H, PEACE &IT PFA RO& GY RT EI SN SU
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA
National
Youth Policy
Revised Edition, 2009
NATIONALYOUTHP...
H, PEACE &IT PFA RO& GY RT EI SN SU
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA
National
Youth Policy
Federal Ministry of Youth Developmen...
he Federal Ministry of Youth Development
has recorded another giant leap with the
completion of the review and updating of...
The reviewed Policy is thus a product of wide national
consultations involving both critical stakeholders in the youth
sec...
he imperative to review the National Youth
Policy became apparent and even more
Tcompelling having regard to the fact that...
Policy of the Economic Community of West Africa. The
painstaking research efforts and consultation of a broad
spectrum of ...
production of the final policy document is worthy of
emulation. Its hoped that the same zeal and commitment will
be demons...
NATIONAL YOUTH POLICYvi
Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
Foreword................................................................
4.13 Illiterate Youth................................................................. 32
4.14 Youth in Diaspora.............
Chapter Six: Policy Implementation and
Resource Mobilization ....................................... 88
6.1 Policy Impleme...
1.1 Introduction
Youth are one of the greatest assets that any nation can
have. Not only are they legitimately regarded as...
to 24 years. The recognition of this fact led to the development
of the National Youth Policy and the subsequent review of...
The policy takes into account the range of problems faced by
the youth, anticipates the challenges that they are likely to...
1.2 PolicyContext
The National Youth Policy recognizes the broader policy
context in which it has been formulated and shal...
commitment of the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals to the advancement and well being
ofthe Youth.
·The ECOWAS C...
national priority areas namely: impact of globalization
on young men and women; the use of and access to
information and c...
of the term “youth” have continued to change in response to
fluctuating political, economic and socio-cultural
circumstanc...
shaping the character and behaviour of the youth, as well as
promoting competitive spirit and national unity and
integrati...
the research, identification and encouragement of talent
amongstthe youth.
The first attempt to introduce a National Youth...
With the return of power to a democratically elected civilian
government, some of the constraining factors which prevented...
2.1 Guiding Principles and values
The National Youth Policy (NYP) is structured on
guiding principles and values which inf...
Guiding Principles and Values Health and Development of
Adolescents and Young people, National Gender
Policy, National Pol...
and capacities thereby empowering them should be
supportedandencouraged
by government anddevelopmentpartners.
·The Nationa...
2.2 Policy Goal
The overall policy goal is to provide an appropriate framework
that will promote the enjoyment of fundamen...
at all levels;
·Provide psycho-social support and other services to
youth in conflict situations, difficult circumstances ...
The National Youth Policy recognizes the rights
ascribed to every Nigerian as enshrined in the
constitution of the Federal...
services, health care (including reproductive health),
andrecreation;
·A secure future through policies and practices
ensu...
·To eschew ethnic and religious bigotry.
·To promote reconciliation.
·To protect, conserve, preserve the environment.
·To ...
3.3 Obligations of Government to the Youth
Government and society have obligations to ensure that youth
are empowered to d...
3.4 ObligationsofSocietytotheYouth
Adults and parents need to establish a nurturing and safe
environment for the young one...
4.1 Target Groups
Generally, Nigerian youth experience common
problems, and also share similar aspirations and
concerns. H...
·Sex Workers
·YouthinDiaspora
4.2 Students in Secondary and TertiaryInstitutions
This category comprised of persons aged b...
Thus the National Youth Policy provides for the following
activities:-
·Promotion of the use of ICT (Information, and
Comm...
·Enforcement of enrolment and retention of girls in
schools.
·Introduction of reproductive and health education,
especiall...
·Promotion of specific programmes that address the
peculiar social, educational, health and reproductive
problems of women...
4.4 Youth with Disability
All persons with disability have fundamental rights that need
to be protected by the government ...
specificconcernsofyoung peopleinvolvedincrime.
·Create avenues to monitor young people in contact with
police, and develop...
adequately harnessed and utilized for the development of the
country. This youth policy therefore seeks to identify, suppo...
most African cultures. These groups of young people are
mostly found in urban centres. The policy recognizes the plight
of...
other social ills, including involvement in crime, drug and
alcohol abuse, and loss of confidence in the larger society to...
4.12 Youth in conflict situations
In most cases the relationship between youth and violence was
only considered in the con...
total and comprehensive development of the Niger
Delta region with a view to empowering the youths
4.13 Illiterate Youth.
...
4.14 Youth in Diaspora
With the growing population of Nigerians in Diaspora, there
is a great need to tap in to the vast r...
MDG's and the NEPAD Framework for Africa's
Development
4.15 Female Sex Workers
In many societies, sex work is illegal, res...
in Jigawa to 89% in Lagos. FSWs also had a low uptake of HIV
testing; only 24% reported having had an HIV test and learnin...
5.1 Priority Themes
The successful development and implementation of
the National Youth Policy is largely predicated upon
...
intergenerational issues in an aging society were largely taken
into considerationin this National Youth Policy.
It is imp...
13. YouthandCrime
14. Youth,SportsandRecreation
15. YouthandArts&Culture
16. YouthandFamily life
17. YouthMigration andhum...
the development of all young people. According to the DHS
Education Data Survey conducted in 2003, the national primary
sc...
StrategicIntervention
·Priority should be given to achieving the goal of
ensuring basic education for all (beginning with
...
environment for promoting female education through
legislative and policy reforms; redistributing resources
to meet girl's...
Programmes in all levels of the educational system to
provide vocational career guidance, socio-personal,
developmentaland...
establishing appropriate linkage between tertiary
institutions andindustries.
·Promotion of health education and family pl...
One-third of Nigeria's population is young people between the
ages 10 and 24 years. Their health status is therefore of
si...
girl's education and life prospects. Births to females below age
20 account for 17 per cent of all births in the least-dev...
lifestyle, including teaching the legal, social and health
consequences of behaviour that poses health risk.
Government at...
informedandproductive citizens.
·Effort should be made to promote healthy eating
practices in order to combat malnutrition...
should be available to adolescents to help them
understand their sexuality and to teach them the value
of delaying sexual ...
Strategicinterventions
·Government at all levels should promote the
involvement of young men and women in the
agricultural...
Although no precise figures are available, there can be no doubt
that unemployment among young men and women in Nigeria
ha...
is undeniable that the continued disregard of their aspiration
will provoke instability, since they are often at the foref...
institutions so that students at all levels will have
relevant and meaningful information on which they can
base decisions...
provide counterpart financial and technical support for
such schemes. Young people should be involved in
cooperative schem...
inventions. Science and technology offers to young people all
over the world new opportunities as well as new challenges. ...
enable rural and remote communities have access to
new andappropriate technology.
·Science and technology clubs and societ...
generations. The issue of environmental management and
improvements is also of a major concern to young people.
Young men ...
systems and actual environmental action should be
encouraged as a means of improving both their
knowledge of the environme...
5.8 Girls and Young Women
One of the most important tasks of this Policy is to improve the
situation of young women, and t...
Nigerian women continue to occupy subordinate position and
roles in the society despite the fact that Nigeria is signatory...
gender parity in such key areas as education, health and
employment.
·Government at all levels should be encouraged to
pro...
