Outreach to African American
Male College Students
Dwaine S. Campbell, Ph.D.
Wayne...
Agenda
! Introduction and Overview
! The Experiences of African American Male Students
! Attitudes Towards Mental H...
Personal Stories
Michael Jamal Tony
Campbell 2008
The Unique Experience of African American Men
on Predominately White College Campuses
! Some African American men are ...
The Unique Experience of African American Men
on Predominately White College Campuses
! On college campuses across the...
The Unique Experience of African American Men
on Predominately White College Campuses
! African American students on pr...
African American Men on PWC:
Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling
! 2005 Study on African American men at two mid-w...
African American Men on PWC:
Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling
! Items on the PPI
1. General anxiety ...
African American Men on PWC:
Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling
! Top Concerns Experienced by Students
quot;...
African American Men on PWC:
Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling
! Concerns participants were most willing to seek...
African American Men on PWC:
Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling
! Concerns participants were least willing to see...
African American Men on PWC:
Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling
! Summary:
- Of the top 7 concerns noted by Afr...
Applied implications of this Study
! There may be a distinction between the problems African
American male students...
Pulling It All Together . . . .
! As a result the aforementioned personal and
environmental factors, differences ca...
The Crisis Afflicting African American Men on
Predominately White College Campuses
! Headlines in the early 1990’s espo...
The Crisis Afflicting African American Men on
Predominately White College Campuses
! Graduation rates for this populati...
The Crisis Afflicting African American Men on
Predominately White College Campuses
! African American male college stud...
Recommendations for Reaching African
American Men
! Based on these results university counseling centers
should look...
Additional Recommendations
quot; Utilization of the seeking-mode of service delivery
quot; Using an aggressive outrea...
Applying research and theory to Practice:
Brother’s Keeper
! What is Brother’s Keeper?
quot; Monthly seminar/luncheo...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Development
! Establishing connections with the stakeholders
quot; General students, stude...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Development
! After connecting with stakeholders and assessing needs:
quot; Proposal develop...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity
! Advertisement for the Seminar
# Student leaders and seminar facilitators developed m...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity
Campbell 2008
Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity
Campbell 2008
Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity
Campbell 2008
Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and
Challenges of the Seminar
! Successes of the Seminar
quot; Good student attendan...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and
Challenges of the Seminar
! Sub Topics Discussed:
quot; Being a role model for yo...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and
Challenges of the Seminar
! Comments from Participants:
quot; Enjoyed being able ...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and
Challenges of the Seminar
! What participants took the from sessions:
quot; Plan ...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and
Challenges of the Seminar
! Challenges
quot; Getting the program started
quot...
Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and
Challenges of the Seminar
! Challenges (comments from participants)
quot; Group ...
Suggested ideas for future research and
programming include:
! More research on African American male cultural
value...
Personal Stories (Revisited)
Michael Jamal Tony
Campbell 2008
Questions, Discussion, Comments and
Feedback . . .
What other ideas do you have for addressing the
current situation...
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Outreach to African American Males

Dwaine S. Campbell, Ph. D National Outreach Conference for Counseling Centers Presentation Examples, 2008, Ann Arbor, MI
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: News & Politics      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Outreach to African American Males

  • 1. Outreach to African American Male College Students Dwaine S. Campbell, Ph.D. Wayne State University drcampbell@wayne.edu 2008 National Outreach Conference for Counseling Centers
  • 2. Agenda ! Introduction and Overview ! The Experiences of African American Male Students ! Attitudes Towards Mental Health Services ! The Crisis Afflicting African American Male Students ! Recommendations to Address the Issue ! A Case Example . . . Brother’s Keeper ! Questions, Comments, and wrap-up Campbell 2008
  • 3. Personal Stories Michael Jamal Tony Campbell 2008
  • 4. The Unique Experience of African American Men on Predominately White College Campuses ! Some African American men are excelling in college. A 2005 article by Harper highlighted the experiences of several high achieving African American male students. Collectively, the group had been awarded nearly $500,000 in merit-based scholarships and awards and were campus leaders. ! It is important to keep in mind that African American male students are a diverse group. The experiences of these few do not reflect the experience of the majority of African American men. Campbell 2008
  • 5. The Unique Experience of African American Men on Predominately White College Campuses ! On college campuses across the nation, the African American male student population is the smallest in comparison to White males, White females, and African American females (Wild & Wilson, 1998). ! African American male college students experience a significant number of difficulties and they do not succeed as well as others do on predominately white college campuses. Yet, African American males tend not to seek mental health services on white college campuses. Campbell 2008
