POLITICAL IDEOLOGY AND PARTY POLITICS: THE CASE OF PDP
(PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC PARTY)
BY GODSONAZU
Abstract
Lookingat the stat...
conditionsof social andpolitical life.Yet,theywentaheadtoarticulate anotherconceptionof
ideologybasedonclassanalysisasadev...
Africanpoliticians,mostespeciallyNigerianelectedofficersorpartymemberstendtodosuch base
on selfishinterest,personal egoism...
Azikwe/M.I.OkparawasaCentre-rightConservative party; andthe AGof Chief Obafemi
Awolowo/Akintolawas aFar-leftSocialistparty...
It isimportanthere to see andunderstandthatone of the greatestproblemfacingmostpolitical
party structure and politiciansca...
the so called“NEWPDP” atteststo thiswhichbothersneitheronpartyaccountabilitytopeople
nor faultingthe governance stylebuton...
Ideologyas a System-JustifyingDevice
It shouldbe clearby nowthat we regardideology asnotmerelyanorganizingdevice ora
short...
i.We affirmourbelief inthe unityof Nigeriaunderthe Federal Systemof Government.We shall,
therefore,continuouslypromotepoli...
DIRECTION OF POLICYAND MEASURES
1. Political Objective
The political objective of the People’sDemocraticPartyisto:
i.Seekp...
be to create a market-basedopen-economy,drivenbysmall andmediumscale businessesand
regulatedbya reformedprivate drivenpubl...
of 10

POLITICAL IDEOLOGY AND PARTY POLITICS

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - POLITICAL IDEOLOGY AND PARTY POLITICS

  • 1. POLITICAL IDEOLOGY AND PARTY POLITICS: THE CASE OF PDP (PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC PARTY) BY GODSONAZU Abstract Lookingat the state of affairsin Nigerianpolitical systemanditsdemocratictransition,the most arguable andwidelychallengingissue, of itspoliticaldiscoursehasremainedthe derivative factors, and strands of the political ideologyof the keymajorpolitical partiesinthe country.Forexample; PDP,APC,APUGA,LABOUR and SDP. But on thisarticle emphaseswouldbe laidonthe principles and belief systemof the People’sDemocraticParty,PDP. Followingthese very crucial debates,andfindingthe bestwayforward,amtakingtime-outtolookat the actual meaningandmoderntrendsof political ideology,whileatthe same time makingkey reference pointswithmyfindstowhatisobtainable withinourpolitical system. To start withit isimportantto have an openmindedviewonthe subjectmatter,consideringthe fact that ideologyiscentral toanypolitical formation,withadirectorindirectdemocracyaroundthe world. Everypolitical partyinmodernpoliticsissupposedlyformedorestablishedonone formof ideologyorthe other,reflectingthe mindof the individualorgroupof individualsthathave decided to come togetherwitha commonbelief, underone platform.The partymembershipand followershiptendstobe basedonthe set pattiesbelief’s,valuesandprinciples,thesecouldbe foundinmostcases indevelopedcountrieswithmuchmore consolidateddemocracies,suchasin Europe and America.Ideologyrepresentsatypicallycrucial elementof political partiesandtheir activities.Itisa setof ideasaboutpolitics,all of whichare relatedtoone anotherand thatmodify and supporteachother.Thoughrelativelyenduring,itisyeta dynamicphenomenon,capableof beingmodifiedbynewissues.Itwasinthislightthat PhilipsW.Shively(1997) definesanideologyas “a continuallydeveloping,organizedsetof ideasaboutpoliticsthathelpsustomake sense of the myriadof political questionsthatface use”.ForOkudibaNnoli,ideologytypifies“asystematizedand interconnectedsetof ideasaboutthe socio-economicandpolitical organizationof societyasa whole”(Nnoli,2003: 178). The concept of ideology,is,historically,deeplyrootedinpoliticaltheory.Asaconcept,itwas coined by the late eighteenthcenturyFrenchphilosopher,Destuttde Tracy(1754 – 1836). Accordingto Nnoli (2003:177), Destuttde Tracy usedit to describe anew scientificdiscipline thatsystematically studiesideas,emotionsandsensations –the science of ideas.Thisconceptionhassince changedand ideologyhascome toembodythe ideasthemselves.Asaresultof the changes,ideologyhascome to be presentedasa subjectrepresentingtwocontradictoryrealities–the goodand the bad, the formerdepictingideologyas“a systemof thoughtthat animatessocial orpolitical action”,andthe latteras a “misleading,illusoryorone-sidedcriticismorcondemnation”(cf Nnoli,2003:178-79). This wasthe kindof debate thatdominatedpolitical discourse inthe mid- nineteenthcentury.For instance,intheir:The GermanIdeology,Marx andEngels(1960) tooka swipe at Hegel andhis-co- travellers,describingthemasideologistsof the bourgeoissystem, notarticulate aboutthe material