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)
of 153

National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)

The Federal Ministry of Youth Development has recorded another giant leap with the completion of the review and updating of the 2001 National Youth Policy. The new document is all inclusive, elaborate and proactive as it takes into account existing, new and emerging challenges in the youth sector.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Government & Nonprofit      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National Youth Policy of Nigeria- Revised 2009 (Federal Ministry Of Youth Development)

  • 1. H, PEACE &IT PFA RO& GY RT EI SN SU FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA National Youth Policy Revised Edition, 2009 NATIONALYOUTHPOLICY Federal Ministry of Youth Development
  • 2. H, PEACE &IT PFA RO& GY RT EI SN SU FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA National Youth Policy Federal Ministry of Youth Development, 2009
  • 3. he Federal Ministry of Youth Development has recorded another giant leap with the completion of the review and updating of theT2001 National Youth Policy. The new document is all inclusive, elaborate and proactive as it takes into account existing, new and emerging challenges in the youthsector. The review process itself took into account guidelines originating from best practices as synthesized under the United Nations. The Ministry and its partners moved beyond the guidelines to add areas peculiar to the Nigeria setting such that the new policy covered eighteen instead of the fifteen prescribed by the United Nations. In very explicit terms, the institutional and financial framework are also clearly spelt out with mainstreaming of youth issues adopted asanational philosophy. I am delighted to also note that the stakeholders are key allies in the review process. Nigerian youth participated through a five week online consultations whose final report was integrated into the policy document. This was in addition to the youths' physical participation in the six zonal consultations and their full presence and participation at the Final Validation Workshop held in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICYI F o r e w o r d Foreword
  • 4. The reviewed Policy is thus a product of wide national consultations involving both critical stakeholders in the youth sector as well as the wider public. In the history of youth policy making in Nigeria, the new youth policy enjoys an unrivaled place in terms of the depth and coverage of inputs not just from youth but from Ministries, Departments andAgencies (MDAs), Civil Society Organisations, faith based associations, donor agenciesanddevelopmentpartners. As a national policy framework for the development of our youth from 2009 to 2014, I commend the document to all levels of government for accelerated implementation. As the role of all stakeholders are clearly spelt out, I urge parents, teachers, the clergy, the organized private sector and all relevant MDAs to take action necessary to translate the policy into reality within the stipulated period. Let me use this opportunity to reassure the youth and Nigerians in general that the Federal Government is committed to a holistic and balanced transition of our youth into adulthood. To that end, the administration has demonstrated the political will by the initiation and implementation of several youth empowerment and engagement initiatives, with this new policybeing the groundnormin the youth sector. The administration, I must add, will do all that are necessary to ensure that, in collaboration with other stakeholders, the lofty intentions of the new policy are made a reality for our teeming youth. Senator Akinlabi Olasunkanmi Honourable Minister, Federal Ministry of Youth Development NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY ii F o r e w o r d
  • 5. he imperative to review the National Youth Policy became apparent and even more Tcompelling having regard to the fact that the defunct National Youth Policy had since become outdated and by all standards incapable of providing an appropriate policy framework to address the enormous challenges confronting the Nigerian Youth st of the 21 century. In this regard, the Federal Ministry of Youth Development took the bold initiative to review the policy document which was last reviewed in 2001. During the review process, Organisations, individuals and other stakeholders too numerous to mention have no doubt contributed immensely to the production of the final output of the policy documents. First of all, we must acknowledge God Almighty's inspiration, guidance and protection without which the review exercise would not have been accomplished. The Ministry is greatly indebted to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), not only for its moral support but also for its technical assistance through the recruitment of a consultant of international repute in the person of Professor A. Adegoke, who produced the first draft policy document and facilitated the review process. It is worth noting that the same consultant was also the brain behind the articulation of the Regional Youth NATIONAL YOUTH POLICYiii Acknowledgements A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s
  • 6. Policy of the Economic Community of West Africa. The painstaking research efforts and consultation of a broad spectrum of policy document by the consultant leading to the successful culmination of the first draft of the policy document and his perseverance throughout the period of the review processcanbest be describedasa rareactofpatriotism. We must acknowledge and appreciate the Office of the Senior Special Assistant to the President on Millennium Development Goals, for ensuring that the Ministry benefits from the Debt Relief Gains to implement the review process. Without funding, thisnoble objectwouldnot have been achieved. The Ministry also recognizes the contributions made by various stakeholders, particularly the Ministerial Technical Committee for the review exercise, Civil Society Organizations, Youth Organizations, Development Partners, Members of the Organized Private sector, Members of the Defunct Presidential Committee on youth Advisory Council, relevant Ministries Departments and Agencies, the National Youth Council of Nigeria, the Nigeria Youth Parliament, States and Local Governments and other stakeholders for their invaluable inputs into the development of a comprehensive and all- inclusivepolicyforthe Nigerian Youth. The Director of Education and Youth Development, Mrs. R.S, Jimeta, mni, and her team deserve special commendation. The zeal, commitment and passion exhibited by the team in driving and co-ordinating the review process, from the zonal consultative meetings through the ValidationWorkshopand NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY iv A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s
  • 7. production of the final policy document is worthy of emulation. Its hoped that the same zeal and commitment will be demonstratedin pursuing the implementationofthispolicy. This acknowledgment would not be complete if it failed to mention the role played by the generality of the Nigerian Youth. They have given us their honest opinions on various issues affecting them through our interactive sessions, and we our part ensured that those opinions were acknowledged and truly respected. The Ministry appreciates them all and is happy that the youth of this country have eventually got a youth policy they can proudly refer to as having participated fully in its articulation anddevelopment. Mr.D. I.Kifasi,mni PermanentSecretary, Federal Ministry ofYouthDevelopment, Abuja,Nigeria. th 17 August, 2009. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s
  • 8. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICYvi Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s Foreword................................................................................... I Acknowledgements................................................................. iii Chapter One: Background and Policy Context................... 1 1.1Introduction........................................................................... 1 1.2 Policy Context...................................................................... 4 1.3 Definition of Youth............................................................... 6 1.4 Brief History of Youth Policy in Nigeria.............................. 7 Chapter Two: Guiding Principles, Policy Goal and Objectives.11 2.1 Guiding Principles and values............................................11 2.2 Policy Goal.........................................................................14 2.3 Policy & Objectives........................................................... 14 Chapter Three: Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations 16 3.1 Rights of the Youth...............................................................16 3.2 Responsibilities and Obligations of the Youth..................... 17 3.3 Obligations of Government to the Youth............................. 19 3.4 Obligations of Society to the Youth..................................... 20 Chapter Four: Priority Target Groups.................................... 21 4.1 Target Groups...................................................................... 21 4.2 Students in Secondary and Tertiary Institutions.................. 22 4.3 The Female Youth................................................................24 4.4 Youth with Disability........................................................... 26 4.5 Youth engaged in Crime and Delinquency.......................... 26 4.6 Talented/Gifted Youth......................................................... 27 4.7 Rural Youth......................................................................... 28 4.8 Street Youth......................................................................... 28 4.9 Out of school Youth............................................................ 29 4.10 Unemployed and under-employed youth......................... 29 4.11 Youth living with HIV/AIDS............................................ 30 4.12 Youth in conflict situations............................................... 31
  • 9. 4.13 Illiterate Youth................................................................. 32 4.14 Youth in Diaspora............................................................ 33 4.15 Female Sex Workers........................................................ 34 Chapter Five: Priority Themes and Strategic Interventions 36 5.1 Priority Themes.................................................................. 36 5.2 Youth and Education.......................................................... 38 5.3 Youth and Health................................................................ 43 5.4 Youth and Agriculture........................................................ 48 5.5 Youth and Employment...................................................... 49 5.6 Youth and Science and Technology.................................... 53 5.7 Youth and Environment...................................................... 55 5.8 Girls and Young Women..................................................... 60 5.9 Youth and Participation in Decision-making...................... 60 5.10 Youth and Information and Communication Technology (ICT)................................... 63 5.11 Youth and conflict Prevention and Peace building.......... 64 5.12 Youth and HIV/AIDS...................................................... 67 5.13 Youth and Drug Abuse..................................................... 70 5.14 Youth and Crime.............................................................. 74 5.15 Youth, Sports and Recreation.......................................... 77 5.16 Youth and Culture........................................................... 80 5.17 Youth and Family Life.................................................... 81 5.18 Youth and Migration....................................................... 83 5.19 Youth and Poverty.......................................................... 86 NATIONAL YOUTH POLICYvii Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
  • 10. Chapter Six: Policy Implementation and Resource Mobilization ....................................... 88 6.1 Policy Implementation........................................................ 88 6.2 Political Will....................................................................... 88 6.3 Resource Mobilization.......................................................89 6.4 Human Resources.............................................................. 90 6.5 Financial Resources........................................................... 90 6.6 Material and Technical Resources..................................... 91 6.7 Inter-agency Coordination................................................. 92 Chapter Seven: Institutional Framework............................. 93 7.1 Broad Institutional Framework and Agencies................... 93 7.2 Monitoring, Evaluation, and Research.............................. 100 7.3 Periodic Review of Policy.................................................102 References...............................................................................103 ANNEX ‘A’ Action Plan and Implementation Strategy For the National Youth Policy–---------------------------------------------------------------107 NATIONAL YOUTH POLICYviii Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
  • 11. 1.1 Introduction Youth are one of the greatest assets that any nation can have. Not only are they legitimately regarded as the future leaders, they are potentially and actually the greatest investment for a country's development. Young women and men are, in particular, recognized as a vital resource whose future prospects are inextricably tied to that of their country. They are the valued possession of any nation or region. Without them there can be no future. They are the center of reconstruction and development. They serve as a good measure of the extent to which a country can reproduce as well as sustain itself. The extent of their vitality, responsible conduct, and roles in society is positively correlated with the development of their country. For the first time in history, the number of people in the world aged 12 – 24 is the largest ever. According to the World Development Report 2007, there are 1.3 billion people in this age group. Close to 85 per-cents of this over 1.3 billion young men and women live in developing countries; this figure is projected to increaseto 89 percent by 2025. Nigeria's population is predominately young. Nigeria has a population of one hundred and forty million people (NPC 2006 provisional results) which makes her the most populous nation in Africa). One third of her population is young people between the ages of 10 NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1Chapter 1 Background and Policy Context