  • 6. The Unique Experience of African American Men on Predominately White College Campuses ! African American students on predominately White campuses (PWC) quot; perceive the campus more negatively (Gloria, et al. 1999). quot; suffer culture shock their first year at a PWC quot; deal with pressure to conform to White standards quot; face discrimination quot; often feel that activities don’t relate to their interests (Feagin and Sikes, 1995). quot; feel marginalized (Gossett et al, 1998) Campbell 2008
  • 7. African American Men on PWC: Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling ! 2005 Study on African American men at two mid-western college campuses. As part of the study they were asked about their concerns and attitudes about counseling. Both assessed with the Personal Problem Inventory (PPI - Pounce and Atkinson, 1989) ! Consists of 40 items quot; On the first 20 items participants are asked to indicate to what extent the items are a problem. quot; On the next 20 questions participants indicate their willingness to seek help from mental health professionals for each of the problems quot; Participants indicate their response on a 6 point Likert-type Scale: 1 -being, quot;Not a problem at allquot; to 6 being, quot;Very significant problem.“ Campbell 2008
  • 8. African American Men on PWC: Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling ! Items on the PPI 1. General anxiety 11. Drug use 2. Alcohol use 12. Inferiority feelings 3. Shyness 13. Test anxiety 4. Sexual functioning 14. Difficulties making friends 5. Depression 15. Trouble studying 6. Conflicts with parents 16. Academic performance 7. Speech anxiety 17. Financial matters 8. Dating difficulties 18. Alienation –- not belonging 9. Career Choice 19. Adjustment to college 10. Insomnia 20. Loneliness/isolation Campbell 2008
  • 9. African American Men on PWC: Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling ! Top Concerns Experienced by Students quot; Financial 85.3% quot; Academic Performance 72.4% quot; Trouble Studying 71.3% quot; Shyness 62.6% quot; Career Choice 62.1% quot; Test Anxiety 57.8% quot; General Anxiety 51.7% Campbell 2008
  • 10. African American Men on PWC: Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling ! Concerns participants were most willing to seek help for: quot; Academic Performance 74.8% quot; Financial 73.0% quot; Career Choice 71.9% quot; Test Anxiety 67.8% quot; Trouble Studying 66.7% Campbell 2008
  • 11. African American Men on PWC: Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling ! Concerns participants were least willing to seek help for: quot; Sexual Functioning 38.1% quot; Drug Use 45.2% quot; Dating Difficulties 45.6% quot; Difficulties Making Friends 46.5% quot; Loneliness/Isolation 48.7% Campbell 2008
  • 12. African American Men on PWC: Concerns and Attitudes Toward Counseling ! Summary: - Of the top 7 concerns noted by African American male students, 5 were academic/financial in focus and 2 were personal/relational in focus. - Most willing to seek help for academic and financial concerns and least willing to seek help for personal/relational concerns. - For some issues the percentage of African American males willing to seek help was lower then the percentage that indicated the issue was a problem (e.g., shyness, trouble studying and financial problems. Campbell 2008
  • 13. Applied implications of this Study ! There may be a distinction between the problems African American male students experience and the problems for which they are willing to seek psychological help. ! African American men may be suffering and will not seek out psychological help (especially for personal/relational concerns like loneliness/isolation or difficulties making friends). ! Positive note, African American male students appear willing to seek help for academic and financial concerns. Campbell 2008
  • 14. Pulling It All Together . . . . ! As a result the aforementioned personal and environmental factors, differences can be seen in educational attainment and graduation rates on PWC for African American males compared to White students and African American female students. Campbell 2008
  • 15. The Crisis Afflicting African American Men on Predominately White College Campuses ! Headlines in the early 1990’s espoused good news about the increase in the number of African American students enrolled in college. In 1992, over 25 percent of all African Americans ages 18 to 24 were enrolled in higher education, compared to only 18 percent in two decades earlier . . . However, this increase reflected an improvement for African American females, not males. In fact, rates for males had declined (U.S. Department of Education data cited in Slater, 1994). Campbell 2008
  • 16. The Crisis Afflicting African American Men on Predominately White College Campuses ! Graduation rates for this population from 1977 to 1991 reveal a depressing trend. Over a 13 year period no progress was made increasing the number of African American males attaining college degrees. In fact, there was a slight decline (National Center for Educational Statistics cited in Austin, 1996) ! In 2004 the American Council on Education reported that the African American male graduation rate is the lowest of any population. ! What does it all mean . . . Campbell 2008
  • 17. The Crisis Afflicting African American Men on Predominately White College Campuses ! African American male college students (in general) are not succeeding as well as others on predominately White college campuses. Despite the lack of success, this population is not known for seeking services from counseling centers as a way of increasing their chances for success. ! Past research has found that students who utilize counseling center services have better academic performance and better rates of retention (Berry & Turner, 2000; Grogan, Kaddoura, Ochoa, and Schwitzer, 1993). Campbell 2008
  • 18. Recommendations for Reaching African American Men ! Based on these results university counseling centers should look at the ways their services are marketed and consider the following: quot; Bringing African American men in by using services they find less threatening (e.g., career counseling and educational counseling). quot; Use material that reminds men they are not weak for seeking help Campbell 2008
