Shingo NAGAMATSU, Ph.D.<br />Faculty of Safety Science, Kansai University<br />and<br />Haruo HAYASHI, Ph.D.<br />Disaster...
Estimated Large Scale Disasters in Japan<br />
ource<br />Estimated seismic intensity of Tokyo metropolitan<br />earthquake (the worst case)<br />Source: Central Disater...
Economic damage is estimated as 112 trillion JPY <br />(1.24 trillion USD)<br />International market<br />Domestic market<...
Economic loss will be 112 trillion yen….<br />So what?<br />What will happen actually?<br />How will it affects the recove...
Scenario Planning<br />Scenario planning is considered a tool in decision making under high levels of uncertainty. <br />T...
The Framework of the scenario<br />The scenarios focus on economic recovery process of the Tokyo metropolitan area and Jap...
Key driving force (1)Reduction of the net national asset<br />Trillion yen<br /><ul><li> Reconstruction costs is expected ...
 Japanese households have net assets of as much as 1,063 trillion yen, which is as much as 16 times the damage incurred.
 IMF estimate that in 2020, the public debt of Japan will exceed the Japanese household net assets (Tokuoka, 2010)</li></u...
Key driving force (2):Globalization<br />Globalization is advantageous for disaster recovery<br /> Obtaining financing fro...
Key driving force (2): Shrinking construction sector owing to a “soft economy”<br />Fiscal year<br />Nominal construction ...
In the long run, it will become more difficult to undertake recovery work in a very short period.</li></li></ul><li>Overwh...
Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and ...
Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and ...
Scenario I : Japan falls as an economic leader <br />As the scale of the damage caused by the earthquake becomes clear, th...
Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and ...
Scenario II: Function of Tokyo weakens<br />Foreign investors expect that the use of land in Tokyo will be more efficientl...
Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and ...
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Economic scenario planning after Tokyo metropolitan earthquake

Economic scenario planning after Tokyo metropolitan earthquake
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Economy & Finance      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Economic scenario planning after Tokyo metropolitan earthquake