  • 12. to 24 years. The recognition of this fact led to the development of the National Youth Policy and the subsequent review of the policy. The review of this policy is therefore necessary to improve the level of coordination among the agencies and sectors which activities and programmes affect youth in the country. It is envisaged this will raise the level of accountability for their development and outcome of their actions. It is imperative at this juncture to infer that – many sectors of the economy needs to work together when devising youth policies as this will influence outcomes, strengthen the voice of young people in monitoring and providing feedback on the quality of youth policy and service delivery in Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of our today's shrinking world where the design of this National Youth Policy must be benchmarked by international best practicestomake it workable. It is in this regard that the National Youth Policy has been designed to represent a declaration and commitment of the priorities, directions and practical support that a country intends to provide for the development of its young men and women. It is a concrete and bold step to put the development and participation of young people at the centre of national development efforts. It is indicative of the readiness of the Federal Government to meet the needs and aspirations of the youth as well as seek solution to their problems. It sets guidelines and provides the framework for all stakeholders to empower the youth to realize their full potentials and take advantage of the opportunities available to make positive contributions to the well-being of their communities across the entire country. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY2 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 13. The policy takes into account the range of problems faced by the youth, anticipates the challenges that they are likely to confront and outlines appropriate objectives, policies, programmes and implementation plans which will be put in place so as to empower the youth to take charge of their own destiny as well as make them active participants in the shaping of the political and economic destiny of our nation. The policy also recognizes that youth are not a homogeneous group and that differences exist among them. Therefore, the policy contains provisions that address the specific and special needs ofeachofseveral identifiedtarget groups. Young women and young men should not be seen as a problem but as a force for change, and in keeping with this perspective, the National Youth Policy should be viewed not so much as a means of addressing problems associated with young people but as a means of ensuring their participation in the building of their communities and societies. The National Youth Policy recognizes and values young men and women as important resource and national asset and situates their needs and aspirationat the centreofnational development. The National Youth Policy provides a foundation and direction for a National Youth Action Plan. This Plan will describe the role of all agencies concerned with youth development and the programmes, services, facilities and activities they undertake to achieve the goalsandobjective ofthe policy. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY3 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 14. 1.2 PolicyContext The National Youth Policy recognizes the broader policy context in which it has been formulated and shall operate. This policy context is guided largely by other national policy initiatives and it is also reflective of international programmes andconventions.Inparticular the following: ·Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria – The constitution sets a broad policy context for the National Youth Policy. ·National Policy on the Health and Development of Adolescents and Young People in Nigeria – The National Youth Policy identifies with the improvement in the health and development status of adolescents and other young persons in the country. ·National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development. ·National Gender Policy. ·National Health Policy. ·National Policy on Education. ·National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS 1&2). ·Seven point Agenda of President Umar Musa Yar'Adua . ·The National Council on Youth Development – The National Youth Policy recognizes and draws from the input from the first ever National Council on Youth Developmentheldin Katsina State, March2007. ·The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – The National Youth Policy acknowledges and reaffirms the NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY4 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 15. commitment of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to the advancement and well being ofthe Youth. ·The ECOWAS Commission Youth Policy – The National Youth Policy recognizes the ECOWAS Commission Youth Policy as the basis for the overall development of all young peoplein the sub-region. ·African Youth Charter – Nigeria, as a member state of the AU, which has ratified or acceded to the African Youth Charter is working towards achieving the principles of the Charter which enables all young men and women to enjoy full participation in the life of the society. ·Commonwealth Youth Charter – the National Youth Policy recognizes the work of the Commonwealth in the support of national youth policies in all commonwealth countries and its effort towards creating societies where young women and men are empowered to develop their creativity. ·Charter of the United Nations – Nigeria, as a member of the United Nations agrees to the attainment of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations which enables young men and women to enjoy full participation inthe life ofsociety. ·United Nations World Programme ofAction for Youth - The principles and purposes of the United Nations World Programme ofAction for the Youth has helped to form the National Youth Policy at many levels. The ten priority areas identified and suggested by the World Programme of Action and the five newly identified NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY5 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 16. national priority areas namely: impact of globalization on young men and women; the use of and access to information and communication technologies; the dramatic increase in the incidence of HIV infection among young people and the impact of the epidemic on their lives; the active involvement of young people in armed conflict, both as victims and perpetrators; and the increased importance of addressing intergenerational issues in an aging society were largely taken into considerationin the National Youth Policy. 1.3 DefinitionofYouth Youth, as a concept varies from culture to culture and from society to society. In most societies in Nigeria, the progression from childhood to youth involves some systematic rites of passage. These rites have symbolic significance in that, simply by participating in them, an individual achieves a new status and position. Such new status gains validity through genuine communityactionandrecognition. One thing is clear, the boundaries defining the transition from childhood to youth and from youth to adulthood are shifting, and the crossover into each new stage is now manifested in different ways. The changes that young people must negotiate do not occur as predictably as in the past, therefore, defining youth globally according to some exact age range can be a very difficult task. The age range 15-24 is often used by the United Nations and others for statistical purposes, but in many case this distinction is too narrow for countries like Nigeria. Apart from the statistical definition of the term “youth”, the meaning NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY6 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 17. of the term “youth” have continued to change in response to fluctuating political, economic and socio-cultural circumstances. In many countries in Africa, for example, the male transition to adulthood, in terms of achieving the economic and social stability that comes with steady employment,may extend into late twenties andmidthirties. In line with the conditions and realities on ground especially historical and contemporary socio-economic and political conditions, and for the purpose of execution of the current National Youth Policy, the youth shall comprise of all males and females aged 18 – 35 years, who are citizens of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. While it is true that this definition is broad, it is understood that this is a time in life when most young people are going through dramatic changes in their life circumstances as they move from childhood to adulthood. Young people in this age group require social, economic and political support to realize their full potentials. Young people as defined by this youth policy are characterized by energy, enthusiasm, ambition, creativity, and promise; they are also faced with high levels of socio-economic uncertainty and volatility thereby becoming the most vulnerable segment of the population. They represent the most active, the most volatile, andyet the mostvulnerable segment ofthe nation'spopulation. 1.4 BriefHistoryofYouth Policyin Nigeria Since independence in 1960, successive Nigerian governments have initiated programmes and projects aimed at the youth. These range from in-school education programme for physical and mental development to out-of-school programme aimed at NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY7 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 18. shaping the character and behaviour of the youth, as well as promoting competitive spirit and national unity and integration. In-school programme include the formation of clubs, encouragement of sporting activities and other out-door activities, with discipline instilling organisations such as Boys Scout, Girls Guide and Man O' War. Out of school efforts include facilitation of the emergence and development of voluntary self-help associations which contribute to community development, skills and vocational training programmes,competitiveactivities andcultural festivals. In the decades of 1970's and 1980's the Federal government elevated programmes of youth development by the establishment of a Ministry of Youth and Sports. Expanded revenue base of the state, arising from increased petroleum export earnings also resulted in the allocation of substantial resources in the funding of youth programmes. State governments were encouraged to establish similar Ministries at their own level and to initiate their own youth, sports, cultural andcommunitydevelopmentprogrammes. At the Federal level, the National Youth Service Corps programme was launched in 1973, to promote national unity and integration and expose graduates of tertiary institutions to leadership roles and community development projects before joining the job market. The Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre, Shere Hills, Jos, was developed and made to intensify its short-duration programmes and courses for youth with potentials for leadership. National sports and cultural festival were also organized in the 1970's and 1980's as fora for NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY8 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 19. the research, identification and encouragement of talent amongstthe youth. The first attempt to introduce a National Youth Policy (NYP) was in 1981 which was followed by the drafting of an inclusive social development policy for Nigeria in 1989, providing the basis for a review of the first policy on youth. Regrettably, by the early 1990's these commendable efforts aimed at Youth development started to suffer tremendous neglect. Besides, the policy attempts hardly provide a concrete framework for addressing the heightened problems confronting the youth. This was partly because the implementation mechanisms of the policy were weak and ineffective, and also partly because the macro-economic and socio-political environment was not conducive. Thus, in the 1990's, youth development came to be increasingly equated with sporting activities and competitions. Even then, these were not given the necessary policy and material support that they required. Programmes for civil education and leadership training suffered a serious setback. The issue of empowerment was hardly ever addressed. The Federal government dismantled the Ministry of Youth and Sports, and many state governments followed suit. Consequently, by the late 1990's it had become evident that Nigerian youth are probably the most neglected by their government. This development created a huge gap in youth development in Nigeria. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY9 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 20. With the return of power to a democratically elected civilian government, some of the constraining factors which prevented serious effort at policy formulation and implementation have been reduced; a conducive atmosphere now exists for the development of a new policy for youth. The Federal Government under the leadership of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo created a full-fledged Ministry of Youth Development in 2007. This development gave impetus to this revision of the National YouthPolicy. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY10 I n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 21. 2.1 Guiding Principles and values The National Youth Policy (NYP) is structured on guiding principles and values which influenced its design and direction. Guiding principles are fundamental values and beliefs that determine behaviours. The key principles and guiding values are stated as:- ·The National Youth Policy shall be based on commitment to extensive regional consultations, respect for diversity of interests and opinion, input and consensus from the grassroots and local communities. The people of Nigeria must be able to claim ownership of the NYP. ·Young people are the most important and valuable resource of the nation. Government shall recognize, discover and understand their conditions, needs, interests, issues, aspirations, ideas and capacities and make appropriate provision for their growth and development. ·The values and guiding principle of the National Youth Policy are consistent with the provision of other existing national policies and development initiatives for example National Reproductive Health Policy, National Health Policy, National Policy on NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY11 2Chapter 2 Guiding Principles, Policy Goal and Objectives Guiding Principles and Values
