FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF
UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA
GOJE MOHA...
• INTRODUCTION
• LITERATURE REVIEW
• METHODOLOGY
• RESULTS
• DISCUSSION
• CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• REFERENCES
• I...
 Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by
skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure (WHO
2014).
 Phy...
4
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
Prevalence of physical inactivity in
Malaysia
Study Year Age group Prevalence
NHMS II 1996 >18 YEARS 88.4%
MANS 2003 > 18 ...
 Studies indicating lack of sufficient physical activity in university
population
• 50% of university students from US an...
 Significant decline was shown between time spent doing
Vigorous physical activity in high school (323.9+168.2) and
Unive...
 To add value to the body of knowledge on physical
activity
 Findings may help to identify factors that can leads
to phy...
General Objectives
9FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
 To determ...
 To determine the association between physical
inactivity and..
• socio-demographic factors
• environmental support
• men...
Alternative hypothesis
11
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
 The...
Literature Review
• Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, family income and
ethnicity)
• Socio-demographic factors (age,...
Socio-demography
Variable Author Description Findings
Gender Kjelsas and
Augestad,
2004
Cross-
sectional,
Undergrad,
18-40...
Socio-demography
Variable Author Description Findings
Gender Vilhjalmss
on and
Thorlinds
son, 1998
Cross-
sectional,
Icela...
Socio-demography
Variable Author Description Findings
Income Gordon-
Larsen,
Nelson,
Page, and
Popkin,
2006
Longitudinal
s...
Environment Support
Variable Author Description Findings
Environment Hooker,
Wilson, Griffin,
and Ainsworth,
2005
Cross-se...
Mental Health
Variable Author Description Findings
Mental
Health
Davidson
et al.,
2001
Cross-sectional
Outpatients.
Indivi...
Self-efficacy
Variable Author Description Findings
Self-
efficacy
Benight and
Bandura,
2004
Self-efficacy is an essential
...
Body Image Perception
Variable Author Description Findings
Body image Laura and
William, 2010;
Lantz, Hardy and
Ainsworth ...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
20FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
ENVIRONM...
Methodology
Study location University Putra Malaysia (UPM)
Study design Cross-sectional
Study
population
Only full time, n...
Variables
22
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
Dependent variabl...
Study instrument
23FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
 Section A:...
Study instrument
24FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
 Section E:...
Data analysis
Data Analysis Using SPSS version (IBM, 2012)
Descriptive
analyses
Frequency and percentage for qualitative
v...
Operational definition
Physical
inactivity
Low level of physical activity based on classification
by IPAQ (IPAQ-M, 2005).
...
Operational definition
Environment
support
Based on self-report using (short form of
environmental support for physical ac...
First year students in 7 faculties (n= 1284)First year students in 7 faculties (n= 1284)
Excluded
International
students n...
Table 1: Sociodemographic distribution %
Gender
Male 22.6
Female 77.4
Age group
<20 years 71.4
>20 years 28.6
Ethnicity
Ma...
30
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
31FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
32FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
33FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
Table 2: Association between physical inactivity and the independent variables
Respondents
characteristics Physical Activi...
Table 2: Association between physical inactivity and the independent variables
Respondents
characteristics Physical Activi...
Table 3: Factors associated with physical inactivity
Variables Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value
Gender
Males 1.00
Female...
Prevalence of Physical Inactivity
The prevalence of physical inactivity in this study (41.4%) is
comparable with studies ...
• Female adolescence were 15 to 20 times less active than male
adolescents (Sallis, 1993).
• The prevalence of physical in...
Environmental Support
A chi-square in this study has shown environmental support
to significantly associate with physical...
Mental Health
Findings in this study shows that respondents with mental health
probable cases are at higher risk of being ...
Conclusion
The prevalence of physical inactivity in this study was 41.4 %.
The prevalence was higher among females when ...
Study Limitations
The study design is cross sectional.
Recommendations
Increasing physical activity facilities, encourag...
43FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
Thank you for walking…..