  • 2. conditionsof social andpolitical life.Yet,theywentaheadtoarticulate anotherconceptionof ideologybasedonclassanalysisasadevice forarticulatingthe conflictinginterestsof differentsocial classes(Nnoli,2003:178). Basic DefinitionsofIdeology: An ideologyisdefinedasa“Set of beliefsaboutthe properorderof societyandhow itcan be achieved”.EriksonandTedin(2003). Ideologyisalsodefinedas“The sharedframeworkof mental modelsthatgroupof individuals possessthatprovide bothaninterpretationof the environmentandaprescriptionasto how that environmentshouldbe structured”.Denzau&North(1994/2000). Goingby the two definitionsabove,if one acceptsthatideologyisshared;that ithelpsto interpret the social order;and that itnormativelyspecifiesgoodandproperwaysof addressinglife’s problems,thenitiseasytounderstandhow ideologyreflects andre-enforce whatpsychologists mightreferto as relational,epistemicandexistential needsormotives. Re-affirmingmyviewpointfromthe above,Iwouldliketoexpressalittle furtheronthe five key principlesthatwouldhelptounderstandthe importance of ideologyinpartypolitics. Five key Principles: 1. Elective Affinity:The forcesof mutual attractioninvolvingthe structure andcontentsof belief systemsandthe motivesof theiradherents. 2. Relational Motives:The desire toaffiliate andestablishinterpersonal relationship neededfor personal orsocial identification,solidaritywithothers,andsharedreality. 3. EpistemicMotives:The drive toreduce uncertainty,complexity,orambiguity,cognitive preference forcertainty,structure,orderandor closure. 4. Existential Motive:The drive tomanage threateningcircumstances, apersonal searchfor security,self-esteem, andmeaningof life. 5. SystemJustification:The motivationtodefend,bolsterandjustifythe statusquo;tendency to viewcurrentsocial arrangementsasfair,legitimate,anddesirable. Ideologiesalsoendeavourtodescribe orinterpretthe worldorderasit is,throughthe processof assertionsorassumptionsabouthumannature,historical events,presentrealitiesandfuture possibilities.Toenvisionthe worldorderasit is, certainlyspecifiesanacceptable meansof attaining social,economicandpolitical ideals.Thistoa certainextentshowsthatdifferentideologies representssociallysharedbutcompetingphilosophiesof life,andhow itshouldbe livedand governed. Lookingat the above argumentitsinvariablyclearthatthere isa huge misconceptionof what political engagementis initsconceptual andpractical terms,or itsfunctionalityinview of the high level of disconnectionamongpoliticiansandthe polity; consideringthe case of those whotendto cross-carpetat randomwithabsolute rascality.Itisa verycommonPhilomenaeveninthe western developeddemocraciesforpartyelectedofficersorpoliticianstodefectorcross-carpetfromone party to the otherbut mostlybasedonideological differencesordisagreements;thus,inthe case of
  • 3. Africanpoliticians,mostespeciallyNigerianelectedofficersorpartymemberstendtodosuch base on selfishinterest,personal egoism,andindividualism. There are twokeymajorpolitical partiesin Nigeria;of one isthe party ingovernment,while the otherstandsas the oppositionparty.Forastrivingdemocracyanda revolvingsocietytogrow politicallyitoughttohave ideologicallyandphilosophicallydrivenpolitical partiesondifferent straightlinesof the debate orspectrum. The case of Nigerianpartypoliticsisquite different,here youhave two majorpartieswithor withoutideologiesare sociallyandeconomicallydrivenbymen whotaste after political power. Common Ideological Trends: 1. Conservativism/Capitalism:Thisisasystemof governmentwherethe existinginstitutions are maintained,emphasizingfree-enterprise andminimalgovernmentintervention;itcould alsobe referredtoa “Right-Wing”thinkingpolitical systemapproachinwhichthe principle meansof productionanddistributionare inprivate handsorindividuals. 