  • 22. Guiding Principles and Values Health and Development of Adolescents and Young people, National Gender Policy, National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development, National Policy on Education, National Policy on Environment, and National Economic EmpowermentandDevelopmentStrategy (NEEDS). ·Effective and result-focused policy implementation demands a cooperative interaction of all stake holders including the different tiers of government, private sector and civil society organisations, non governmental organisations, traditional and religious leaders, community based organisations and developmentpartnersat all levels. ·Commitment to youth participation in the democratic process, as well as in community and civic decision making anddevelopmentprocess. ·The National Youth Policy shall be based on the fact that all youth development programmes must be youth- drivenandyouth centered. ·Commitment to mainstreaming youth issues as a development approach shall inform the economic reform agenda, medium and long term development planning, value reorientation and social transformation and other development initiatives of government. The creation of opportunities and strategies for addressing the challenges facing young men and women should be the concernofthe wholesociety. ·Non-Governmental Organisations, Civil Society Organisations which supports the continued life-long development of young men and women and their skills NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY12 Guiding Principles and Values
  • 23. and capacities thereby empowering them should be supportedandencouraged by government anddevelopmentpartners. ·The National Youth Policy is mindful and reflects gender implications and strategies as contained in the gender policy and implementation modalities. Gender- inclusive approach to the development of young women and men, equal treatment and opportunity for all young people-maleandfemaleiscentral to the NYP. ·Cultural and religious diversity should be a basis for youth development. The NYP recognizes and respects the role of tradition, religion, and culture in the developmentofyoung menandwomen. ·The NYP promotes youth development programmes with rural emphasis. Emphasis should be placed on addressing the needs of rural young people and their communities. ·Appropriate strategies and mechanism including transparency, financial accountability systems for effective delivery of youth development programmes as a cross cutting issue shall be adopted and reviewed periodically to enhance explicit and measurable progresstowardspolicyimplementation. ·The NYP promotes a wide range of participatory methodologies to ensure maximum participation and contribution on youth development matters. The principles and guiding values outlined above provided the framework upon which the vision, goals, objectives and strategies ofthe National Youth Policyare built. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY13 Guiding Principles and Values
  • 24. 2.2 Policy Goal The overall policy goal is to provide an appropriate framework that will promote the enjoyment of fundamental human rights and protect the health, social, economic and political well being of all young men and women in order to enhance their participation in the overall development process and improve their quality oflife. 2.3 Policy Objectives In pursuant of the policy goal, the National Youth Policy seeks to:- ·Establish a general policy framework which will provide guidelines on all matters relating to youth development; ·Approach youth problems from a holistic (comprehensive) perspective so as to ensure the coverage ofthe mostcriticalelements; ·Promote youth participation in the democratic process, as well as in community and civic decision making process; ·Ensure that all youth programmes are youth-driven andyouthcentered; ·Reduce youth unemployment through the promotion ofself-employmententerprises; ·Ensure youth involvement in decision-making, leadership, community based and other development programmesespeciallyinmatters affecting them; ·Mobilize resources for youth programmes and projects NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY14 Guiding Principles and Values
  • 25. at all levels; ·Provide psycho-social support and other services to youth in conflict situations, difficult circumstances and to the disadvantaged groups; ·Promote collaboration between different tiers of government and civil society organisations, non- governmental organisations, community based organisations, religious organisations on youth developmentprogrammes; ·Improve institutional performance capacity and ensure country-wide coverage in the execution of youth programmes; ·Promote the use of wide range of participatory methodologies to ensure maximum participation and contribution onyouthdevelopmentprojects; ·Ensure the mainstreaming of youth issues in the respective agenda of all government agencies, non- governmental organisations and developmental institutions; ·Promote a comprehensive, multi-sectoral response to youthissuesandconcernsinthe country; ·Address the specific social, economic and health problems that confront the youth in their effort to developtheir capabilities; ·Promote the harmonization of other policies, programmes,strategies andyouth-related research; ·Promote the moral development and value orientation in the Youth. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY15 Guiding Principles and Values
  • 26. The National Youth Policy recognizes the rights ascribed to every Nigerian as enshrined in the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This includes affirming the democratic values of human dignity,equality andfreedomofall citizens. 3.1 Rights oftheYouth The National Youth Policy recognizes the importance of youth and their right to enjoy their youthfulness, irrespective of their socio-economic status, ethnicity, religion and gender. Among the most important of these rights which the youth shall enjoy are the following:- ·Right tolife; ·Participation in policy formulation, decision making, leadership, and development at local andnational levels; ·Freedom of speech, expression and association; ·Protection from all forms of abuse, coercion, violence, exploitation, discrimination and degradation; ·Right to protection from forceful recruitment into the forces; ·Access to all benefits such as proper education and training (including opportunities for life- long learning), employment, housing, legal NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY16 3Chapter 3 Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations
  • 27. services, health care (including reproductive health), andrecreation; ·A secure future through policies and practices ensuring sustainable development; ·Protection against harmful traditional practices; ·In the case of the disabled, the right to be provided with the special treatment which his/her condition requires; ·Right to marriage at an appropriate age of consent; ·Right to individual ownership and protection of property; 3.2 Responsibilities and Obligations of the Youth The rights of the Nigerian youth come with responsibilities and obligations. In order to make the youth in the country tolerant, caring, responsible and productive citizens, the National Youth Policy outlines the following set of obligations and responsibilities for the Nigerian youth:- ·To be patriotic and loyal to the Nigerian nation and promote her wellbeing; ·To promote peace, security and development; ·To promote and defend democracy and civility in the governance of the country and in interpersonal relations with fellow citizens across the country ·Promote human dignity and respect for adults and fellow young people, sound family and community values and community well-being. ·To promote tolerance and respect (cultural, political and religious tolerance). NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY17 Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations
  • 28. ·To eschew ethnic and religious bigotry. ·To promote reconciliation. ·To protect, conserve, preserve the environment. ·To respect and protect public property and property of others. ·To promote and advance the principles of gender equality. ·To acquire skills which increase their capacity for self- help, self-respectability, cooperation and community development; ·To ensure a society free from violence, coercion, crime, devastation, exploitation and intimidation. ·To promote physical and mental well-being, including the issues of reproductive health and rights. ·To promote work ethic, life-long learning and positive attitude to work; ·To promote positive lifestyles and behaviours by young men and women; ·To avoid risky sexual behaviours and child abuse; ·To eschew all acts of violence and crimes, such as cultism, armed robbery, street violence, alcoholism, substance abuse, prostitution, advance fee fraud (419) etc. ·To serve the Nigerian nation through national service, community and voluntary efforts. ·To be law abiding, respectable and enlightened citizens, knowledgeable about their rights as well as duties and obligations. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY18 Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations
  • 29. 3.3 Obligations of Government to the Youth Government and society have obligations to ensure that youth are empowered to discharge their obligations and responsibilities to society. The obligations of government to the youthincludethe following:- ·Encourage participation of young men and women in communitylife anddevelopment; ·Recognize the rights of young women and men to take responsibility fortheir actionsandinaction; ·Teach human rights values, social justice, equity, fairnessandgender equality; ·Assist young people in reaching their goals and full potential; ·Recognize their capabilities and individualities, according to age, maturity, and allow whenever possible their choice of educational fields and careers with recourseto guidanceandcounselling; ·Be sensitive to the needs and difficulties of young womenandmen; ·Respect and accept the contribution of young men and women to society through the use of their talents, resources,ideas; ·Provide adequate funding for education and create equal opportunitiestobe educated; ·Create opportunities for the youth involvement in decision making that affects them, the environment and society. ·Provide adequate funding for sustainable development ofyouthorientedprojects. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY19 Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations
  • 30. 3.4 ObligationsofSocietytotheYouth Adults and parents need to establish a nurturing and safe environment for the young ones. The National Youth Policy defines the obligations of parents, guardians and society as follows:- ·Promoteresponsibleparenthood; ·Provide the right atmosphere for the mental, emotional andphysicaldevelopmentofyoung persons; ·Nurture the youth in warmth and affection in an atmosphereofpeaceandharmony. ·Actaspositive rolemodelsto young menandwomen. ·Provide equal access and opportunities to family resourcestothe youth regardlessofgender; ·Constantly provide counseling, support and guidance in accordance with the specific and peculiar needs of young people; ·Recognize their capabilities and individualities, according to age, maturity, and allow whenever possibletheir choiceofeducationalfieldsandcareers; ·Provide adolescent sexual reproductive health information including HIV/AIDS information and educationtoyoung people. ·Government and Private Sector should make effort to seethat facilitiesforrecreationare providedinschools. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY20 Rights, Responsibilities, and Obligations
  • 31. 4.1 Target Groups Generally, Nigerian youth experience common problems, and also share similar aspirations and concerns. However, there are different categories of youth with different and peculiar sets of concerns and problems. There are also some categories of youth with special circumstances or problems, which require concerted,focused,andwell targeted attention. Accordingly, and having regard to current socio- economic and political realities, the National Youth Policy identifies target groups for special attention due to their vulnerability and circumstances of living. They includethe following:- ·Studentsin secondaryandtertiary institutions ·Out ofschoolYouth ·UnemployedandunderemployedYouth ·Youthwith disabilities ·Youthengaged in crimeanddelinquency ·Female Youth ·Gifted Youth ·Rural youth ·Young peopleliving in the street ·Young menandwomenliving with HIV/AIDS. ·Youth engaged in and affected by armed conflictsituations. ·Illiterate Youth NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY21 Priority Target Groups Ta r g e t G r o u p s 4Chapter 4