  • 1. Shingo NAGAMATSU, Ph.D.<br />Faculty of Safety Science, Kansai University<br />and<br />Haruo HAYASHI, Ph.D.<br />Disaster Prevention and Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University<br />出典:日本の地震活動<追補版><br />Economic scenario planning after Tokyo metropolitan (inland) earthquake.<br />
  • 2. Estimated Large Scale Disasters in Japan<br />
  • 3. ource<br />Estimated seismic intensity of Tokyo metropolitan<br />earthquake (the worst case)<br />Source: Central Disater Management Council<br />
  • 4. Economic damage is estimated as 112 trillion JPY <br />(1.24 trillion USD)<br />International market<br />Domestic market<br />Disaster area<br />Physical <br />damage<br />Direct loss<br />humanl<br />damage<br />Indirect loss (due to loss of production)<br />1/5 of National GDP<br />1.2 times of National anual budget<br />Indirect loss, <br />(due to transportation interruption)<br />Source: Central Disater Management Council<br />
  • 5. Economic loss will be 112 trillion yen….<br />So what?<br />What will happen actually?<br />How will it affects the recovery process? <br />What we should do for that crisis?<br />
  • 6. Scenario Planning<br />Scenario planning is considered a tool in decision making under high levels of uncertainty. <br />Traditional decision-making processes have been based on decisive models and quantitative forecasts. <br />Decision makers will automatically have to commit to one scenario, and they will be ill equipped to change the strategy when the circumstances change. <br />Scenario planning, however, does not stick to the accuracy of the forecast. <br />Instead, scenario planning seeks to have several “plausible” stories about the future in order to change or adjust the strategy very flexibly (Heijden, 1996). There are several studies that apply scenario planning to economic policy making (Forge et al., 2006) (Forge, 2009).<br />
  • 7. The Framework of the scenario<br />The scenarios focus on economic recovery process of the Tokyo metropolitan area and Japan.<br />The expected year of the occurrence of the earthquake: between 2020 and 2030. <br />The target period: two months to five years after the earthquake<br />The aftermath of the earthquake is excluded<br />
  • 8. Key driving force (1)Reduction of the net national asset<br />Trillion yen<br /><ul><li> Reconstruction costs is expected to be as much as 66.6 trillion yen.
  • 9. Japanese households have net assets of as much as 1,063 trillion yen, which is as much as 16 times the damage incurred.
  • 10. IMF estimate that in 2020, the public debt of Japan will exceed the Japanese household net assets (Tokuoka, 2010)</li></ul>Household assets<br />Pubic debt<br />FY<br />
  • 11. Key driving force (2):Globalization<br />Globalization is advantageous for disaster recovery<br /> Obtaining financing from abroad is very simple and at a low cost. <br />Globalization can be disadvantageous <br />in case the reconstruction project is not considered cost effective by investors. <br />The goods and service market is also exposed to global competition. <br />International companies has risks to lose their market share to other companies due to business interruption. It requires the reconstruction process to be very quick in order to compete with international markets.<br />
  • 12. Key driving force (2): Shrinking construction sector owing to a “soft economy”<br />Fiscal year<br />Nominal construction investment<br />(growth rate)<br />Scale of construction market has become almost ½ of 1995.<br /><ul><li>Existence of excess capacity
  • 13. In the long run, it will become more difficult to undertake recovery work in a very short period.</li></li></ul><li>Overwhelming demand for reconstruction<br />
  • 14. Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and labor market<br />closed<br />difficult<br />(High interest rate)<br />open<br />Scenario 3<br />(Tokyo globalizes)<br />Scenario 2<br />(Capital function decreases)<br />Scenario 1<br />(Japan fallsfrom an economic leader) <br />
  • 15. Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and labor market<br />closed<br />difficult<br />(High interest rate)<br />open<br />Scenario 3<br />(Tokyo globalizes)<br />Scenario 2<br />(Capital function decreases)<br />Scenario 1<br />(Japan fallsfrom an economic leader) <br />
  • 16. Scenario I : Japan falls as an economic leader <br />As the scale of the damage caused by the earthquake becomes clear, the long-term interest rate in Japan will increase, since markets will expect the Japanese government to issue a large number of public bonds in the very near future. Private companies try to cover the damage by financing international markets. However, foreign investors request a premium for recovery lending as they are skeptical about the resurgence of Tokyo, as was seen in 1980. The companies that were put up for recovery in Tokyo disappeared from the Japanese market. The situation of small local businesses was more severe. Owing to an increase in interest rates, many of them gave up reviving their businesses. The supply of office space was sparse, and there were many vacant spaces in downtown Tokyo.<br />As for national public finance, annual debt servicing cost for interest has increased. The withdrawal of foreign capital from Japanese markets leads to the depreciation of the yen. Because of this, prices of imported commodities increase. Since domestic investment in R&D has shrunken, Japanese products have lessened special value and are exposed to price competitions with emerging countries. <br />As a result, the price of the land gradually depreciates, and many banks are burdened with bad loans.<br />
  • 17. Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and labor market<br />closed<br />difficult<br />(High interest rate)<br />open<br />Scenario 3<br />(Tokyo globalizes)<br />Scenario 2<br />(Capital function decreases)<br />Scenario 1<br />(Japan fallsfrom an economic leader) <br />
  • 18. Scenario II: Function of Tokyo weakens<br />Foreign investors expect that the use of land in Tokyo will be more efficiently upgraded, since old office buildings are being reconstructed and several large redevelopment projects have commenced. Foreign capital flows very rapidly to these project without any premium.<br />The cost of construction increases owing to excess demand of the domestic construction market. Nevertheless, the construction rush continues because the expected returns from reconstruction projects are much higher than the increased rate of prices. On the other hand, small local cities in Japan are shrinking owing to the concentration of money, labor, and construction materials in the larger cities. The value of the yen is appreciated because of the flow of foreign capital, and this significantly damages the car and machine industries that rely on exports. Thanks to the reconstruction demand, domestic markets become active.<br />People who have lost their homes find it very difficult to reconstruct their houses because of the increase in construction costs. Thanks to the increase in the land prices, some people sell their houses and buy condominiums. The landscape of the city drastically changes from densely inhibited to high-rise condominiums. The old and the poor, who previously lived in rented apartments, cannot move out of their temporary homes because they cannot afford the new rents, which have increased on account of the reconstruction. Debris has not been removed in some residential areas, and some of the people who used to live there decide against reconstruction and move out of Tokyo into the smaller cities.<br />The upgraded land use has not progressed as expected. Companies that were temporarily evacuated from Tokyo cannot establish themselves again. The function of Tokyo city has been declining, and this leads to the additional exit of the companies. Shanghai has now usurped the position of being the economic center of East Asian countries; a position that Tokyo used to hold. The development of huge commercial buildings in the disaster area was too late. Tokyo suffers from a vacancy of 50% of its tenants.<br />
  • 19. Structure of the scenario<br />Financing from Foreign Investors<br />easy<br />(Low interest rate)<br />Construction and labor market<br />closed<br />difficult<br />(High interest rate)<br />open<br />Scenario 3<br />(Tokyo globalizes)<br />Scenario 2<br />(Capital function decreases)<br />Scenario 1<br />(Japan fallsfrom an economic leader) <br />
  • 20. Scenario III: Tokyo Globlizes<br />Foreign investors expect that the land use in Tokyo will be more efficiently upgraded, since old office buildings are reconstructed and several large redevelopment projects have commenced. Foreign capital flows very rapidly to these projects without any premium.<br />The slower pace of reconstruction in Tokyo becomes a political agenda. Manufacturing and construction industries are lobbying for the opening of the labor market. Public opinion necessarily accepts this because otherwise the economic situation in Japan would not be beneficial.The Japanese government decides to open the job market. China offers aid for the large amount of waste disposal that the Japanese government has to undertake. Instead, Chinese reconstruction companies undertake several reconstruction projects in Japan.<br />A massive number of houses and office buildings are constructed in a very short period without inflation, thanks to cheap labor from overseas. However, many issues between contractors and clients are reported with regard to the errors and after-sales service. The bankruptcy of domestic contractors increases despite massive reconstruction demands owing to the price competition with foreign contractors.<br />As reconstruction demands shrink, the unemployment of foreign workers becomes a big social issue. On the other hand, a free labor market and upgraded infrastructure attracts many companies to invest in Tokyo once again. New job opportunities are generated in Tokyo. There are many cases in which foreign workers are paid higher than Japanese ones. It fuels a political movement to exclude foreign workers, requesting security of employment for the Japanese.<br />Migration into Tokyo from local cities has accelerated, and land prices are persistently rising. Owing to the asset effect, consumption and investment is also increasing. However, some foreign investors warn that Japan is stepping up a ladder leading to a bubble economy.<br />
  • 21. Conclusion<br />The best scenario for most Japanese nationals would be scenario 3; however, there are several big problems that need to be considered. <br />Scenario 2 seems undesirable for Japanese nationals; however, it could be a good opportunity to decentralize the nation, restricting reconstruction investment to the lowest level. The development of these scenarios has made it possible to discuss recovery strategies.<br />The scenarios presented here are not the final versions. We need additional experts to enrich the scenarios. <br />

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