Than...
of 43

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY

PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Health & Medicine      
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Transcripts - PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY

  • 1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA GOJE MOHAMMED GS34396 FACULTY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES 1
  • 2. • INTRODUCTION • LITERATURE REVIEW • METHODOLOGY • RESULTS • DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • REFERENCES • INTRODUCTION • LITERATURE REVIEW • METHODOLOGY • RESULTS • DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • REFERENCES OUTLINE 2FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 3.  Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure (WHO 2014).  Physical inactivity causes about 1.9 million preventable deaths per annum (WHO, 2002). Increases the risk of all-cause mortality by 20-30% (Vuori, 2004). Globally 31.1% (95% CI 30.9-31.2) of adults aged 15 and above were considered insufficiently active (WHO GHO, 2013)  Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure (WHO 2014).  Physical inactivity causes about 1.9 million preventable deaths per annum (WHO, 2002). Increases the risk of all-cause mortality by 20-30% (Vuori, 2004). Globally 31.1% (95% CI 30.9-31.2) of adults aged 15 and above were considered insufficiently active (WHO GHO, 2013) BACKGROUND 3FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 4. 4 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 5. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Malaysia Study Year Age group Prevalence NHMS II 1996 >18 YEARS 88.4% MANS 2003 > 18 YEARS 85.6% MyNCDs1 2005 25-64 Years 60.1% NHMS III 2006 > 18 Years 43.7% 5 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 6.  Studies indicating lack of sufficient physical activity in university population • 50% of university students from US and Canada are not sufficiently active (Irwin, 2004) • 50-60% of University students from Europe also shown to be insufficiently active (Steptoe et al., 1997; Stock, Wille and Kramer 2001) • Only 48% of New Zealand University students made the new Zealand country guidelines of physical activity compared to (70%) of their age group in the general population (Sports an recreation, New Zealand 2003) • 39% of Australian University Students also classified as insufficiently active (Leslie et al., 1999) • No data on trends of physical inactivity among university students or there age group 18-25 in the general population.  Studies indicating lack of sufficient physical activity in university population • 50% of university students from US and Canada are not sufficiently active (Irwin, 2004) • 50-60% of University students from Europe also shown to be insufficiently active (Steptoe et al., 1997; Stock, Wille and Kramer 2001) • Only 48% of New Zealand University students made the new Zealand country guidelines of physical activity compared to (70%) of their age group in the general population (Sports an recreation, New Zealand 2003) • 39% of Australian University Students also classified as insufficiently active (Leslie et al., 1999) • No data on trends of physical inactivity among university students or there age group 18-25 in the general population. Problem Statements 6FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 7.  Significant decline was shown between time spent doing Vigorous physical activity in high school (323.9+168.2) and University (206.2+192.2) P<0.001 and  time spend doing moderate physical activity in high school (197.8+188.0) and University (133.5+124.3) (Kim, Mike and Daniel Steel, 2001)  Strong evidence showed that physical activity alleviates mental health problems, in this study mental health problem as possible predictor of physical inactivity was studied.  Demographic , behavioural and environmental factors are studied to be associated with physical inactivity among college students (Waxman,2004; US DHHS 2010; Ismail, Chee, Nawaswi, Yusoff, Lim and James 2002; Lindner, 1999; Wang, Yang, Chen, Davis, Schwartz, and Tam 2004; Miller, Staten, Rayens and Noland 2005)  Significant decline was shown between time spent doing Vigorous physical activity in high school (323.9+168.2) and University (206.2+192.2) P<0.001 and  time spend doing moderate physical activity in high school (197.8+188.0) and University (133.5+124.3) (Kim, Mike and Daniel Steel, 2001)  Strong evidence showed that physical activity alleviates mental health problems, in this study mental health problem as possible predictor of physical inactivity was studied.  Demographic , behavioural and environmental factors are studied to be associated with physical inactivity among college students (Waxman,2004; US DHHS 2010; Ismail, Chee, Nawaswi, Yusoff, Lim and James 2002; Lindner, 1999; Wang, Yang, Chen, Davis, Schwartz, and Tam 2004; Miller, Staten, Rayens and Noland 2005) Problem Statements 7FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM 7
  • 8.  To add value to the body of knowledge on physical activity  Findings may help to identify factors that can leads to physically inactivity and this will help them to be physically active throughout life.  To develop a healthy nation, a baseline data for health awareness and health promotion activities in the university.  To identify the modifiable risk factors of physical inactivity for intervention.  To add value to the body of knowledge on physical activity  Findings may help to identify factors that can leads to physically inactivity and this will help them to be physically active throughout life.  To develop a healthy nation, a baseline data for health awareness and health promotion activities in the university.  To identify the modifiable risk factors of physical inactivity for intervention. Justification of Study 8FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 9. General Objectives 9FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM  To determine the characteristics of respondents by their • Socio-demography • Environmental support • Physical activity readiness and medical history • Mental health status • Self-efficacy of physical activity • Body image perception/dissatisfaction  To determine the characteristics of respondents by their • Socio-demography • Environmental support • Physical activity readiness and medical history • Mental health status • Self-efficacy of physical activity • Body image perception/dissatisfaction Specific Objectives  To determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and its associated factors among first year undergraduate students of the University Putra Malaysia.  To determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and its associated factors among first year undergraduate students of the University Putra Malaysia.