  • 32. ·Sex Workers ·YouthinDiaspora 4.2 Students in Secondary and TertiaryInstitutions This category comprised of persons aged between 15 and 30 years. The policy seeks to prepare them for gainful employmentandsignificant leadershipandcitizenshiproles. The absence of appropriate teaching and learning environment due to poor funding of secondary and tertiary education is critical to the tenets of the National Youth Policy. Hence the policy focuses on improving the quality of education at these levels through the provision of conducive teaching and learning environment. Often, young people in their late teens are found in Senior Secondary Schools and need equitable access to relevant and qualitative education before attaining 18 years of age. Such an intervention would require increased enrollment, expanded access to resources be it physical, material, instructional and structural that could produce well-informed, enlightened, responsible, intellectually able, vocationally skilled, mentally sound, physically competent young citizens. It also entails, in the short and medium term, compulsory and free educational opportunities at this level, to prepare them adequately for entry into tertiary institutions and/or for gainful employment. Additionally, there is recognition of the need to create an enabling environment to facilitate and enhance the learning process in the critical fields of humanities, science and technology andthe environment. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY22 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 33. Thus the National Youth Policy provides for the following activities:- ·Promotion of the use of ICT (Information, and CommunicationTechnology). ·Development of critical fields of knowledge in basic andappliedscienceandtechnology. ·Provisionoffinancialassistanceto indigent students. ·Promotion of democratic student unionism to serve as launching pad for the training of youth in leadership rolesanddemocraticcultures. ·Introduction of effective measures to curb cultism, gang-related violence and other vices in educational institutions. ·Revising the curricula to include life skills training, goodcitizenship,leadershiptraining etc. ·Promotion of extra-curricular activities through voluntary associations and clubs, such as societies for Debating, Current Affairs, Historical and Cultural Affairs and established organizations such as Boy's Scout, Red cross and Crescent, Girls' Guide, Boys Brigadein secondaryschoolsetc. ·Promotion of games and sports that is both recreational andcompetitive. ·Re-introduction of moral instructions, civics and civility in the curricula. ·Promotion of the teaching of science and technology, as well as the teaching of vocational skills in agriculture andtechnicaltrades. ·Promotion of Career, Socio-Personal, and Educational GuidanceandCounsellingin schools. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY23 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 34. ·Enforcement of enrolment and retention of girls in schools. ·Introduction of reproductive and health education, especially for female students who have to cope with problemspeculiarto them. ·Encouragement and promotion of gender sensitive curriculain schools. 4.3 The Female Youth Young women are exposed to difficulties in most developing countries worldwide. More young women for instance experience unemployment more frequently than their young male counterparts and tend to have fewer occupational opportunities. The increasingly high number of early marriages and teenage pregnancies recorded across the country is also an indication that young women require specific supportmeasuresin thisregard. The right of the girl-child has long been a major problem of concern and deserves priority attention. Many young women have been victims of sexual harassment, physical violence and abuse, labour exploitation, gender discrimination, as well as negative attitudes and practices. The National Youth Policy therefore seeks to protect and promote the interest and aspiration of young women so as to restore their dignity and motivate them to contribute as equal partners in nation building. Specifically the policy seeks to achieve the following goals:- NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY24 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 35. ·Promotion of specific programmes that address the peculiar social, educational, health and reproductive problems of women in general and those in difficult circumstances. ·Elimination of harmful traditional and current practices that affect womengenerally andin particular the female youth. ·Encouragement of female enrolment and education especiallyinthe areaofscienceandtechnology. ·Elimination of all forms of discriminatory practices against employment of females in all sectors of the economy ·Establishment, improvement and promotion of both in- school and out-of-school programmes that are aimed at ending gender-based discrimination and promoting the rights anddignity ofthe femaleadolescent-youth. ·Promotion of skills and leadership training aimed specifically at empowering female youth for self and gainful employment as well as greater participation in, and contribution to community and national development. ·Provision of packages of financial and/or material assistance to female youth, who have undergone training and have acquired skills for self and sustainable employment. ·Elimination of all forms of discriminatory practices against employment for females in all sectors of the national economy. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY25 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 36. 4.4 Youth with Disability All persons with disability have fundamental rights that need to be protected by the government and people of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The youth policy adopts a developmental approach to disability, where human rights, participation and inclusiveness are promoted. Young women and men with one form of disability or the other require specific strategies of support and assistance to ensure adequate access and opportunity to participate fully in society. Thus the National YouthPolicyseekstopromotethe followingactivities:- ·Greater awareness of the issues faced by young women andmenwith disability. ·Removalofdisabling attitudes. ·Creation ofaccessibleenvironment. ·Empowerment of young people with disabilities and their representativeorganization. ·Programmes that can empower youth with disabilities to positively contribute to national development. 4.5 Youth engaged in Crime and Delinquency The increasing involvement of young people across the country in violent crimes, cultism, and armed robbery is a worrisome development. To reverse this trend, the policy provides opportunities and incentives to discourage and dissuade the young people from social vices, anti-social and criminal conduct and; motivate them to be law-abiding and responsible. ThePolicyprovidesforthe following-: ·Promote community based preventive measures to youthengaged in crimeanddelinquency. ·Sensitize the police and the judicial system to the NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY26 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 37. specificconcernsofyoung peopleinvolvedincrime. ·Create avenues to monitor young people in contact with police, and develop ways to improve the way they are dealt with by the police. ·Ensurespeedytrials ofyouthoffenders. ·Find alternative to incarcerationwhere possible. ·Providing counselling services to youth in and out of school. ·Encourage enlightenment programmes on the dangers of drug and substance abuse, cultism, and other forms ofcrime. ·Establishment of rehabilitation centre for drug addicts, juvenile offenders,andex-convicts. ·Enlightenment programmes on the dangers of chronic drugs and substance abuses, cultism, other forms of crimeanddelinquency. ·Provision of socio/personal, career and educational guidance and counselling for the youth including out- of-schoolyouth. ·Provision of education, skill-training and gainful employment opportunities for youth in juvenile correctionalinstitutions. ·Provision of after care facilities for ex-inmates of correctionalinstitutions. ·Observe UN minimum standard rules for the treatment ofoffenders. 4.6 Talented/Gifted Youth There are many creative, gifted and talented young men and women in Nigeria whose vast potentials have not been NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY27 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 38. adequately harnessed and utilized for the development of the country. This youth policy therefore seeks to identify, support and encourage this category of young persons in the following ways:- ·Develop effective ways of identifying and promoting gifted andtalented young personsacrossthe country. ·Provide support and an enabling environment for young and talented/gifted persons to actualize their full potentials. 4.7 RuralYouth Young men and women in rural areas are generally more disadvantaged than those who live in urban settings due to limited access to services and facilities. The opportunities for employmentare alsofarlessthan in urban areas. The Policy recognizes this and proposes an even geographical spreadofyouth developmentprogrammesandstrategies. ·Government to intensify efforts to reverse the under- developmentofruralareas. ·Deliberate and concerted effort must be made to ensure that programmes and services which address the needs ofyoung menandwomenreachthe rural areas. 4.8 Street Youth Young men and women who live and work on the street are particularly vulnerable. While there is paucity of information on their numbers, one the factors responsible is the gradual erosion of the extended family systems and communal living in NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY28 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 39. most African cultures. These groups of young people are mostly found in urban centres. The policy recognizes the plight ofstreet youth andproposes:-. ·Federal, State, and local Governments should rehabilitate this category of young people emotionally, psychologically,andphysically. ·Develop and Promote enlightenment programmes on the consequences of street violence, substance and drug abuse, cultism and other forms of crime and Delinquency. ·All three tiers of government to have some database on street youth. 4.9 Out of school Youth This group includes persons who are of school age but are not attending schools or have dropped out of school for some reasons. Others have concluded one level of education and are informally/formally employed; and unskilled/skilled. The out of school youth is very mobile and resourceful, when their energy is not harnessed they become vulnerable to social vices either as perpetrators or victims; and may experience ill-health dueto poorandlimitedaccesstohealth services. The Policy seeks to promote multi-sectoral efforts targeting them through rehabilitation, re-inclusion into the school system,wealth creationprogrammesamongstothers. 4.10 Unemployedand under-employedyouth The ever-rising joblessness and under employment among young people in Nigeria is accompanied with a number of NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY29 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 40. other social ills, including involvement in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, and loss of confidence in the larger society to mention just a few. The Policy recognizes the predicament of unemployed youth and the fact that they require special attention by all stake holders to deal with the wide range of concernsandproblemsthey experience. ·All tiers of government in the country should redouble effortat jobcreation. ·Establishment of community-based centers for skills acquisition to promote apprenticeship and vocational training acrossthe country. 4.11 Youth living with HIV/AIDS The age group delineated as youth by the policy is extremely vulnerable to HIV infection with a prevalence of 5.2% which is higher than the national prevalence of 4.4% (2005 HIV Sentinel Survey). Almost 50 per cent of all new HIV infections are among young people (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2004). As the number of infected young men and women increases, the challenge of HIV impact mitigation and the challenge ofMDG 6 mustbe addressed. The Federal Government of Nigeria should endeavour to provide care, support and treatment for all infected young persons Government at all levels should promote activities targeted towards HIV/AIDS prevention through risk reduction, abstinence, partner reduction, condom use among other evidence-basedimplementationstrategies. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY30 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 41. 4.12 Youth in conflict situations In most cases the relationship between youth and violence was only considered in the context of the problems of Juvenile delinquency and the need to prevent violence and crime in the society; however current trend in some parts of the country where young people are recruited as militants is a source for great concern. It is quite clear that young people are disproportionately affected by violent conflict, both as victims and as active participants. The extreme and often prolonged circumstances of armed conflicts whether as victims or perpetrators interfere with the identity and personality development of the youth. Moreover, the sudden changes in family life circumstances, such as death or disappearance of parents or siblings, can leave the youth without guidance,rolemodelsorsustenance. The policy recognizes the predicament of youth in conflict situations and the need to address them. ·Federal and State Governments should promote effort targeted towards peacefully disarming and rehabilitating young persons in Niger Delta conflict situations around the country via job creation through skills acquisition and community development by providingappropriate supportandinfra-structure. ·Federal and State Governments should involve, promote the role of youth and youth organizations in promoting peace and non-violence as well as in mobilizing youth forpost-conflictreconstruction. ·Federal Government should vigorously pursue the NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY31 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 42. total and comprehensive development of the Niger Delta region with a view to empowering the youths 4.13 Illiterate Youth. Literacy education in Nigerian history finds its roots in the efforts of missionary endeavour. Subsequent work in the field has always been piecemeal and uncoordinated; even though a degree of success has been achieved and valuable experience gained, a lot still needs to be done to improve the literacy level ofyoung peoplein Nigeria. The Federal Government's decision to launch a Mass Literacy Campaign in 1982 is primarily a political response to the needs and exigencies of a developing country rich both in natural and manpower resources. The campaign is seen not only as a necessary means of creating a permanently literate society within ten yearsbut alsoasanassertionofthe nation'sunity. The youth policy recognizes that the campaign to promote mass literacy in this country can succeed especially among young people if certain issues are identified by government at all levelsandotherstakeholders.Thisinclude:- ·Functionality of the mass literacy campaign programmers, ·Training ofpersonnelto handlethe programmes; ·Adequateprovisionofmoneyandmaterials; ·Government should make effort to match the assistance from national development organizations and international bodies by creating an environment capable of sustaining and reinforcing literacy education in the country. ·Above all the language to be used as a medium of literacy needto be resolved. