POPULATION INTERACTIONS
 Population interactions are the effects organism in a community
have on one another.
 An organi...
By comparing populations living alone and
together, several types of interactions can
be identified.
 COMMENSALISM (+/0)
...
POPULATION INTERACTIONS
INFLUENCE ABUNDANCE
• When populations of different species interact, the effects
on one on the ot...
MUTUALISM
• Mutualism is a type of symbiosis in which
populations interact to the benefit of both species.
• Mutualism may...
MUTUALISM
 One of the most
commonly observed
mutualism is the
pollination of flowering
plants by an insect or
humming bir...
MUTUALISM
 Although free nitrogen is about 80% of the atmosphere,
plants are unable to use it until it is “fixed” into am...
LEGUMES/NITROGEN FIXING
BACTERIA
 Nitrogen fixing bacteria
enter the root hairs of
legumes in the seedling
stage. The bac...
The Rhizobium/Soybean
Connection
 The mutualism between
Rhizobium and soybeans is an
important source of nitrogen
fixatio...
MUTUALISM
 The lichen is a mutualistic
association between a species of
algae and a species of fungus.
Algal partner is k...
COMMENSALISM
•Commensalism is an association between two organisms in
which one benefits and the other derives neither ben...
COMMENSALISM
 These are vascular plants
rooted in the ground and
maintain erectness of their
stem by making use of
other ...
COMMENSALISM
 An epiphyte is a plant that grows upon
another plant. Growing on another
plant gives the epiphyte better ac...
COMMENSALISM
 As cattle, graze on the field, they
cause movements that stir up
various insects. As the insects are
stirre...
•Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an
organism produces one or more biochemical's that
influence the growth,...
COMPETITION
 Mutual use of a limited
resource by populations of
two or more species.
 Each individual adversely
affect a...
Categories of Competition
 When competition is between individuals of:
same species (intraspecific)
different species (in...
COMPETITION
• interspecific
• intraspecificMay be:
• exploitation, or
• interferenceDue to:
• exclusion of one, or
• coexi...
Outcomes of Competition
One wins;
other loses
competitive
exclusion
Neither
wins
coexistence
Both lose mutual
extinction
PREDATION
It is a kind of interaction in which one
organism(predator) kills another
organism(prey) for food
Predation comprises of organism which are;
•Classic or “true” predators : most commonly thought of
predators including, sh...
PREDATION
•Most of the predatory organism are animals but there
are some plants, like Nephenthes,Drosera etc. which
consum...
PARASITISM
•The association between a parasite and a host is
known as parasitism and it occurs when a member of
one specie...
•Parasites are divided into two
groups: endoparasites and ectoparasites.
•Endoparasites are parasites that live inside
the...
PARASITISM
•Ectoparasites develop
some clinging organs like
hooks, suckers to get
attached with the body of
host.
•Some pl...
Population interaction ppt
Population interaction ppt
Population interaction ppt
Population interaction ppt
Population interaction ppt
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Population interaction ppt

POPULATION INTERACTION AND TYPES
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population interaction ppt

  • 1. POPULATION INTERACTIONS  Population interactions are the effects organism in a community have on one another.  An organisms interaction with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole  Populations do not exist alone in nature, The way organisms interact is important for the survival of a species. There are two types of interaction: intraspecific interactions and interspecific interactions. Intraspecific interactions are those that take place among organisms of the same species while interspecific interactions are those which happen among individuals of different species.
  • 2. By comparing populations living alone and together, several types of interactions can be identified.  COMMENSALISM (+/0)  MUTUALISM (+/+)  COMPETITION (-/-)  PARASITISM (+/-)  PREDATION (+/-)  ALLELOPATHY(+/-) IMPORTANT INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TWO SPECIES
  • 3. POPULATION INTERACTIONS INFLUENCE ABUNDANCE • When populations of different species interact, the effects on one on the other may be positive (+), negative (-) or neutral (0).
  • 4. MUTUALISM • Mutualism is a type of symbiosis in which populations interact to the benefit of both species. • Mutualism may be obligate (necessary for survival of one or both species) or facultative (one species may survive in the absence of other).
  • 5. MUTUALISM  One of the most commonly observed mutualism is the pollination of flowering plants by an insect or humming bird.  The pollinator benefits from the interaction by receiving nectar.  The plant gets its pollen transferred from one plant to another. POLLINATION PROCESS
  • 6. MUTUALISM  Although free nitrogen is about 80% of the atmosphere, plants are unable to use it until it is “fixed” into ammonia and converted to nitrates by bacteria.  A common example of this mutualism between plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria is found in the roots of leguminous plants. SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXERS
  • 7. LEGUMES/NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA  Nitrogen fixing bacteria enter the root hairs of legumes in the seedling stage. The bacteria causes the plant to produce nodules.  The host plant in return supplies carbohydrates, amino acids and other nutrients that sustain their bacterial partners (bacteriods).