  • 10.  To determine the association between physical inactivity and.. • socio-demographic factors • environmental support • mental health status • self-efficacy of physical activity • body image perception/dissatisfaction  To determine the association between physical inactivity and.. • socio-demographic factors • environmental support • mental health status • self-efficacy of physical activity • body image perception/dissatisfaction Specific Objectives….. 10 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 11. Alternative hypothesis 11 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM  There is a significant association between physical inactivity among first year UPM students and…… • Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, family income and ethnicity) • Environmental support (availability of recreational areas, playground, cycling track and side walk) • Mental health status • Self-efficacy of physical activity • Body image perception and dissatisfaction  There is a significant association between physical inactivity among first year UPM students and…… • Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, family income and ethnicity) • Environmental support (availability of recreational areas, playground, cycling track and side walk) • Mental health status • Self-efficacy of physical activity • Body image perception and dissatisfaction
  • 12. Literature Review • Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, family income and ethnicity) • Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, family income and ethnicity) • Environmental support (availability of recreational areas, playground, cycling track and side walk) • Environmental support (availability of recreational areas, playground, cycling track and side walk) • Mental health status• Mental health status • Self-efficacy of physical activity• Self-efficacy of physical activity • Body image perception and dissatisfaction• Body image perception and dissatisfaction 12FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM • Factors associated with Physical Inactivity
  • 13. Socio-demography Variable Author Description Findings Gender Kjelsas and Augestad, 2004 Cross- sectional, Undergrad, 18-40years in Norway Gender was shown to predict weekly hours of physical activity. Gender: Std. β=0.09, t=-2.19 P<0.05 Gender NYRB,1991 Cross- sectional, students 50% of males met the criterion for moderate to vigorous physical activity. Only 17% of the women met the criterion Participation is higher in males than females P<0.01 13 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 14. Socio-demography Variable Author Description Findings Gender Vilhjalmss on and Thorlinds son, 1998 Cross- sectional, Icelandic adolescent 15-17years Females less physically active than males β= -0.352, P<0.01 Gender Lasheras, Aznar, Merino, and López, 2001 Cross- sectional, Spanish Boys and Girls up to 15 years Boys are more active than girls OR=0.38, 95% CI= 0.29- 0.49, P<0.001 14FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 15. Socio-demography Variable Author Description Findings Income Gordon- Larsen, Nelson, Page, and Popkin, 2006 Longitudinal study US adolescents Lower socioeconomic status with no access to physical activity facilities decreases physical activity Income Saffer, Dave and Grossman, 2011 Cross-sectional US Adolescents 18 years Income positively influences physical activity 15 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 16. Environment Support Variable Author Description Findings Environment Hooker, Wilson, Griffin, and Ainsworth, 2005 Cross-sectional College students Significant relationship between environment support and physical activity Environment al support Huston, Evenson, Bors, and Gizlice, 2003 Cross-sectional Adolescents 18 years Walk trails 1.62 (1.09-2.41), street light 1.57 (1.14- 2.17), and access to places 2.94 (1.91- 4.52), were associated with leisure –time physical activity. 16FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 17. Mental Health Variable Author Description Findings Mental Health Davidson et al., 2001 Cross-sectional Outpatients. Individuals with mental health problems are significantly less moderately active than the general population (Light-Exercise OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.77, Vigorous Exercise OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.17-0.39). Mental Health Brosnaha n, Steffen, Lytle, Patterson , and Boostrom , 2004. Cross-sectional Adolescents 18 years Engaging in physical education was inversely related with feeling sad (OR= 0.8, 95% CI 0.68 – 0.94) and doing more physical activity in a week was associated with a lower risk of considering suicide (OR= 0.72, 95% CI 0.65 – 0.79) 17FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 18. Self-efficacy Variable Author Description Findings Self- efficacy Benight and Bandura, 2004 Self-efficacy is an essential part and a constant correlate of Bandura social cognitive theory of physical activity behaviour. Self- efficacy Trost et al., 1997 Prospective study, African