average Porosity: ~ 22.5 % representative scan volume: 1000x1000x1000 Voxel average Porosity: ~ 7 % representative scan volume: > 1750x1750x1750 Voxel 1 mm Bentheimer Sandstone Flechtingen Sandstone Porosity (CT) with respect to volume size for different sandstones Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 20. 20 / GE / Scan data of geological samples Bentheimer sandstone Digital Rock Evaluation segmentation percolation test connectivity test Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 21. 21 / GE / Scan data of geological samples Bentheimer sandstone Digital Rock Evaluation quantitative evaluationskeletonization Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 22. 22 / GE / Cretaceous reservoir sandstone “Bentheimer” (Ø 5 mm) Vx = 1 µm Avizo fluid flow simulation Scan data of geological samples video Bentheimer sandstone Digital Rock Evaluation Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 23. 23 / GE / Pyroclastic rock (Ø 1 mm) Vx = 1 µm yz-slice 1 mm Scan data of geological samples yz-slice with different grains with high porosity or fractures and bigger pores 3 mm zoomed area Etna Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 24. 24 / GE / 1 mm Scan data of geological samples Zoom into yz-slice with measurement of thin wall: 1.8 µm 3 mm Pyroclastic rock (Ø 1 mm) Vx = 1 µm yz-slice Etna Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 25. 25 / GE / Pyroclastic rock (fresh’11) (Ø 10 mm) Vx = 5 µm xy-slice 1 mm Scan data of geological samples xy-slice through 5x5x5mm cube used later for flow simulation 3 mm Etna Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 26. 26 / GE / 1 mm Scan data of geological samples 3 mm Pyroclastic rock (fresh’11) (Ø 10 mm) Vx = 5 µm 3D volume The surface is composed of 18 Mio. faces and represents the stone matrix. Shadows enhance the spatial impression. SCHEMATIC WORKFLOW FOR POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY ANALYSIS Etna
  • 27. 27 / GE / 1 mm Scan data of geological samples Pyroclastic rock (fresh’11) (Ø 10 mm) Vx = 5 µm 3D volume The volume rendering visualizes the separated pore space, each individual pore has a separate color. SCHEMATIC WORKFLOW FOR POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY ANALYSIS Etna Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 28. 28 / GE / 1 mm Scan data of geological samples Pyroclastic rock (fresh’11) (Ø 10 mm) Vx = 5 µm Avizo fluid flow simulation The pore space is further skeletonized. Different colors refer to different throat size. SCHEMATIC WORKFLOW FOR POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY ANALYSIS Etna Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 29. 29 / GE / 1 mm Scan data of geological samples The color slice intersects the velocity field calculated with XLab Hydro and visualizes the vector field. Colors give the velocity’s magnitude. pyroclastic rock (fresh’11) (Ø 10 mm) Vx = 5 µm Avizo fluid flow simulation SCHEMATIC WORKFLOW FOR POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY ANALYSIS Etna
  • 30. 30 / GE / Content 1. Introduction & Fundamentals 2. nanotom CT / resolution comparison 3. Scan results for geological samples 4. Conclusion & Outlook
  • 31. 31 / GE / Conclusions • State of the art high resolution tube based X-ray CT with the phoenix nanotom m offers • Comparable (or higher) spatial resolution to SRµCT setups due to nanofocus tube (ease of use, lower cost and faster analysis) • Wide variety of geological samples can be analysed • Data of a whole 3D volume offers numerous qualitative AND quantitative interpretations • New insights in rock materials for geo science Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 32. 32 / GE / Outlook • More quantitative data analysis (like permeability, particle size distribution, density distribution, …) • More input from geoscientists to better generate the potential of nanofocus X-ray CT Copyright General Electric 2014
  • 33. 33 / GE / Contact and further information: www.ge-mcs.com/en/phoenix-xray.html www.ge-mcs.com/de/phoenix-xray/applications/geology-exploration.html Gerhard.Zacher@ge.com

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