43 rd UNEP/UNESCO/BMU International Short Course on Environmental Management for Developing and Emerging Countries: Susta...
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
<ul><li>Located in Central America, </li></ul><ul><li>One of the smallest countries in Latin America (21,000 square kms.)...
<ul><li>About 650,000 vehicles in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport fleet comprised of about 12,000 vehicles...
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management There were about 25,000 accidents last year! El Salvador has one of the bi...
<ul><li>Public transport is operated by private parties. There is vast atomization in the sector and no coordination at al...
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management GASES TONS/DAY SS Metropolitan Area CBD CO 227,700 13,500 HC 27,900 1,200 ...
<ul><li>SAL produces aprox. 9 million tons of (CO2) every year. That is about 0.003 % of CO2 emissions worldwide. </li></...
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management <ul><li>In 2001, the government launched an aggressive campaign to organiz...
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management Peak hour AM Valley Peak hour PM Before After Change (%) Before After Cha...
Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management Peak hour AM Valley Peak hour PM Before After Change (%) Before After Cha...
<ul><li>Measures proved positive to reduce emissions, also congestion in the city center. </li></ul><ul><li>The measures w...
<ul><li>More actions are required </li></ul><ul><li>13 CDM projects are being promoted with potential to reduce about 1.5 ...
<ul><li>Many, many things! </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by properly monitoring air quality and noise levels. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Environmental matters don’t seem a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither transportation, unfortunately. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>It is possible to change Status Quo. </li></ul><ul><li>Become a proficient salesman of change! </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>NEVER GIVE UP! </li></ul><ul><li>THE END!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Cou...
of 18

Pollution and Transport in El Salvador

El Salvador´s country presentation made by Saul Castelar at the 43 UNEP CIPSEM Environmental course on sustainable transport.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Business      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pollution and Transport in El Salvador