American Adolescents Self-efficacy was important predictor of both moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity. Self- efficacy Sreeramared dy, Kutty, Jabbar, and Boo, 201z Exploratory survey, Malaysian Adolescents 18 years self efficacy of physical activity is associated significantly with sufficient physical activity (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97) 18 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 19. Body Image Perception Variable Author Description Findings Body image Laura and William, 2010; Lantz, Hardy and Ainsworth 1997. Longitudinal, Students !7 years + Body image perception can act as both motivator and barrier of exercise Body image Korn, Gonen, Shaked and Golan, 2013 Cross-sectional Engagement in physical exercise contributes to positive body image(AOR 2.38, P<0.001) Body image Caroline S et al., 2013 Body dissatisfaction was associated with low physical activity 19 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 20. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 20FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPORT PHYSICAL INACTIVITY MENTAL HEALTH SELF EFFICACY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BODY IMAGE PERCEPTION SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHYSOCIO-DEMOGRAPHY Figure 1. Conceptual frame work of factors associated with physical inactivity Dependent Variable Independent Variables
  • 21. Methodology Study location University Putra Malaysia (UPM) Study design Cross-sectional Study population Only full time, non pregnant, not disabled registered Malaysians students in serdang campus were included in this study Sampling frame All faculties in UPM serdang campus Sampling unit First year undergraduate student who met the inclusion criteria Sample size estimation Formula for hypothesis testing for two proportion (Lemeshow et al., 1990). Sampling technique Cluster Sampling 21 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 22. Variables 22 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM Dependent variable is physical inactivity Independent variables • socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity and family income) • environmental factors (availability of recreational areas, cycling track sports ground, street light, and side walk) • physical activity readiness and medical history • mental health status • self-efficacy of physical activity • body image perception and dissatisfaction Dependent variable is physical inactivity Independent variables • socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity and family income) • environmental factors (availability of recreational areas, cycling track sports ground, street light, and side walk) • physical activity readiness and medical history • mental health status • self-efficacy of physical activity • body image perception and dissatisfaction
  • 23. Study instrument 23FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM  Section A: Self administered Scocio-demography questionnaire (age, gender ethnicity, family income, faculty, and contact details)  Section B: Physical Activity levels using the Malay short version of the (IPAQ-M, 2005).  Section C: Short Form of Environmental Support for Physical Activity Questionnaire (Brownson et al., 2001)  Section D: 7 items on Physical Activity Readiness questionnaire (Thomas, Reading, and Shephard, 1992)  Section A: Self administered Scocio-demography questionnaire (age, gender ethnicity, family income, faculty, and contact details)  Section B: Physical Activity levels using the Malay short version of the (IPAQ-M, 2005).  Section C: Short Form of Environmental Support for Physical Activity Questionnaire (Brownson et al., 2001)  Section D: 7 items on Physical Activity Readiness questionnaire (Thomas, Reading, and Shephard, 1992)
  • 24. Study instrument 24FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM  Section E: Mental health status using the Malaysian Mental Health Screening Instrument, “Saringan Status Kesihatan Mental-20 (SSKM – 20)” (Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2011).  Section F: 8 item likert scale Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PASES) (Bartholomew, Loukas, Jowers, and Allua, 2006)  Section G: Body image perception and dissatisfaction using pictorial weight –based scale developed by (Harris, Bradlyn, Coffman, Gunel, and Cottrell, 2007)  Section H: 17 items on physical activity pattern in and around their college and faculty.  Section E: Mental health status using the Malaysian Mental Health Screening Instrument, “Saringan Status Kesihatan Mental-20 (SSKM – 20)” (Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2011).  Section F: 8 item likert scale Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PASES) (Bartholomew, Loukas, Jowers, and Allua, 2006)  Section G: Body image perception and dissatisfaction using pictorial weight –based scale developed by (Harris, Bradlyn, Coffman, Gunel, and Cottrell, 2007)  Section H: 17 items on physical activity pattern in and around their college and faculty.
