Narrative psychotherapy with couples 121614
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Narrative psychotherapy with couples 121614
Narrative TherapyNarrative Therapy
National UniversityNational University
College of Letters and SciencesCollege of Letters and Sciences
Steven Mendoza, PhDSteven Mendoza, PhD
Psychology Adjunct ProfessorPsychology Adjunct Professor
The NarrativeThe Narrative
Focus of the narrativeFocus of the narrative
The role of storiesThe role of stories
The stories we tellThe stories we tell
and hear concerningand hear concerning
our livesour lives
Listening withoutListening without
judging or blamingjudging or blaming
Example: the story of my driving…Example: the story of my driving…
Dominant Story:Dominant Story: A way ofA way of
understanding a situation that hasunderstanding a situation that has
been so widely excepted that itbeen so widely excepted that it
appears toappears to represent reality.represent reality.
Generally, we have many storiesGenerally, we have many stories
occurring at the same time..Extoccurring at the same time..Ext
The broader social context impactsThe broader social context impacts
our stories.our stories.
Therapy GoalsTherapy Goals
Invite the client to describe theirInvite the client to describe their
experience in new and freshexperience in new and fresh
language. Present and future onlylanguage. Present and future only
In doing this client opens up newIn doing this client opens up new
ideas of what is possible in theideas of what is possible in the
Gently guide the patientGently guide the patient
So, our general goal in therapy is toSo, our general goal in therapy is to
Identify the life story that they preferIdentify the life story that they prefer
As therapist we are more interestedAs therapist we are more interested
in exploring possibilities and what isin exploring possibilities and what is
more satisfying for the patient.more satisfying for the patient.
Narrative Therapy differentNarrative Therapy different
Instead of goals, we tend to speak ofInstead of goals, we tend to speak of
“Projects” or direction in life.“Projects” or direction in life.
Listen to the patient, and let themListen to the patient, and let them
experience what it feels to beexperience what it feels to be
Usually they will tell you the problemUsually they will tell you the problem
Deconstructive listening isDeconstructive listening is
guided by the Pts beliefguided by the Pts belief
The story may have differentThe story may have different
We ask people to fill in the detailsWe ask people to fill in the details
We interrupt at intervals to reflectWe interrupt at intervals to reflect
our senses to what they are sayingour senses to what they are saying
Therapy helpsTherapy helps
The patient’s reality?The patient’s reality?
Our presence/makes theOur presence/makes the
Listen to their ambiguity!Listen to their ambiguity!
The Role of the TherapistThe Role of the Therapist
We are active facilitators, we careWe are active facilitators, we care
We show, interest, curiosity, openWe show, interest, curiosity, open
Main task is to help clients constructMain task is to help clients construct
a story line to address the nowa story line to address the now
Client are the expert when it comesClient are the expert when it comes
to what they wants in life..LISTENto what they wants in life..LISTEN
Techniques and ProceduresTechniques and Procedures
1.1. Questions and more questionsQuestions and more questions
2.2. Help pt at externalizing andHelp pt at externalizing and
3.3. Search for Unique OutcomesSearch for Unique Outcomes
4.4. Alternative Stories andAlternative Stories and
5.5. Documenting EvidenceDocumenting Evidence
Encourage the patient to thinkEncourage the patient to think
That each instance is a potentialThat each instance is a potential
beginning for an alternativebeginning for an alternative
Encourage patient to think of theEncourage patient to think of the
present and help them prepare forpresent and help them prepare for
the future.the future.
Questions and more questionsQuestions and more questions
The therapist uses carefully craftedThe therapist uses carefully crafted
questions and dialogue that helpquestions and dialogue that help
generate new experiences for thegenerate new experiences for the
Questions are used to discover theQuestions are used to discover the
client’s experiences.client’s experiences.
Externalizing and DeconstructingExternalizing and Deconstructing
““It is not the person that is theIt is not the person that is the
problem, but the problem that is theproblem, but the problem that is the
Externalizing ConversationExternalizing Conversation: Is a way: Is a way
of speaking in which the problemof speaking in which the problem
may be spoken of as if it were amay be spoken of as if it were a
distinct entity separate from thedistinct entity separate from the
Search for Unique OutcomesSearch for Unique Outcomes
The therapists talks to the clientThe therapists talks to the client
about success regarding theabout success regarding the
This is done by selecting anyThis is done by selecting any
experience that stands apart fromexperience that stands apart from
the problem story.the problem story.
