Ajeng Dwiyani Khoirunnisa
11/317744/SP/24637
Politics and Government in Southeast Asia
Nation-building Malaysia: Impact o...
Malays were emphasized. Therefore, the Malays outnumbered the Non-Malays in demographical
issues. After the tragedy, the g...
of 2

Polpem asteng nationbuilding malaysia

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Polpem asteng nationbuilding malaysia

  • 1. Ajeng Dwiyani Khoirunnisa 11/317744/SP/24637 Politics and Government in Southeast Asia Nation-building Malaysia: Impact of Ethnic Conflict 1969 to Political Economy Development Generally, the composition of Malaysian is almost the same with Indonesia. Malaysia has various ethnics that has been living there from long ago. Even before their independence, the Indian and Chinese had lived in Malaysia. It is one of the British colonialization that brought the traders from China and India, thus making them stay. It is not always peaceful in Malaysia, regarding the various ethnics exist. Moreover, in that era the Chinese was the people who dominated the economics and trade. One of the example is ethnic conflict in 1969. This conflict particularly became a dark history for Malaysians. Even until now, Malaysians still remember the tragedy. This conflict killed 196 people. It started on the day of election which won by a party that was dominated by Chinese. As usual tradition, the winning party had the rights to celebrate by convoying through some particular streets. The streets had been arranged so that the convoy would not pass the Malays neighborhood because there were some tense between both Chinese and Malays. But, in the end the convoy passed through the streets which lived by the Malays. The Malays saw that action as the Chinese wanting to show off their winning. Then the situation got worse when the Chinese yelled some provocative expression. Malays wanted to show their power, that they still had it.1 They were angry, and riots happened. This tragedy brought a significant change in social, political, and economics. The government made a policy that favored the Malays. 2 The Malays became priority in economics system and the government would guarantee the Chinese that the tragedy would never happen again. 3 The policy made the Malays became more dominant in many sectors. Political control by 1 Z.Ahmad, ‘The tragedy of May 13, 1969’, The Malaysian Bar (online), 26 Juli 2007, http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/echoes_of_the_past/the_tragedy_of_may_13_1969.html diakses 15 Okober 2013 2 3 K.Snitwongse dan W.S.Thompson,Ethnic Conflicts in Southeast Asia,ISEAS Publication, Singapura,2005,p.43 K. Snitwongse dan W.S.Thompson, p.53
  • 2. Malays were emphasized. Therefore, the Malays outnumbered the Non-Malays in demographical issues. After the tragedy, the government realized that closing the gap between Malays and other groups was a critical issue for the long term stability and prosperity of the country. The key initiative was New Economy Policy (1971-1990). The fact that the Malays only dominated the agricultural and non-modern sectors, whereas the other groups dominated the business and economic sectors, made the government eager to urbanize the Malays and assist them in gaining access to the more modern sector of the economy. 4 This New Economy Policy had successfully made the economics of Malaysia grew rapidly in 5-8% a year. And by 1995, Number of Malays that get higher pay and higher access to education has increased. Thanks to the quota of scholarship that government provided. The implementation of this policy was called Industrial Coordination Act. But some party saw this policy as institutionalized ethnic difference that intensified the problem rather than solving it. As the affirmative action for the Malays, the policy was considered not effective because of the government. Affirmative action needs a strong government that Malaysian did not have. The New Economy Policy has been replaced by National Development Policy (1990-2000) that was considered more balanced to benefit society as a whole. This policy still encouraged the ownership of Malays at 30% but also encouraged the cooperation between Malays and other groups. We know from these explanation that the nation building of Malaysia has huge impact for political economy development. It shaped the proportion of the people’s participation in some sectors. It created a better opportunity for the Malays, thus making the economy of the states more dynamic and pushed them towards liberalization. The tragedy could be considered as the internal forces in managing national economies. Malaysia is one of the state that use state led and controlled model of economic management, as they arranged the quota for Malays and other groups in particular sectors. 4 K. Snitwongse dan W.S.Thompson, p.55

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