  • 8. The Rhizobium/Soybean Connection  The mutualism between Rhizobium and soybeans is an important source of nitrogen fixation  Rhizobium, a bacterial genus, can convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3). Thus, making this essential nutrient available to these legumes.  In turn legumes, such as soybeans , supply Rhizobium with carbohydrates and other nutrients for growth and reproduction.
  • 9. MUTUALISM  The lichen is a mutualistic association between a species of algae and a species of fungus. Algal partner is known as phycobiont and fungal partner is known as mycobiont  The fungus retains water and takes up minerals.  The algae provides carbohydrates and other organic nutrients as the result of photosynthesis. LICHEN
  • 10. COMMENSALISM •Commensalism is an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm •In commensalism species involved live together without entering into any kind of physiological exchange
  • 11. COMMENSALISM  These are vascular plants rooted in the ground and maintain erectness of their stem by making use of other objects for support  They maintain no direct nutritional relationship with the trees upon which they grow  E.g. : Grapes LIANAS
  • 12. COMMENSALISM  An epiphyte is a plant that grows upon another plant. Growing on another plant gives the epiphyte better access to sunlight and moisture.  They differ from lianas in that they are not rooted into the soil  They have specialized roots to absorb moisture and nutrients from humid air to prepare food so, they are not dependent on the supporting species  E.g. : Orchid species EPIPHYTE
  • 13. COMMENSALISM  As cattle, graze on the field, they cause movements that stir up various insects. As the insects are stirred up, the egrets following the livestock catch and feed upon them. The egrets benefit from this relationship because the livestock have helped them find their meals, while the livestock are typically unaffected by it EGRETS FORAGING IN FIELDS AMONG CATTLE
  • 14. •Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemical's that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms. •These biochemical's are known as allelochemicals and can have beneficial (positive allelopathy) or detrimental (negative allelopathy) effects on the target organisms. •plant allelopathy is used as a means of survival in nature, reducing competition from plants nearby.
  • 15. COMPETITION  Mutual use of a limited resource by populations of two or more species.  Each individual adversely affect another in the quest for food (nutrients), living space, or other common needs.  Individuals harm one another is attempting to gain a resource.
  • 16. Categories of Competition  When competition is between individuals of: same species (intraspecific) different species (interspecific) • When a resource is in short supply that used by one thus not available to the other (exploitation). • When an action or substance produced by one is directly harmful to the other (interference).
  • 17. COMPETITION • interspecific • intraspecificMay be: • exploitation, or • interferenceDue to: • exclusion of one, or • coexistenceResult in:
  • 18. Outcomes of Competition One wins; other loses competitive exclusion Neither wins coexistence Both lose mutual extinction
  • 19. PREDATION It is a kind of interaction in which one organism(predator) kills another organism(prey) for food
  • 20. Predation comprises of organism which are; •Classic or “true” predators : most commonly thought of predators including, sharks, cheetahs, bears etc. These predators kill their prey soon after catching it, normally consuming it all. •Grazers: can be considered a predator by the same definition but consume only part of a prey organism. PREDATION
  • 21. PREDATION •Most of the predatory organism are animals but there are some plants, like Nephenthes,Drosera etc. which consume insects for their food.They are also known as Insectivorous plants •These plants are adapted in remarkable ways to attract,catch and digest their victims. Their foliar appendage produce proteolytic enzymes for digestion of insects
  • 22. PARASITISM •The association between a parasite and a host is known as parasitism and it occurs when a member of one species (parasite) consumes tissues or nutrients of another species (host). •Parasites live on or in their hosts; often for long periods of time •Parasites are most often much smaller than their hosts. •It is not necessarily fatal to the host.
  • 23. •Parasites are divided into two groups: endoparasites and ectoparasites. •Endoparasites are parasites that live inside the body of the host e.g. Trypanosoma •Ectoparasites are parasites that live on the outer surface of the host and generally attach themselves during feeding e.g. Ticks, Mites PARASITISM
  • 24. PARASITISM •Ectoparasites develop some clinging organs like hooks, suckers to get attached with the body of host. •Some plants like cuscuta have certain specialized absorbing structures called haustoria to attain food.