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY32 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 43. 4.14 Youth in Diaspora With the growing population of Nigerians in Diaspora, there is a great need to tap in to the vast resources of young Nigerians in Diaspora. This policy recognizes the need to promote the voice of young Nigerians in Nigeria and those in Diaspora. Young Nigerians in Diaspora can be engaged in Nigeria's social, economic, and political development. They can be in the forefront of promoting good governance and better leadership in Nigeria. To promote better leadership, we need to engage young Nigerians at home and abroad who are the future of Africa. Government at all levels should do everything to: ·To Empower Young Nigerians in Nigeria and in Diaspora as stakeholders and active partner in the processofNigeria's developmentandintegration; ·To galvanize young Nigerians from Nigeria and in Diaspora as Stakeholder to work for a Common Strategic Purpose ·To create an avenue for empowerment and Capacity Building for Young Nigerians in Nigeria and in Diaspora. ·To create an opportunity for Leaders of youth organizations in the country and in Diaspora to meet with their counterpart in other parts ofAfrica to discuss issues relating to Africa's development, share ideas, build their capacitiesandnetwork with oneanother; ·Thereby creating avenues for Young Africans in Africa and in Diaspora to engage in the actualization of the NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY33 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 44. MDG's and the NEPAD Framework for Africa's Development 4.15 Female Sex Workers In many societies, sex work is illegal, resulting in clandestine practices. Nigeria is no exception, with a constitution that is silent on sex work. As a result, sex workers, brothel operators, implementing partners, and even policy makers are uncertain of the legal status of sex work. Nigeria is guided by two legal frameworks: the Penal Code, which operates in northern Nigeria, and the Criminal Code, which operates in southern Nigeria. Both codes criminalize sex work and therefore hinder advocacy efforts on behalf of sex workers' rights. The recent adoption of the Moslem Sharia law in some northern parts of the country has resulted in sex work going underground or relocating to other, more conducive environments, making it moredifficulttoreachFSWswith interventions. FSWs in Nigeria are characteristically poor, marginalized, and stigmatized. Many lack both formal education and empowerment. Frequency of sex with multiple partners and a high burden of STIs place them at high risk of HIV infection. They often engage in unprotected sex and other risky behaviors, such as substance abuse. Surveys have consistently shown a high and rising HIV prevalence among sex workers, who are said to be the major reservoir of HIV infection. In some states, such as Lagos, the rates have increased from 2% in 1988–1989 to 12% in 1990–1991 to a whopping 70% by 1995–1996 (13). A behavioral surveillance survey conducted in 2000 reported that knowledge of HIV prevention methods was low among FSWs, and consistent condom use varied from 24% NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY34 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 45. in Jigawa to 89% in Lagos. FSWs also had a low uptake of HIV testing; only 24% reported having had an HIV test and learning the result (15). The low economic status of FSWs heightens their vulnerability as they engage in unprotected sex. At other times they may be raped or coerced into violent sex; dry sex, with its consequent abrasion and bleeding, increases their risk of contracting HIV. They are disadvantaged by a lack of self- esteem and adequate negotiation skills, which compromises their ability tomanage the situation andtoseek legal action. In addition, FSWs face constant sexual harassment and abuse from law enforcement agents such as police officers. They may be forced to have sex without condoms, sometimes at gunpoint, and their money and valuables may be seized. Their impoverishmentmakesquitting sexwork difficult. FSWs have clients from all walks of life, from artisans, to motorcyclists, military personnel, businessmen, civil servants, and politicians. These clients may contract HIV from commercial sex, and then transmit the virus to their partners in the general population. FSWs also have “boyfriends” with whom they may feel obliged to have sexual intercourse without condoms.Thesefactorsmilitate against HIV/AIDScontrol. The illegality of sex work makes legal protection of sex workers impracticable and HIV interventions for them difficult. The daunting challenges contribute to the vulnerability, risk, and rising trendofinfectionamongFSWs. The Youth Policy believes that targeting FSWs for interventions remains an effective way to reduce the spread of HIV and also create opportunity to rehabilitate the increasing number of young people who have be driven in to commercial sex work as a result ofpoverty. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY35 Ta r g e t G r o u p s
  • 46. 5.1 Priority Themes The successful development and implementation of the National Youth Policy is largely predicated upon the identification of priority themes that affect young people in Nigeria, and the recognition of strategic interventions and informed practical strategies which addressthese identifiedpriority themes. The principles and purposes of the United Nations World Programme ofAction for the Youth have helped to inform this National Youth Policy at many levels. The ten priority areas identified and suggested by the World Youth Programme of Action: education, employment, hunger and poverty, health, environment, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, leisure-time activities, girls and young women, and youth participating in decision making. The five newly identified priority areas adopted at the 2005 UN General Assembly namely: impact of globalization on young men and women; the use of and access to information and communication technologies; the dramatic increase in the incidence of HIV infection among young people and the impact of the epidemic on their lives; the active involvement of young people in armed conflict, both as victims and perpetrators; and the increased importance of addressing NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY36 Priority Themes and Strategic Interventions Priority Themes 5Chapter 5
  • 47. intergenerational issues in an aging society were largely taken into considerationin this National Youth Policy. It is important to note that there have been many economic and social changes in the global environment since 1995 when the World Programme of Action for Youth was adopted by the United Nations. Each of the 10 issues included as priority areas in the World programme of Action in 1995 may still be relevant but additional issues of concern seem to have emerged. Between 1995 and 2005, the global youth population, defined as personsbetween15 and24 yearsofage, hasgrown slightly. Based on the socio-economic and political realities existing in the country and global best practices the following priority themes and critical concerns facing the Nigerian youth are identifiedasfollows:- 1. YouthandEducation 2. YouthandHealth 3. YouthandAgriculture 4. YouthandEmployment 5. YouthandScienceandTechnology 6. YouthandEnvironment 7. Young WomenandGirls 8. YouthParticipation in PoliticsandDecisionmaking 9. Youth and Information and Communication Technologies(ICT) 10. YouthandConflictPrevention/Peacebuilding 11. YouthandHIV/AIDS 12. YouthandDrug abuse NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY37 Priority Themes
  • 48. 13. YouthandCrime 14. Youth,SportsandRecreation 15. YouthandArts&Culture 16. YouthandFamily life 17. YouthMigration andhumantrafficking 18. YouthandPoverty 5.2 Youth and Education Education is the single most important factor contributing to the ability of young people to live a productive and responsible life. It is a major priority in the development of young men and women because it is through education and training that they can be better prepared for life. The personal development of the individual young man or woman, along with the development of the immediate local communities and the country as a whole is inextricably linked with the quality of education that the young peoplehave. Unfortunately, the Nigerian nation has not been able to successfully provide quality education for all her young people. The provision of educational opportunities for the youth is a fundamental pre-requisite for building a strong, just, equitable, viable and vibrant nation.Asignificant percentage of Nigerian youth is illiterate, and their educational needs should be adequately and urgently catered for, particularly in the educationallyLessDevelopedStates. Furthermore, there is need to expand school enrolment, and significantly increase the percentage of transition from primary to secondary, as well as from secondary to tertiary levels of education sectors. Formal education is of great importance for NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY38 Priority Themes
  • 49. the development of all young people. According to the DHS Education Data Survey conducted in 2003, the national primary school net attendance ratio (NAR) was 60% and gross attendance ratio (GAR) was 91%. For secondary schools, the NAR and GAR ratios were 35% and 61% respectively. At the secondary school level, the NARwas 38% for males and 33% for females while the GAR was 69.0% for males and 53.3% for females. There are substantial regional disparity in the country with regardstoeducationalenrolmentandcompletionrate. Illiteracy continues to be an enormous problem for many young people in the world. In 2000, approximately 82 million young women and 51 million young men were illiterate. Another 130 million children are presently out of school, and they are most probably going to end up as the illiterate youth and adults of tomorrow (UNDP Human Development Report, 2005). Despite all efforts at providing education for her citizenry, illiteracy rate for young people in Nigeria is still very high. Poverty is a major barrier to schooling. When poor parents need to make a choice, girls tend to be excluded first from attending school. The gap between male and female literacy rates in Africa appears to be widening. In rural areas, young people have less access to education, the quality of educationispoorerandadult illiteracy ishigher. Goal: The policy shall promote equal access to quality education, educational opportunities for all youth in Nigeria irrespective of sex, ethnicity, religious belief, geographical location, and socio-economiccircumstances. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY39 Priority Themes
  • 50. StrategicIntervention ·Priority should be given to achieving the goal of ensuring basic education for all (beginning with literacy), mobilizing for that purpose all channels, agents and forms of education and training, in line with the conceptoflifelong education. ·Special emphasis should be given to the reform of education content and curricula, especially curricula that reinforce traditional female roles which deny women opportunities for full and equal partnership in society. ·Emphasis should be placed on the introduction of such concepts as informal learning, lifelong learning, distance learning, Open University system, e-learning, peer education and training on the job thereby increasingly expanding educational opportunities to outside the classroom. This way a good number of youth and young adults who have dropped out the educationalsystemcanbe reached. ·Special attention should be given to specific groups of youth in distressed circumstances, including indigenous, migrant and refugee youth, displaced persons, street youth and poor youth in urban and rural areas, and youth with physical and psychological disabilities. ·Special effort should be made to achieve gender equality within the educational system. There is evidence that educated young women are better able to make decisions that reduce poverty in their lives and their children. Government should create enabling NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY40 Priority Themes
  • 51. environment for promoting female education through legislative and policy reforms; redistributing resources to meet girl's specific educational needs; reforming curricula; providing incentives to families to make sending children to school a worthwhile proposition; providing school meal programs; increasing the presence of female teachers; improving teacher training; confronting violence; working with parents; providing separate sanitation for girls; providing school-based health education program; and raising the minimumage ofmarriage. ·In addition to the provision of specialized educational programmes and institutions to cater for the needs of those with disabilities, young men and women who are disabled require access to mainstream education along with other young people. The provision of appropriate access and a supportive environment is essential to mainstreaming. ·The importance of teachers and trainers should be recognized in the context of attaining quality education for all. Attention should be given to the education of teachers and working conditions, career paths and wagesthat will make the professionmoreattractive. ·Effort should be made to promote human rights education in schools and educational institutions. It is crucial that young men and women be aware of their civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, as well as their societal responsibilities, and to also develop harmonious inter-community relations, mutual tolerancefordiversity. ·Introduction and/or Expansion of School Counseling NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY41 Priority Themes
