Political philosophy
A nation isn’t a state. A nation is a group of people united in
‘some’ way. Although a nation is a group of people united
...
- You are usually born into a Nation – as it is a non-
voluntary community. This means people are raised
similarly.
Nation...
Nationalism – the attitude of caring about one’s nation
and national identity, and also the policy of a nation
to pursue s...
The violence ethnic nationalism has given rise to
suggests that national sentiment can have
irrational origins – is it the...
Groups can have rights. It isn’t held by individuals
because they’re a member of the group. ‘gay rights’
are individual no...
1) Philosophers say: a group needs a certain unity
& identity. Nations have identity created by the
members’ sense of unit...
There are two views:
1) The group has distinct interests, they aren’t a
sum (aggregate) of the interests of individuals.
O...
Raz argues a group right must…
1) Exist because an aspect of the interests of human beings
justifies holding some people t...
It’s not clear if nation’s do have rights. But they
may have the right to political self-
determination, and to maintain i...
If a nation’s rights impose duties to its members
nationalists think these hold only to the
individuals nation – so.. you ...
Liberals – claims of nationalism don’t amount
to rights.
1) they can’t override individual rights,
2) they are second to t...
We can argue…
1) A nation has the right to self-determination on the
basis of utility – it will promote democracy, equalit...
1)Can a national group, in a state have the right to
secede and make its own state? This has led to
war and political inst...
Miller – there are three other considerations
1) The new state and the rump (old?) state must
be viable.
2) The new state ...
Nation-states already have a degree of self-
determination. Nationalists have argued that
a nation has the right but the o...
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Nation states

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nation states

  • 1. Political philosophy
  • 2. A nation isn’t a state. A nation is a group of people united in ‘some’ way. Although a nation is a group of people united in some way – it is not any group of people incl. those aspiring to a political organization in common. A nation is characterized by demand for political self-determination. A state is a political structure acting as a sovereign, and so defines the legal rights and obligations of the citizens. If the UK is a state – England, Wales and Scotland are nations. A nation can be spread across multiple states - Kurds living in S.Turkey and N.Iraq. Don’t define a nation and nationalism in terms of belonging to a particular state – sense of nationalism is stronger in national groups with a distinct state.
  • 3. - You are usually born into a Nation – as it is a non- voluntary community. This means people are raised similarly. Nations have ‘national identities’ which allow others to distinguish them – usually by ethical or cultural aspects. As people are raised in the same way – a sense of unity is created enabling people to explain aspects of peoples characters based on features of the group (you’re able to stereotype like we do with people from Essex etc). So‘National identities’ become part of an individuals identity. This also connects a persons geographical origins to their identity – allows people to link with others & have duties towards people in the future.
  • 4. Nationalism – the attitude of caring about one’s nation and national identity, and also the policy of a nation to pursue self-determination. You can claim special duties and rights based on nationality. Miller summarises in 3 claims: ‘National identity is a defensible source of personal identity, … nations are ethical communities imposing reciprocal obligations on members… nations have a good claim to be politically self determining’ Alternatives to nationalism – lack identification with others (individualism), or with all of humanity (cosmopolitanism).
  • 5. The violence ethnic nationalism has given rise to suggests that national sentiment can have irrational origins – is it the product of ‘false consciousness’?, an ideology imposed on people by those with political power for their own ends? Evolutionary defence – individuals with a sense of belonging & identification with others do better in evolution – species that live in groups, the groups develop bonds of feeling and cooperation and will do better than other groups. Humans are a group that have developed these bonds, and appear to do better than some animals that don’t live in groups as such.
  • 6. Groups can have rights. It isn’t held by individuals because they’re a member of the group. ‘gay rights’ are individual not group rights, as each individual has their ‘gay rights’ independent of being part the ‘group’. A group right is held by the group as a whole – sort of like the roof on a house covering everyone in it, but to have the house you have to have multiple people to afford it (taking that we’re teenagers…) Self-determination would be a right held by a nation, not an individual – an individual can’t try and self-determine the land their house lives on.
  • 7. 1) Philosophers say: a group needs a certain unity & identity. Nations have identity created by the members’ sense of unity & identity with each other. 2) The group must have moral status distinct from the members – group can act as a group, acquiring responsibilities not held by any individual – and group interests which cant be individual. Group rights may impose duties on people out of the group.
  • 8. There are two views: 1) The group has distinct interests, they aren’t a sum (aggregate) of the interests of individuals. OBJ: only individuals are morally important, so moral status of groups must come from individuals. 2) Joseph Raz – All the interests of the individuals in the group create the groups interests – interest out of individual interests collectively creates group rights. A group right is held by all the members in the common good rather than the group on its own.
  • 9. Raz argues a group right must… 1) Exist because an aspect of the interests of human beings justifies holding some people to be a subject to a duty. 2) The interests in question are the interests of individuals as members collectively – so it serves their interest as members of the group. 3) The interest of no single member is sufficient by itself to justify holding another person to be a subject to a duty. Raz explains how a group can have rights, but an individual cannot. The interests of an individual alone cannot create the relevant duty – but it is fair for a collection of interests to be. Some goods are public – they’re available to everyone not just members of the group i.e. air.
  • 10. It’s not clear if nation’s do have rights. But they may have the right to political self- determination, and to maintain its particular culture. Rights always give rise to duties. To specify a right you have to specify the duties it holds and who has those duties. A nation’s right would impose duties of non- interference. If the nation is also a state – other states would have the duty not to interfere with the political self-determination.
  • 11. If a nation’s rights impose duties to its members nationalists think these hold only to the individuals nation – so.. you only have those duties in your own nation – in another nation you’re free to disregard that duty. We don’t have the same duties to all nations generally – the duties must be grounded on what ties the individual to the specific nation. We can say that; national identity is distinctivly political – not personal this is because a nation is identified with a geographical place, distinct culture and history. Our cultural inheritance is where we get our values and moral identity from.
  • 12. Liberals – claims of nationalism don’t amount to rights. 1) they can’t override individual rights, 2) they are second to the rights the state holds, 3) false nationalist beliefs should only be tolerated if not harmful, 4) the legitimacy of nationalist claim comes from choices of individuals – a claim can’t be legitimate without a majority.
  • 13. We can argue… 1) A nation has the right to self-determination on the basis of utility – it will promote democracy, equality etc. 2) Self-determination is intrinsically valuable to a group – the power to organize affairs and get rid of resources is valuable. 3) the group is formed by a shared identity, where individuals can express their views so group self- determination expresses the self-determination of the individuals. A group will be able to achieve much more than individuals alone. The whole idea of two heads are better than one applies.
  • 14. 1)Can a national group, in a state have the right to secede and make its own state? This has led to war and political instability previously. Violence is rarely justified in the pursuit of self- determination it doesn’t show there’s no such right though. 2) There's too little land for every nation to have its own state, and some will try and claim the same land – rules out an unconditional right to statehood. The argument from utility doesn’t necessarily support secession – nations can be given a degree of autonomy within a existing state. This may be the best way to secure democracy, equality etc.
  • 15. Miller – there are three other considerations 1) The new state and the rump (old?) state must be viable. 2) The new state shouldn’t itself contain minorities with radically incompatible identities – secession will just be re-attempted which won’t go down well. 3) Impact of secession on other minority nations in the rump (old?) state must be taken into consideration. There is no clear right to self-determination for nations that aren’t states – only a claim.
  • 16. Nation-states already have a degree of self- determination. Nationalists have argued that a nation has the right but the obligation to pursue self-determination- this is an obligation to the nation itself and the individual members.