  • 1. 43 rd UNEP/UNESCO/BMU International Short Course on Environmental Management for Developing and Emerging Countries: Sustainable Transportation (22 nd November 2007 – 13 th December 2007 DRESDEN Germany Saul Castelar Transportation Consultant Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION IN EL SALVADOR
  • 2. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 3. <ul><li>Located in Central America, </li></ul><ul><li>One of the smallest countries in Latin America (21,000 square kms.) </li></ul><ul><li>6,500,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>San Salvador, its capital, is the most important city in the country; about 2,000,000 inhabitants. </li></ul><ul><li>San Salvador concentrates about 50% of all vehicles in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation decisions made on a national level. </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 4. <ul><li>About 650,000 vehicles in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport fleet comprised of about 12,000 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation produces about 2 million tons of CO2 every year (about 46% of the CO2 tons emitted by the energy sector) </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles in the country run on gasoline and diesel. No alternative fuels are distributed at the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>(The Kyoto protocol was ratified by El Salvador on september 17, 1998 ) </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 5. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 6. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management There were about 25,000 accidents last year! El Salvador has one of the biggest accidents rates in Latin America.
  • 7. <ul><li>Public transport is operated by private parties. There is vast atomization in the sector and no coordination at all between routes. There is a fierce competition among service providers for passengers, which causes a number of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Average PT fleet age: 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Estimations of unnecessary veh kilometers for buses in San Salvador: about 39,000 a day. </li></ul><ul><li>About 4000 veh kilometers for minibuses </li></ul><ul><li>That amounts to 1,2 million gallons of diesel in a year!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>A fuel tax of 0.10 $US per gallon has just been aproved to subsidize the operation of public transport in the country. </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 8. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management GASES TONS/DAY SS Metropolitan Area CBD CO 227,700 13,500 HC 27,900 1,200 NO X 36,100 1,300 SO 2 9,500 1,000
  • 9. <ul><li>SAL produces aprox. 9 million tons of (CO2) every year. That is about 0.003 % of CO2 emissions worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>That amount is insignificant compared with 5,729 million tons produced by the US every year. Yet it is a problem to the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation produces about 22% of the country’s CO2 every year. </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 10. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management <ul><li>In 2001, the government launched an aggressive campaign to organize Public Transport in the country, particularly in the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The reorganization included the modification of about 60% of all routes running in the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>It was also aimed at matching the number of available buses with real demand. </li></ul><ul><li>It also aimed at formalizing the relationship between the government and the operators of the public transport system. </li></ul>
  • 11. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management Peak hour AM Valley Peak hour PM Before After Change (%) Before After Change (%) Before After Change (%) Inmediate results CO 18,596 18,090 -2.72 9,850 9,093 -7.69 17,715 17,078 -3.60 HC 2,271 2,227 -1.98 1,279 1,191 -6,86 2,162 2,099 -2.90 NOx 2,817 2,763 -1.92 1,976 1,839 -6.93 2,723 2,639 -3.06 SO 2 758 706 -6.97 322 261 -18,80 719 640 -10.98 Short Term Results CO 26,499 25,475 -3.87 13,790 12,509 -9.29 25,289 24,146 -4.52 HC 3,166 3,036 -4.10 1,731 1,568 -9.39 3,010 2,870 -4.64 NOx 3,599 3,421 -4.95 2,440 2,177 -10.79 3,463 3,263 -5.78 SO 2 1,278 1,089 -14.78 504 366 -27.41 1,204 964 -19.92
  • 12. Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management Peak hour AM Valley Peak hour PM Before After Change (%) Before After Change (%) Before After Change (%) Inmediate results CO 995 826 -17.03 585 456 -22.15 1,099 951 -13.48 HC 92 83 -10.30 57 48 -16.03 102 93 -8.26 NOx 98 84 -14.94 71 56 -21.89 104 90 -13.31 SO 2 84 63 -25.19 32 19 -41.05 79 49 -38.76 Short Term CO 1,417 1,194 -15.75 828 631 -23.79 1,590 1,355 -14.78 HC 127 116 -8.63 77 65 -16.59 143 131 -8.63 NOx 127 110 -13.51 90 70 -21.77 136 118 -13.24 SO 2 139 109 -22.10 53 31 -40.67 135 82 -39.39
  • 13. <ul><li>Measures proved positive to reduce emissions, also congestion in the city center. </li></ul><ul><li>The measures would have allowed to improve the control of the authorities over the transportation system. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus operators were against the implementation of measures and put pressure on authorities to revert the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The project had to be suspended due to political pressure and bus operation returned to its original inefficient pattern . </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 14. <ul><li>More actions are required </li></ul><ul><li>13 CDM projects are being promoted with potential to reduce about 1.5 million tons of CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>Until now 3 projects have been aproved, under the CDM. NO TRANSPORT PROJECTS ARE BEING PROMOTED </li></ul><ul><li>The old national rail began operation in a small line during the last trimester of 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>The new tax for fuels, might be an accidental step in the right direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory vehicle checks are demanded by law, but litigations make it a pending matter with negative effects on emissions and also on accident rates. </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management
  • 15. <ul><li>Many, many things! </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by properly monitoring air quality and noise levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Target Education as a key to any strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Work responsibly towards mass transit. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate private and government efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote NMT modes. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Pedestrian safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Streghten the law and its application . </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a national policy on transportation, also on pollution and climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop laws to promote clean energy production. </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management What else can be done?
  • 16. <ul><li>Environmental matters don’t seem a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither transportation, unfortunately. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher fuel prices seem to do more for transport than any formal strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Different strategies have proved successful, but a firmer stance from the authorities is required for sustainable improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>For now, there is no happy ending to this story! </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management Will it be done?
  • 17. <ul><li>It is possible to change Status Quo. </li></ul><ul><li>Become a proficient salesman of change! </li></ul><ul><li>Take matters into your own hands! </li></ul><ul><li>Get your data straight </li></ul><ul><li>Make it simple & realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Make it personal </li></ul><ul><li>Put it in graphs, figures, votes and $! </li></ul><ul><li>Promote maximum participation & Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Strive for maximum accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Make it enforceable </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management Final thoughts
  • 18. <ul><li>NEVER GIVE UP! </li></ul><ul><li>THE END!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Saul Castelar 43 UNEP Course on Env. Management

Related Documents