  • 19. Additional Recommendations quot; Utilization of the seeking-mode of service delivery quot; Using an aggressive outreach approach quot; Having a diverse staff quot; Applying knowledge of multicultural counseling and black psychology quot; Constructing positive vibes in the office environment quot; Developing relationships with the community and, quot; Working to destigmatize the counseling process (Based on the writings of June, 1986; Bonner 1997; Bell, 1996; Greer, 2005; Thorn & Sarata, 1998; and Okonji, Ososkie, & Pulos, 1996) Campbell 2008
  • 20. Applying research and theory to Practice: Brother’s Keeper ! What is Brother’s Keeper? quot; Monthly seminar/luncheon organized for African American Men at The UM Ann Arbor (Winter semester of 2007). quot; Seminar involved African American men on campus getting together over lunch to discuss topics pertinent to the success and retention of African American male college students. quot; The men at the seminar came from all levels of the university (students, faculty, and staff). quot; Topics of discussion included: The African American male experience on campus and African American Male identity. ! The Idea for seminar came out of research and observations of what has worked and not worked over the years. Campbell 2008
  • 21. Brother’s Keeper ~ Development ! Establishing connections with the stakeholders quot; General students, student leaders and student groups quot; University departments that typically support African American male students quot; African American male faculty and staff ! A needs assessment was completed with the stakeholders: quot; Is there an interest in the seminar? quot; What concerns and topics should to be addressed? quot; When and where should meetings take place? quot; How should the meetings be structured? Campbell 2008
  • 22. Brother’s Keeper ~ Development ! After connecting with stakeholders and assessing needs: quot; Proposal developed with budget quot; Funding secured (from several departments) quot; Seminar topics were selected, and speakers chosen (with input from all stakeholders) quot; Location for the meetings secured and dates chosen Campbell 2008
  • 23. Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity ! Advertisement for the Seminar # Student leaders and seminar facilitators developed material # One tool used to get students to attend . . . Free Lunch # Information was disseminated via: ! African American student groups (e.g., NAACP, BSA) ! Student leaders ! University departments and programs ! CAPS ! Email ! Social networking websites (Facebook) Campbell 2008
  • 24. Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity Campbell 2008
  • 25. Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity Campbell 2008
  • 26. Brother’s Keeper ~ Publicity Campbell 2008
  • 27. Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and Challenges of the Seminar ! Successes of the Seminar quot; Good student attendance and participation quot; Student were able to normalize their struggles, and hear ideas for coping and improving their chance for success. quot; Students able to connect with various resources on campus that they may have been hesitant to reach out to or may not have known about already. Campbell 2008
  • 28. Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and Challenges of the Seminar ! Sub Topics Discussed: quot; Being a role model for younger men and having older men as role models. quot; The importance of community quot; Racism and ways to cope with it quot; Adversity and perseverance (Coping and asking for help) quot; What it means to be Black quot; What it means to be a strong Black man quot; Maturity and Accountability quot; Support/Resources on Campus Campbell 2008
  • 29. Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and Challenges of the Seminar ! Comments from Participants: quot; Enjoyed being able to build community with other Black men quot; Liked meeting Black men from all levels of the university (“Generational Mix”) quot; Great Conversation quot; Liked the “realness” of the discussion quot; Like the “thought provoking discussion.” quot; Liked the relaxed atmosphere and interaction quot; Liked the faculty and staff involvement quot; Enjoyed hearing the different perspectives and personal stories quot; Liked the suggestions being discussed Campbell 2008
  • 30. Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and Challenges of the Seminar ! What participants took the from sessions: quot; Plan to open up to other people of color, trust more quot; Learned that they can count on others (support) quot; Need to be more of an asset to other black men (support) quot; Learned more about CAPS and Career Resources quot; Plan to work with other organizations, rather than against them quot; Importance of being open to using all their resources quot; Importance of interdependence and community quot; Importance of being involved with students quot; The need to be consistent quot; How to deal with negative people Campbell 2008
  • 31. Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and Challenges of the Seminar ! Challenges quot; Getting the program started quot; Advertisement quot; The Seminar was attended mostly by Juniors, Seniors and Graduate students, very few 1st and 2nd year students. Campbell 2008
  • 32. Brother’s Keeper ~ Successes and Challenges of the Seminar ! Challenges (comments from participants) quot; Group size too large at times quot; Participants desired more time to talk and interact with others Campbell 2008
  • 33. Suggested ideas for future research and programming include: ! More research on African American male cultural values and how they impact help-seeking attitude (exploring what factors keep these men from considering counseling) ! Qualitative research, on the experiences of African American male students in college (exploring their successes and struggles and how these men cope). ! Continue using the seminar model to reach African American men who don’t come in for traditional counseling. Campbell 2008
  • 34. Personal Stories (Revisited) Michael Jamal Tony Campbell 2008
  • 35. Questions, Discussion, Comments and Feedback . . . What other ideas do you have for addressing the current situation for African American men and applying information from this presentation to your outreach work? What specifically can counseling centers do to make services more attractive for African American men? (important to attend to their multiple identities)? What ideas do you have for improving Brother’s Keeper and other programs like it? Campbell 2008

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