  • 25. Data analysis Data Analysis Using SPSS version (IBM, 2012) Descriptive analyses Frequency and percentage for qualitative variables and measure of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative variables Chi-square test Association between the categorical variables Level of significance α= 0.05 Simple logistic regression Crudes odds ratio and their 95% CI, if P<0.05 Multiple logistic regression To determine the final predictors 25 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 26. Operational definition Physical inactivity Low level of physical activity based on classification by IPAQ (IPAQ-M, 2005). Physically active High and moderate level of physical activity based on IPAQ classification (IPAQ-M, 2005). Age Was based on self-report by respondents on date of data collection. Gender Was simply classified as males and females based on self-report by respondents Total family income This is the sum of income of all members of a family in a month as reported by the respondents in this study. Ethnicity Classified into four (4) groups (Malay, Chines, India and Others), base on self report by respondents. 26 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 27. Operational definition Environment support Based on self-report using (short form of environmental support for physical activity questionnaire). Mental health in this study is based on self-report of SSKM-20. Self-efficacy of physical activity The is based on self report of PASES as reported by the respondents. Body image perception Classified based self-report by respondents using the weight based, pictorial scale adapted from Harris and colleagues (2008). 27 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 28. First year students in 7 faculties (n= 1284)First year students in 7 faculties (n= 1284) Excluded International students n=88 IPAQ completely n= 894 Refused n= 198 Eligible full time registered students n=1235 Final Analysis n = 894 Dropped Returned Questionnaire n= 1037 Incomplete IPAQ n= 143 28 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM Response rate: 72.3 %
  • 29. Table 1: Sociodemographic distribution % Gender Male 22.6 Female 77.4 Age group <20 years 71.4 >20 years 28.6 Ethnicity Malay 79.5 Other tribes 20.5 Family income <2500RM 51.5 >2500RM 48.5 29FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM Results
  • 30. 30 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 31. 31FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 32. 32FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 33. 33FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 34. Table 2: Association between physical inactivity and the independent variables Respondents characteristics Physical Activity levels χ2 p-value Inactive Active Gender (n=894) 54.82 0.001 Male 38 (18.8%) 164 (81.2%) Female 332 (48.9%) 360 (52.0%) Age group 0.004 0.951 < 20 years 325 (41.6) 4575 (8.4) > 20 years 40 (41.2) 57 (58.8) Family income 97.81 0.001 < 2500 245 (62.7%) 146 (37.3%) > 2500 99 (26.9%) 269 (73.1%) Ethnicity 0.602 0.438 Malay 285 (40.7) 415 (59.3) Non-Malays 85 (43.8) 109 (56.2) 34 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 35. Table 2: Association between physical inactivity and the independent variables Respondents characteristics Physical Activity levels χ2 p-value Inactive Active Mental health 10.89 0.001 No 201 (37.0%) 342 (63.0%) Yes 169 (48.1%) 182 (51.9%) Self-efficacy 27.65 0.001 Low 212 (50.7) 206 (49.3) High 158 (33.3) 316 (66.7) Respondents current body 7.51 0.057 Underweight 47(38.5) 75 (61.5) Normal weight 214 (43.5) 278 (56.5) Overweight 63 (46.0) 74 (54.0) Obese 46 (32.2) 97 (67.8) Body Satisfaction 0.049 0.832 Satisfied 134 (41.9) 186 (58.1) Dissatisfied 236 (41.1) 338 (58.9) 35FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 36. Table 3: Factors associated with physical inactivity Variables Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value Gender Males 1.00 Females 4.39 2.66 - 7.24 <0.001* Family income RM > 2500 1 .00 < 2500 4.19 2.98 - 5.90 <0.001* Mental health problem No 1.00 Yes 1.63 1.15 - 2.31 0.006* Self-efficacy High self-efficacy 1.00 Low self-efficacy 1.77 1.26 - 2.50 <0.01* Students are active in your college Yes 1.00 No 1.873 1.22-2.88 0.004* Respondent current body Underweight/Normal weight 1.00 Overweight/obese 1.52 1.01 - 2.28 0.041* 36FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 37. Prevalence of Physical Inactivity The prevalence of physical inactivity in this study (41.4%) is comparable with studies reported in NHMS III (43.7%) (MOH, 2008). The prevalence is much higher when compared with study by Hazizi et al, (2012), which shows only 14.9% prevalence of sedentary lifestyle among undergraduates in Malaysia Sociodemography The odds of being physically inactive is 4.3 times higher in females than males in this study, With the exception of Age and ethnicity, the alternative hypothesis for sociodemographic variables is accepted. This fining is comparable • Physical activity levels decline more in girls than in boys (Dwyer et al., 2005; US DHHS, 2008; Malina, 1996) • Women are shown to be less active than men at all ages (Crespo et al., 2001; National Centre for Health Statistics, 2012). 