2. Liberalism/Egalitarianism:Thisisreferredtoasa representativegovernment,withastrong belief inlibertyandfreedom; free speech,abolitionof classprivilegeandstate protectionof the citizen. A governmentsystemthatbeliefsinanequal societywere all citizenshas equal rightsand life privileges. 3. Socialism/Populism:Thisisagovernmentsystem, withastrongbelief anddrive thatisbased on the principle meansof production,distributionandexchange beingincommonor collective ownership;inorderwordsitisseeingasa political systemof thinkingthat demandsthe redistributionof resources,politicalpowerandeconomicownershiptothe “CommonPeople”. Usingthe above statedideological trends,one couldinvariablyidentifywithtwokeydimensional approach of political thinking,whichverynoticeable inmanydevelopeddemocraciesinEurope and America.Forinstance,takingthe case of Britain,where theyhave apolitical systemdrawninthe line twoideological approach,the Right/Centre- Rightandthe Left/Centre- Left,alsosimilardebate occurs aroundEurope withthe issuesof the Far-Rightandthe Far-Leftacrossmany countries. Butin the case of Africanpoliticsit’sverydifficulttodeterminethe ideological trend,thoughinsouth Africait couldbe saidthat there are some traces of dimensional challengesbetweensocialismand conservatism. inthe case of Nigerianpolitics, historicallysince independence;Nigerian’sexperience withpolitical partiesdatesbackto the colonial era,andthe contemporaryincidencesof IntraandInter-party squabblesassociatedwithpartypolitics,isnothingbutathrow-backtothe pastwhichis replete withschisms,bickering,backbiting,intriguesviolence, packingandsackingof partymembers;the presentistherefore,the reflectionof the past,showingthatthe same presentmaynotbe totally differentfromthe past,andthe future notlikelytobe clearlydemarcatedfromthe present.(Agbaje, 2003). Duringthe first,secondandthirdrepublicsmostof the keypolitical systemswhereformed base on the two strandsof political ideological trends, thatwere the core beliefsof thennationalist leaders,suchas;Azikwe,Awolowo,Tafawa-Balawa,AhumaduBelloandEnestOkoli. There wasthis dichotomybetweenthe Far-righconservatives of the North;the Far-leftsocialistof the South;the Centre-rightNeo-Conservatives. The firstrepublichadthe NPCof Alh. AbubakarTafawa- Balawa/AhumaduBello wasaFar-rightconservative ideological drivenplatform;the NCNCbyDr
  • 4. Azikwe/M.I.OkparawasaCentre-rightConservative party; andthe AGof Chief Obafemi Awolowo/Akintolawas aFar-leftSocialistparty inthe firstrepublicthere were seriesof cross- carpeting,mergersandbrokenmarragesbetweenpartiesof differentpolitical ideologies;the second republichadsimilarscenarioswithslightdifferencesinpartynames,butsustainedideological directions,suchas;the NPN of Alh.ShahuSahgari/Chief Akinloye,whichwasalsoaCentralist- Conservative party;the NPPof DrAzikwe/Ajasinwasstill aNeo-liberal Conservative party andUPN of Chief Obafemi Awolowo/Chief BolaIge was areformedNeo-liberal Socialistparty; the second republic;thenthe SPDof Alh.Baba-GanaKingbe andthe NRCof Chief TomIkimi of the aborted thirdrepublic. The two dimensional political thinking:  The Leftist/Liberalthinkers: theseare people orpoliticiansandpolitical partiesthathave a consciousbeliefinthe freedomof speechandthe rightto dissent;aclasslesssocietywitha systemicprocessforredistributionof wealththroughawelfare state system,withacore value tobrotherhood.LiberalismasaLeftistthinkingisapolitical ideologywiththe core trendof equalityof opportunitywhichveryessential,andtoachieve thisend,believe that everyact of discriminatorypracticesmustbe eliminated,aswell advocatesvigorouslyfor publicpoliciesthathelpstoreduce oreliminate inequalities.  The Rightist/Conservative:these are people orpoliticiansandpolitical partiesthatbeliefin the core values of preservingorderthroughanevolvingauthorityandthe continuationof the existingsocial order,withthe righttoprivate ownership.The conservativesbelievesand maintainthe positionthatpeopleneedastrongleadershipinstitutions,firmlawsand strict moral codes;theymost oftenbase theirclaimsonthe teachingsof religiousandtraditional morality,andtendto underestimate the rational socialtheoriespropoundedbysecular philosophers,economist,andoutstandingintellectuals.