  • 52. Programmes in all levels of the educational system to provide vocational career guidance, socio-personal, developmentalandpreventive counselling. ·Urgent attention is needed to address the growing challenge evidenced in the exposure of Nigerian youth to information and communication technologies (ICT). Globalization is powered in part by tremendous and rapid ICT advancement, and young people are often among the first to take advantage of new developments in this area. Youth are at the forefront of the information revolution, but they are faced with the challenges of reconciling the reality of their daily existence with the popular images presented in the media. Many young people are simultaneously experiencing life within the global and local spheres. They develop a global consciousness yet have to function and survive in their own locality and culture. The challenge for government and other stake holders is to create a culturally valid meaning tothe useofICTforthe Nigerian youth. ·Provision of qualitative education in schools, which should enhance creativity, self-development and prospects for self and gainful employment for the youth. ·Provision of vocational training for the youth to make them self-reliant andemployable citizens. ·Expansion of non-formal literacy programmes to captureyoung personsaswell asadults. ·Reform of the curricula of secondary schools and tertiary institutions with a view to establishing an appropriate symmetry between formal education and the requirement of the job market, as well as NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY42 Priority Themes
  • 53. establishing appropriate linkage between tertiary institutions andindustries. ·Promotion of health education and family planning techniques. ·Eliminationofbasiclabour andearly parenthood. 5.3 Youth and Health Health is defined as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO). The young very often are described as the future of society, but they are also very much its present. Healthy and happy young people are better equipped to contribute to the development of their communities. The classic picture that youths are relatively healthy segment of the population is fast changing. This is partly due to bad habits and poor hygiene, persistent behavioral risks, poor basic sanitation andnew andemerging diseases. Many young people in Nigeria suffer from poor health such as malaria, tuberculosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, HIV/AIDS amongst others.Anumber of these diseases result from societal conditions, including such factors as customs, attitudes and harmful traditional practices, unhealthy environment, missing support systems in everyday life, lack of information and inadequate health services, lack of safe and proper sanitary environment, malnutrition, risk of infection, lack of portable water, the growing consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs, unwarranted risk-taking and destructive activity which very oftenresultin unintentional injuries. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY43 Priority Themes
  • 54. One-third of Nigeria's population is young people between the ages 10 and 24 years. Their health status is therefore of significant importance in the overall health and development of the country. In the context of health as a holistic concept, there is the need to address the various dimensions of young people's health – physical, social, mental as well as spiritual. The major health challenges confronting young people in Nigeria include sexual and reproductive health and rights, nutrition, substanceabuse, accidentsandviolence. The reproductive health needs of young people have been largely ignored. Early sexual exposure is an important reproductive risk factor among young people in Nigeria as many lack information and life planning skills to delay the onset of sexual activities. The 2003 Nigeria demographic health Survey (NDHS) reported, approximately a quarter of males (10-19 years) and half of females (10-19 years) had commenced sexual intercourse. A fifth of the females and 8% of the males had actually had sex by the age of 15 years. In 2005, the median age for first sexual intercourse for females was 17.4 years and 20.1 years for males. Most sexually active young people do not practice contraception, with the resultant effect of high level of unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion, most of which are unsafe in nature as services are mostly procured from medical quacksanduntrained practitioners. Young people worldwide are reaching puberty at earlier ages and marrying later. Premarital sex is becoming widespread. Teenage pregnancy is a major concern especially because of the health risks for both mother and child and the impact on the NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY44 Priority Themes
  • 55. girl's education and life prospects. Births to females below age 20 account for 17 per cent of all births in the least-developed countries, which equals 14 million births world-wide each year. One female in three in developing countries gives birth before age 20, and 55 per cent of all females in West Africa give birth before age 20. Goal: The Youth Policy shall promote the optimal health and development of all young men and women in Nigeria through the design and implementation health services that will promote and maintain a healthy youth population. Strategies:- ·Efforts should be made to include programmes focusing on primary health knowledge and practices in the curricula of educational institutions at the primary and secondary school levels. Health education, including life skills, should be introduced into school curricular and programmes designed for out of school youth. Emphasis should be placed on the understanding of basic hygiene requirements and the needtodevelopandsustainahealthy environment. ·Efforts should be made to institute the full participation of youth in the development and promotion of health- related programmes and policies that enable them to become agents of change in the communities and positively affecttheir livesandthoseoftheir peers. ·Efforts should be made to promote personal responsibility for a healthy lifestyle and also to provide the knowledge and skills necessary to adopt a healthy NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY45 Priority Themes
  • 56. lifestyle, including teaching the legal, social and health consequences of behaviour that poses health risk. Government at all levels should be encouraged to explore the possibility of adopting policies that will discourage drug, tobacco and alcohol abuse, including the possibility of banning the advertisement of tobacco and alcohol. Programmes designed to inform young people about the adverse effects of drug and alcohol abuse andtobaccoaddictionshouldbe undertaken. ·Health workers should be provided with specific training to be better able to communicate with young people to provide youth-friendly services and to build competence in handling the health concerns of young people. Such health care workers should act in the best interest of the young people; they should be non- judgmental and considerate, willing to treat all their client/patients with equal care and respect (regardless of status) and are willing and able to devote adequate time to each of their client. Adolescent-friendly policies that advocate for the provision of services to honour the rights and fulfill the needs of adolescents, that are sensitive to gender-related factors hindering equitable provision and experience of care, that do not restrict the provision of health services on any term, that guarantee reasonable privacy and confidentiality and promote autonomyshouldbe the priority ofthe government. ·Investing in young people's health, education and skills development, and empowering girls to stay in school, delay any form of sexual involvement and pregnancy and marry later, are essential interventions that can substantially improve their chances of becoming well NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY46 Priority Themes
  • 57. informedandproductive citizens. ·Effort should be made to promote healthy eating practices in order to combat malnutrition among young people. School lunch programmes, provision of food supplements and similar services should be available whenever possible to help ensure a proper diet for young people. ·As recommended by the Vienna declaration and Programme of Action and at several other international fora, the Federal Government should work together with other countries in the ECOWAS sub-region to take steps to checkmate abuse and trafficking of young women, all types of exploitation and abuse such as abduction, rape and incest, pornography, trafficking and acts of pedophilia, teenage prostitution. Female genital mutilation should be prevented through legislation wherever it exists, and rigorous support should be given to the efforts of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community and religious organization toeliminate suchpractices. ·Efforts should be made to implement the National Policy on the Health and Development of Adolescents and Young people in Nigeria. Such services should include; providing education and services in family planning consistent with the recommendations of the International Conference on population and Development, the World Summit for Social development and the Fourth World conference on Women. The reproductive health needs of adolescents as a group have been largely ignored by countries in the sub-region. Specifically, information and services NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY47 Priority Themes
  • 58. should be available to adolescents to help them understand their sexuality and to teach them the value of delaying sexual involvement until marriage, this will protect them from unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and subsequent risk of infertility. This should be combined with the education of young men to respect women'sself-determination and to share responsibility with women in matters of sexuality and reproduction. This is important for the health of young womenandtheir children. 5.4 Youth and Agriculture Traditionally, most communities in Nigeria are basically agrarian societies. Many young people who are working in this sector unfortunately lack the necessary support to improve their productive capacity. Very often they do not have access to land,creditaswell asextension services. Young people are generally very energetic and are keen to take up challenges. Their involvement and full participation in the agriculture sector especially in the fields of research, training, and production, preservation, processing and marketing of agricultural produce, forestry, livestock and fisheries will certainly make all the difference. Goal: The National Youth Policy shall promote the involvement and full participation of young men and women in the agricultural sector of the country. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY48 Priority Themes
  • 59. Strategicinterventions ·Government at all levels should promote the involvement of young men and women in the agricultural sector (fisheries, livestock, forestry, processingandmarketing ofagricultural produceetc.) ·Efforts should be made by government at all levels and other stake holders to provide necessary agricultural inputs such as extension services, land, credit etc in orderto facilitate youth involvement inagriculture. ·Effort should be made to encourage the teaching of the science of agriculture at all levels of the educational systemin the country. ·Efforts should be made to disseminate knowledge on agricultural techniquesandprocesses. ·Efforts should be made by government at all levels to finance, procure modern agricultural implements for the useofyoung farmers. ·Efforts should be made to encourage research in the agricultural sector. 5.5 Youth and Employment Unemployment and underemployment among youth is a global problem. Labour force participation rates for young people decreased in the world as a whole by almost four percentage points between 1993 and 2003. This is mainly the result of an increase in the number of young people attending school and staying longer in the educational system, and the generally high unemployment rates world over. International labour organization (ILO) figures show that youth unemployment in the world increased from 11.7 per-cents in 1993 to an historicalhigh 14.4 per-cent(88million)in 2003. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY49 Priority Themes
  • 60. Although no precise figures are available, there can be no doubt that unemployment among young men and women in Nigeria has reached alarming levels. The ever-growing number of jobless youth, and the desperation that accompanies it, undermines development in the country. It is no exaggeration to say that the future of the Nigeria state is threatened by the growing numbers of youths who lack prospects of ever being able to work for a decent living. Political stability and social development will remain equally unattainable until this situation isaddressed. It has been argued that the frustration that accompanies long- term unemployment among groups of young people feeds political and ideological unrest and violence. It has also been argued that unemployed and idle youth who have emerged in society may question government authority and endanger its stability. There is no doubt that youth unemployment is a political-security issue, as well as a socio-economic one. Its causes lie in both spheres, as do its effects. Untrained, jobless and alienated youth are ready to take up arms in exchange for small amounts of money. They can be easily recruited as political thugs ready to eliminate opponents at the flimsiest excuse. Unemployment fuels conflict and crime, both of which in turn increase unemployment still further by their effects on economic performance, investor confidence, and political instability. Job creation, therefore, is a key tool for conflict resolution. To address the problems of youth unemployment in Nigeria it is crucial not to view youth themselves as the problem, even if it NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY50 Priority Themes