37 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM Discussion
  • 38. • Female adolescence were 15 to 20 times less active than male adolescents (Sallis, 1993). • The prevalence of physical inactivity in this study among gender (females 48%, males 18.8%), can be compared to findings by (Dan, Nasir, and Zalilah, 2007) which reveals that female (45.1%) in low physical activity category when compared to males (22.1%). Family income We accept our alternate hypothesis, and this can be compared with, • Low income alongside with other factors have also been shown to be inversely associated with physical activity among Malaysian adults (Cheah, 2011), this is inconsistent with this findings in this study • People with low income have also been shown to suffer excessively from physical inactivity related problems (CDC, 2000). 38FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 39. Environmental Support A chi-square in this study has shown environmental support to significantly associate with physical inactivity but the final models fails to show a significant association and we fail to accept the alternative hypothesis and it is not consistent with findings which shows • Use of recreational facilities (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.56- 1.96) were shown to be associated with an increase probability of participating in high level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (Gordon-Larsen et al., 2000). • In Malaysia, a significant association between use of facilities and physical activity behaviour has been shown (χ2 = 702,750, p=0.000)(Abd-Latif, Nor, Omar-fauzee, Ahmad and Karime, 2011). 39 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 40. Mental Health Findings in this study shows that respondents with mental health probable cases are at higher risk of being physically inactive this has answered our hypothesis. • Studies by have also shown gender difference on mental among university student and physical fitness influences mental health (P<0.05) • A study by Brosnahan et al.,(2004) showed that engaging in physical education was inversely related with feeling sad (OR= 0.8, 95% CI 0.68 – 0.94) and doing more physical activity in a week was associated with a lower risk of considering suicide (OR= 0.72, 95% CI 0.65 – 0.79). Self-efficacy The odds of being physically inactive in this study (OR= 1.77, 95% CI=1.264-2.500, p<0.01) can be compared with study by Chiu, (2009) which reveals that self-efficacy was among the best predictors of physical activity (B=0.304, F (2, 1349) = 78.445, p = 0.00001). 40FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 41. Conclusion The prevalence of physical inactivity in this study was 41.4 %. The prevalence was higher among females when compared with males. Gender and family income are the only non- modifiable predictors The modifiable predictors are environmental support factors, those with mental health problems and low self-efficacy of physical activity, perception of overweight and obese body image. Gender (Female), and family income (Low) were shown to be the strongest predictors of physical inactivity in this study. 41FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 42. Study Limitations The study design is cross sectional. Recommendations Increasing physical activity facilities, encouragement, pear support and human resource within the university environment will improve physical activity opportunities and participation. The use of bicycle introduced in UPM within some colleges should be extended across the whole school. 42FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM
  • 43. 43FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG FIRST YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF UPM Thank you for walking….. Thank you for being active

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