  • 5. It isimportanthere to see andunderstandthatone of the greatestproblemfacingmostpolitical party structure and politicianscapacitybuildinginNigerianpoliticsisthe lackof consistence and sustainabilityof core valuesandbeliefs;assuchthe level of carpetcrossingata ridiculous, abandonedrecklessness,bypoliticianswhohave no feelingorquestforpolitical knowledge butthe boringhungerforpolitical powerandrelevance,whichhasdelimitedthe basesof aproperpolitical culture inthe society. We have seeninresenttime the rate at whichpoliticians,partymembersare movingfromone political partytoanother,as if travellingfromone towntoanotherwithoutdue regardsto communitycultural andtraditional values. Party isa body of menunited,for promoting by theirjoint endeavoursthe national interest,upon some particular principle inwhich theyare all agreed. Edmund Burke 1770 The political partyhasbeenturnedintoa businessorganizationwhere the pecuniaryinterestsof the leadershipare dominant;buttheyare able toaccess political powerandkeepitbecause of theirabilitytomanipulate the citizenry”.The leadershipproblemhasbeenaperennial issuewith the PDP since inceptionwithcountlessnumberof chairmenexitingthe positioninquestionable mannersthusculminatingininternal wrangling.Recently,the squabblebetweenthe PDPand
  • 6. the so called“NEWPDP” atteststo thiswhichbothersneitheronpartyaccountabilitytopeople nor faultingthe governance stylebutonoccupyingstrategicpositionswithinthe partyhierarchy. The fractionalizationof APP,APGA andCPCcallsforworry.It was ADand ANPPmergerin1999 to face the PDP.The foundationbeinglaidnow isalmostAPCmegaarrangementtoconfrontthe monstrousPDP.Nigeriansimmediate reprieve forthe socio-economicsqualortheyfound themselvesishingedonthe growingpopularityof the APC.However,the purportedrescue missionof the APCisdebatable.The recruitsintothe party’sfoldare politiciansof diverse origins,whowere suspiciousof eachotherbefore now,mainlycomingfromthe muchcriticized PDP.The furore generatedbythe defectionof some governorsinandoutof PDP,37 members of the House of Representatives,formervice presidentAtikuandothersisnoeureka.The unitingintentionandulteriormotive maybe theirundoing.The questionnow is:Will itnotbe oldwine ina newbottle?The belief of the electorate intheseemergingstructureswill be putto testin lessthan6 weeks.The outcome of the processwill usherinanotherchapterin Nigeria’s democraticdrive. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CONSEQUENCESOF IDEOLOGY Thus far,our reviewhasfocusedonthe dimensional structure anddiscursive contentsof left- rightideologyaswell asitsmotivational antecedentsorfunctionalsubstructure.However,much evidence suggeststhatacquisitionof the discursivesuperstructure—whichrequiresboth exposure tothe ideological menucommunicated byinstitutional elitesaswell asthe ability and motivationtoabsorbthe messages—hasimportantdownstreamsocial andpolitical consequences. Effectson the Evaluations of Issues,Parties,Candidates, and Other Attitude Objects Perhapsthe mostobviousconsequence of ideological orientationisitsinfluenceon political attitudesandbehaviourssuchasvoting. Manystudieshave shownthatthose whoidentifyas liberal tendtoadoptissue positions thatare conventionallyrecognizedasleft-ofcentre, evaluate liberal political figuresmore favourably,andvote forcandidatesof the left, whereas those whoidentifyasconservative tend toadoptpositionsthatare right-of-centre,evaluate conservative political figuresmore favourably, andvote forcandidatesonthe right.Infact, ideology andpartisanship(which typicallyhasan ideological thrust) are amongthe strongestand mostconsistentpredictorsof political preferences. Moreover,left-rightdifferencesinevaluativepreferencesemerge inmanyareasoutside the realmof formal politics.Forinstance, foundthatself-identifiedliberalswere significantlymore favourable concerningforeignfilms,bigcities,poetry,tattoos,andforeigntravel,whereas conservativesweremore favourable concerningfraternitiesandsororities,sportutilityvehicles, drinkingalcohol,andwatchingtelevision.Findingssuchasthese strengthenthe case that ideological dividesare,amongotherthings,personalitydivides,butthe directionof causalityis still unknown.We suspectthatideologicalidentificationsbothreflect andreinforcesocial and personal preferences,styles,andactivities,butthisisspeculativeandrequiresempirical confrontationusingexperimental andlongitudinal researchdesigns.Atahigherlevel of abstraction,ideologyalsopredictscitizens’general value orientations,withleftistsexhibiting greateregalitarianismandopennesstochange thanrightists.