  • 61. is undeniable that the continued disregard of their aspiration will provoke instability, since they are often at the forefront of denunciations of injustice and demands for reform. The vast energies of the majority of our youth should be treated as a potential asset. They should be seen as an asset rather than a problem, a creative force for the present as well as the future. Care must be taken to avoid referring to young people as “tomorrow's” leaders; the focus instead should be on their role as today's partners. Young people world over are now asking that their voices be heard, that issues affecting them be addressedandthat their voicesbe recognized. Goal: The Youth Policy shall promote the provision of a wide range of vocational, flexible employment opportunities, decent working conditions, and life skills which will in turn enable youths in Nigeria to find and maintain gainful employment and sustainable livelihood without any form of discrimination. Strategies:- ·Provision of School-based Career Guidance and Counselling Service – there is need for young men and women to be able to access information and receive guidance on existing job opportunities. This should be built into educational curriculum so that students are able to make career and study choices based on a clear understanding of the labour market and emerging job opportunities. Career guidance services should be provided to students in secondary as well as tertiary NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY51 Priority Themes
  • 62. institutions so that students at all levels will have relevant and meaningful information on which they can base decisions relating to further education, training andemployment. ·Provision of Youth Centres and Career Guidance Centres – there is need to establish Community-based Youth career Guidance Centres for those young men and women who are not in school and are unemployed. These centres should be community-based and supported by government. Such centres shouldprovide career information guidance and information services through collaborative efforts between educational institutions, business and labour organizations. Religious bodies, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations, local governments etc. should be involved in the management and running oftheseYouth CareerGuidanceCentres ·Self–employment creation – Government and organizations should create or promote schemes that will provide seed money to support enterprise and employment programmes for young people. The youths in Nigeria should not be denied access to micro- finance simply because they are seen to be a high risk group for credit. There is need to devise ways to help young men and women access micro-finance. Micro- finance is a tool used world-wide for starting new businesses, and young people should not be denied this facility. Business and enterprises are encouraged to NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY52 Priority Themes
  • 63. provide counterpart financial and technical support for such schemes. Young people should be involved in cooperative schemes that will involve them in the production and marketing of goods and services. The formation of youth development banks is also an option that the Federal Government should consider. Opportunities for self-employment as a career option for young men and women should be promoted more widely and effectively. Self-employment should be recognized as a legitimate and meaningful career optionandnotjustan optionoflast resort. ·Vocational training and apprenticeships – Promotion of vocational training programmes are very essential. Effective vocational training that is based on real labour market demands could greatly improve the economic growth of the sub-region. Vocational training should be tailored to meet the demands for labour in the country. The focus should be on increasing the overall employability of youth trainees, rather than just training them for narrow occupational categories. Skills training need to be wide enough to avoid pigeon-holing i.e. young people should have variety of options and not narrowareaofemployability. 5.6 Youth and Science and Technology Science and Technology are changing the world at unprecedented rates. The lives of people, how they live, the types of jobs they do, the way they communicate, the way they travel and the way they relax have been affected almost day to day by the introduction of new technology and scientific NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY53 Priority Themes
  • 64. inventions. Science and technology offers to young people all over the world new opportunities as well as new challenges. It is, therefore, important for young women and men to be fully informed of the opportunities in this area, and also to encouragethemto take advantage ofsuchopportunities. Many rural communities in the country are grossly under- resourced and lack access to technology. This situation has the potential of impacting on young people negatively. The information age has opened up the entire world and has made it into a global village. It is important that all young people in Nigeria should be able to operate in their local environment making the best use of the opportunities that modern technology offers. Goal: The National Youth Policy shall promote the awareness of the opportunities offered by Science and Technology amongst young people in the country, and also encourage the use of appropriate technologies by them. StrategicIntervention ·Effort should be made to promote science in schools, especiallyamongstfemalestudents. ·Efforts should be made to highlight the involvement of young men and women in the sciences by instituting youthscienceawardsat all levelsofeducation. ·Efforts should be made to promote science and technology rolemodels. ·Efforts should be made to promote information technology. Information technology has the potential to NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY54 Priority Themes
  • 65. enable rural and remote communities have access to new andappropriate technology. ·Science and technology clubs and societies should be encouraged within the schools with a view to supporting peer networks and interest groups around science and technology. Institutional support should be provided for the establishment and sustenance of these clubsandsocieties. 5.7 Youth and Environment In its broadest sense, the environment contains the conditions or influences under which any individual or thing exists, lives or develops. These include the natural, social, political, cultural, and economic environments under which an individual lives and works. Environmental issues present some of the most profound and complex challenges requiring attention today and in the coming decades. Young people have important environmental concerns and responsibilities owing to the fact that they are likely to bear the consequences of current environmental policies, they are likely to live for much longer time with the consequences of a deteriorating environment left to them by their parents. As demonstrated through their contribution to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, young people world over are strong advocates for environmental preservation, they understand perhaps better than most that humankind is not living in a zero-sum, environment-versus-economyworld. Young people, as with people of all ages, have a right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and to have the environment protected for the benefit of future NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY55 Priority Themes
  • 66. generations. The issue of environmental management and improvements is also of a major concern to young people. Young men and women ought to take active role in participating in programmes and activities which improve the environment such as recycling, community clean-ups, land reclamations etc. There is urgent need for the natural environment to be maintained and preserved for both present and future generations. The causes of environmental degradation must be addressed; natural resources must be tapped and made use of in an environmentally friendly and sustainable manner. Goal: The National Youth Policy shall promote awareness amongst young men and women in Nigeria on the issues associated with the environment and actions needed to improve the environment. Strategic interventions:- ·Efforts should be made to promote environmental awareness through the school curriculum. This should include awareness of local environmental issues, sites and heritage. It should also include emphasis on individual and collective actions towards the improvement andprotectionofthe environment. ·Training programmes should be provided to inform teachers of the environmental aspects of their subject matter and to enable them to educate youth concerning environmentally friendly habits. ·The participation of youth groups in gathering environmental data and in understanding ecological NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY56 Priority Themes
  • 67. systems and actual environmental action should be encouraged as a means of improving both their knowledge of the environment and their personal engagement in caring forthe environment. ·Efforts should be made to encourage community initiatives aimed at improving and protecting the environment by relevant Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs), Religious Organizations, Youth clubs,Youth developmentorganizations. ·Improving the knowledge base of the society is one important aspect of improving its capacity to address and cope with environmental issues. Much of the information young people receive about environmental issues comes from the media. To the extent that it is consistent with the freedom of expression, the federal and state governments should encourage the media and advertising agencies to develop programmes to ensure widespread dissemination of information on environmental issues in order to continue to raise awarenessamongyouth. ·In line with the recommendations of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the federal government of Nigeria should involve young people in designing and implementing appropriate environmentalpolicies. ·Intergovernmental agencies should develop, scale-up, or replicate initiatives supporting youth participation in policy and programmatic development on environmentalsustainability. NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY57 Priority Themes
  • 68. 5.8 Girls and Young Women One of the most important tasks of this Policy is to improve the situation of young women, and to recognize that young women are unique individuals with rights and responsibilities similar to thoseofyoung men. The number of women in Nigeria is estimated to be about 60 million, half of the country's population. The United Nations Women Report 2000 ranked Nigeria 151 out of 174 countries because of women's limited access to education and other vital resources. For every 100,000 live births, about 800 women die in the process of child birth. This means that out of about 27 million women of reproductive age, about 2 million will not survive either pregnancy or child birth. Nigeria's maternal mortality ratio of 800 is unacceptably high even by African standards. The figure for selected African countries are; South Africa 340, Botswana 480 and Zimbabwe 610. Close to 65 million girls still remain out of school worldwide, 5 million women aged 15-19 have abortions every year, 40 per cent of which are performed under unsafe conditions. Studies have shown that the level of unawareness of HIV/AIDS-related issuesisparticularly high foryoung womenaged 18-30years. The low status of women in the country is due mainly to Nigeria's cultures and traditions which generally regard women's roles as largely confined to the family, upholding child bearing as the symbol of womanhood. Girls are often treated as inferior and are socialized to put themselves last, thus undermining their self-esteem men and boys on the other hand, are accorded greater authority/opportunities and exert control both within the family and the larger society, most especially in decision making. This explains in part why NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY58 Priority Themes
  • 69. Nigerian women continue to occupy subordinate position and roles in the society despite the fact that Nigeria is signatory to key United Nations agreements including the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the plans of action from the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), United Nations Fourth World conference on Women, (Platform for Action;PFA)etc. Violence continues to be perpetrated against girls and young women worldwide. Millions of girls and young women suffer physical, psychological and sexual abuses, yet these incidents are seriously underreported. In almost all regions of the world, young women fare worse than young men in the labour market. In Nigeria the prevalence of female genital mutilation is not known tohavedeclinedamongsomecultures. Goal: The National Youth Policy shall promote full participation of young women in the development of the Nigerian society recognizing that young women are unique and distinctive individuals with rights and responsibilities similar to those of young men. Strategies:- ·Government are encouraged to enact and enforce legislation protecting girls and young women from all forms of violence, including genital mutilation, incest, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, childprostitution and childpornography. ·Governments are encouraged to pay attention to NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY59 Priority Themes
  • 70. gender parity in such key areas as education, health and employment. ·Government at all levels should be encouraged to provide universal and equal access to and completion of primary education for girls and young women as well as equal access to secondary and higher education in the country. ·A framework should be provided in the country that ensures that the development of educational materials andpracticesare not gender biased. ·Policies should be put in place to promote educational settings in the country that eliminates all barriers impeding the schooling of girls and young women, including married and/or pregnant girls and young womenat all levelsofeducation. ·Government at all levels are encouraged to take steps to eliminate stereotyping and discrimination against girls and young women, and to ensure full participation of girls andyoung womenin society. ·Girls and young women should be protected from economic and related forms of exploitation and from engaging in any work that is likely to be hazardous, to interfere with their education or to be harmful to their health or their physical, mental, spiritual, moral or socialdevelopment. 5.9 Youth and Participation in Decision-making The demand for the recognition of the right of young people to be heard, to have their views given serious consideration, and to play an active role in promoting their own best interest has NATIONAL YOUTH POLICY60 Priority Themes

Related Documents