Help the patient to externalizeHelp the patient to externalize
Alternative Stories and ReauthoringAlternative Stories and Reauthoring
The turning point in this therapy isThe turning point in this therapy is
when the client makes the choice towhen the client makes the choice to
stop living in a problem saturatedstop living in a problem saturated
story and create an alternative storystory and create an alternative story
Dev. an alternative story. ReframeDev. an alternative story. Reframe
Reauthoring occurs either in freeReauthoring occurs either in free
flowing conversation, or throughflowing conversation, or through
Narrative TherapyNarrative Therapy
Guide them and tell them the problems are separate fromGuide them and tell them the problems are separate from
In therapy, we seek to ask small questionsIn therapy, we seek to ask small questions
that ask people, one small step at a time.that ask people, one small step at a time.
We also assist the patient at selfWe also assist the patient at self
evaluating to assess on weather thoseevaluating to assess on weather those
ways of living suit them.ways of living suit them.
As therapist we prefer hearing aboutAs therapist we prefer hearing about
directions in life……directions in life……
Documenting EvidenceDocumenting Evidence
Narrative therapists believe newNarrative therapists believe new
stories take hold when there is anstories take hold when there is an
audience to appreciate and supportaudience to appreciate and support
Therefore, encourage…….Therefore, encourage…….
LETTER WRITING…Keep it in theLETTER WRITING…Keep it in the
Overview of the TherapeuticOverview of the Therapeutic
Process (O’Hanlon, 1994)Process (O’Hanlon, 1994)
1.1. Come up with a mutually acceptableCome up with a mutually acceptable
name for the problem.name for the problem.
1.1. Personify the problem and attributePersonify the problem and attribute
oppressive intentions to it.oppressive intentions to it.
2.2. Investigate how the problem hasInvestigate how the problem has
disrupted, dominated, or discourageddisrupted, dominated, or discouraged
the client.the client.
Overview continuesOverview continues
1.1. Discover moments when theDiscover moments when the
client wasn’t dominated, orclient wasn’t dominated, or
discouraged by the problemdiscouraged by the problem byby
searching for exceptions to thesearching for exceptions to the
2.2. Find evidence to bolster a newFind evidence to bolster a new
view of the client as competentview of the client as competent
enough to have defeated theenough to have defeated the
dominance or oppression of thedominance or oppression of the
Overview continuesOverview continues
1.1. Ask the client to speculate aboutAsk the client to speculate about
what type of future could bewhat type of future could be
expected from the strong competentexpected from the strong competent
person that is emerging.person that is emerging.
2.2. Find or create an audience forFind or create an audience for
perceiving and supporting the newperceiving and supporting the new
We must approach therapy asWe must approach therapy as
an experimental processan experimental process
In therapy clients reclaim, relieve,In therapy clients reclaim, relieve,
and make meaning of storiesand make meaning of stories
that add new substance and newthat add new substance and new
possibilities to their lives.possibilities to their lives.
In couple therapy the stories can beIn couple therapy the stories can be
used as alternatives.used as alternatives.
The mechanism of changeThe mechanism of change
In Narrative Psychotherapy is theIn Narrative Psychotherapy is the
telling, retelling, witnessing, andtelling, retelling, witnessing, and
living out multistoried lives.living out multistoried lives.
We encouraged meaningWe encouraged meaning
Discouraged: DSMV, drugs testingDiscouraged: DSMV, drugs testing
etc. is out.etc. is out.
Stories and TherapyStories and Therapy
We are really worried aboutWe are really worried about
Sean because he is stealingSean because he is stealing
and we have tried to stop himand we have tried to stop him
but he just won’t.but he just won’t. He’s alwaysHe’s always
been a problem child from thebeen a problem child from the
time he was little.time he was little.
He didn’t get much attentionHe didn’t get much attention
when he waswhen he was a small boya small boy
because Anne [his mother] wasbecause Anne [his mother] was
ill. Since then he always gets inill. Since then he always gets in
trouble at school. He didn’ttrouble at school. He didn’t
toilet train himself and istoilet train himself and is
always starting fights with hisalways starting fights with his
brothers. Now he’s stealing tobrothers. Now he’s stealing to
get people toget people to notice him.notice him.