  • 7. Ideologyas a System-JustifyingDevice It shouldbe clearby nowthat we regardideology asnotmerelyanorganizingdevice ora shortcutfor makingheuristicjudgmentsabout variouspoliticalobjects;itisalsoadevice for explainingandevenrationalizingthe waythings are or,alternatively,how thingsshouldbe differentthantheyare.Thus,political ideologies typicallymake atleasttacitreference to some social system,eitherasan affirmation ora rejectionof it.The powerof ideologytoexplainand justify discrepanciesbetweenthe currentsocial order andsome alternative notonlymaintains supportfor the statusquo,but also servesforits adherentsthe palliative functionof alleviating dissonance ordiscomfortassociatedwiththe awarenessof systemicinjustice orinequality. SightedfromPolitical Ideology:ItsStructures,FunctionsandElective Affinities. (J.T.Jost,C.M. Federico,andJ.L.Napier.2009). WHAT IS PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC PARTY IDEOLOGY THE PDP The People'sDemocraticPartyisa political partyinNigeria.Itsideological strandgenerallylies towardsthe right wingof the centre,of the political spectrum.IthaswoneveryPresidentialand general electionsince 1999, maintainsthe same ideological stand,andhasremainedthe dominant party inthe Fourth Republicamidstcontroversialcircumstances.The partyhasa neo-liberal stance inits economicpoliciesand maintainsacentre-rightconservative stance onmost social issues,such as same sex relationsandreligiousbeliefs. The People’sDemocraticpartyof Nigeriaare Consciousof the followingIdeological principles: Our historicmissionistobuildamodern democraticstate foundedonJustice,EquityandFairplay. Realizingthe needto; i.Make fundamental breakwithpastmistakesinordertorealize the optimumpotentialsof the Countriesfuture; ii.Builda qualitativelybettersocietybasedonthe principlesof democracy,humanrightsandsocial justice underthe rule of law; Committedto; i.RestructuringNigeriainthe spiritof true federalismandresponsible tiersof government,soasto achieve ajustand equitable society; ii.Resolvingsuchfundamentalissuesasproperdevolutionof powersbetweenthe three tiersof government; Covenantasfollows: 1. The Indivisibilityof the NigerianPolity
  • 8. i.We affirmourbelief inthe unityof Nigeriaunderthe Federal Systemof Government.We shall, therefore,continuouslypromotepolitical tolerance,accommodationandcompromise,religious harmony,as well asinter-ethnicandintra-ethnicaccommodationandco-operation. ii.The Party shall alsopromote geo-political balancingasa fundamental principle of powersharingin the country,in line withthe principle of federal character. iii.The Partyshall upholdthe principleof powerrotationinourpolityatall levels. 2. Supremacyof the Constitution We affirmourbelief inthe supremacyof the Constitutionof the FederalRepublicof Nigeriaandthe sovereigntyof the Nigeriannationanditspeople.We herebyaffirmourcommitmenttostrict observance andenforcementof the provisions.Asapolitical party,we shall conformtothe spirit and the letterof the provisionsof the constitutionof the Federal Republicof Nigeriaandthe constitutionof the People’sDemocraticPartyasamended 3. Independence of the JudiciaryandOperationof the Rule of Law We affirmourbelief inthe supremacyof the Constitutionof the FederalRepublicof Nigeriaandthe sovereigntyof the Nigeriannationanditspeople.We herebyaffirmourcommitmenttostrict observance andenforcementof the provisions.Asapolitical party,we shall conformtothe spirit and the letterof the provisionsof the constitutionof the Federal Republicof Nigeriaandthe constitutionof the People’sDemocraticParty. 4. Sanctityof HumanDignity We affirmourbelief inrespectof fundamentalhumanrights,asenshrinedinthe Nigerian ConstitutionandInternational ProtocolsandConventions.We are againstall formsof discrimination on the basisof gender,religion,place of origin,orethnicity,race,beliefs,etc.The PDPwill strive to protectthe rights of vulnerable groupsinsociety,includingwomen,children,seniorcitizens, physicallychallengedandminorities. DIRECTIVEPRINCIPLES We shall remainstronglycommittedto: i.Democracy andgood governance; ii.Freedom, humanrightsandhumandignity; iii.Justice,equity,popular participation,inclusivenessandthe rule of law; iv.Integrity,transparencyandaccountabilityinthe conductof publicaffairs; v. Sustainable developmentthroughthe creationof anenablingenvironmentforprivate sectorled economicdevelopment.
  • 9. DIRECTION OF POLICYAND MEASURES 1. Political Objective The political objective of the People’sDemocraticPartyisto: i.Seekpolitical powerforthe purpose of protectingthe territorial integrityof Nigeriaandpromoting the security,safety,welfare,andwell-beingof all Nigerians. ii.Promote andestablishpolitical stabilityinNigeriaandfosternational unityandintegrationwhile safeguardingourculture andhistorical values; iii.Provide goodgovernance thatensuresprobityandparticipatorydemocracy; iv.Guarantee humanrightsand fundamental freedomsof all citizensandpersonsresidentinNigeria. v. Promote andnurture democraticidealsandtraditionsonasustainable basis; vi.Provide the political environmentthatisconducive toeconomic growthandnational developmentthroughprivate initiative andfree enterprise; vii.Offerequal opportunitiestoholdthe highestpolitical,military,bureaucraticandjudicial officesin the country to all citizens,andprotect,defendandsafeguardthe interestsof all includingminorities. 2. Governance The party shall be committedto: i.The principle of participatorydemocracythatlaysemphasisonthe welfare of ourpeople: ii.The principlesof social justice andthe equalityof opportunitiesforall Citizens; iii.The promotionanddefence of the NigerianFederal Systemof government; iv.The principlesof accountabilityandtransparencyinordertorestore confidence inthe institutions of government,discipline andleadershipbyexample asbasis forpubliclife andpersonal integrityas an importantmoral value inthe conductof publicaffairs; v. Fosteringthe spiritof onenessamongourpeople bytreatingall Nigeriansfairlyandequitably, regardlessof theirsocial,political oreconomicstatus;and vi.The preservationof Nigeriaasamulti-religiousstate whilstguaranteeingfreedomof religionand goodconscience. 3. Economy At the root of Nigeria'spolitical andsocial problemsispovertyandlow accesstoeconomic opportunities.The improvementinthe well-beingof Nigeriansisthe ultimateobjectiveof the PDP's economicpolicy,andtomake accessible toeveryNigerianthe basicneedsof life.The focuswould
  • 10. be to create a market-basedopen-economy,drivenbysmall andmediumscale businessesand regulatedbya reformedprivate drivenpublicsector. At the veryfoundationof the above objective of the partyisthe pursuitof a strong,virile and diversifiedeconomybuilttostumprural/urbanmigrationthroughinvestmentinmodern agricultural methods.PDP'seconomicpolicyiscentredonpeopleandseekstorealize the MillenniumDevelopmentGoalswhile aimingto: i.Developamiddle classdrivenbysmall businessowners,professional classwithaccesstocredit. ii.Create easyaccessto transferable propertyrightsinurbanandrural areas. iii.Protectthe weakandpoor throughinitiativesthatare designedtointegrate theminthe economy. iv.Improve private investmentinphysical andsocial infrastructure. The PDP aims,altogether, atestablishingthe leadingeconomyinAfricaandone of the 20 leading and largesteconomiesinthe Worldby2020; an economythat experiencesrapidandsustained growthof notlessthan 10% per annum. 4. The Judiciaryandthe Administrationof Justice The Party shall: i.At all timesupholdanddefendthe Constitutionof the Federal Republicof Nigeria; ii.Upholdthe principlesof separationof powersasenshrinedinthe Constitution; iii.Upholdthe Independence of the Judiciary; iv.Ensure the securityof livesandproperty

Related Documents