A
SEMINAR ON
POLYSACCHARIDES
TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES
BY
HUMA NAZ SIDDIQUI
ASST. PROFESSOR
G.D. RUNGTA COLLEGE OF SCI...
POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES
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1. INTRODUCTION
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 Carbohydrates are commonly called as sugars which...
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CARBOHYDRATE:-
“The organic compounds which yield polyh...
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A) MONOSACCHARIDES:-
 They are simplest group ...
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C) POLYSACCHARIDES;-
 Polysaccharides consis...
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 TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES:-
1. Homopolysaccharides:-
 They are suc...
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POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES
a) STARCH:-
 Starch is the carbohydrate result of plants
which is the im...
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 Manufacture of Starch:-
 Germany and Ame...
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 Structure of Starch:-
 Starch when hydr...
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 Physical properties of Starch:-
 White ...
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2. Effect of Heat:
 On heating Starch to ...
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b) Dextrin:-
 They are the breakdown prod...
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fig 2-
Uses of Dextrin:-
1. Dextrin is an ...
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C) INULIN:-
 Inulin is a polymer of fruct...
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Uses of Inulin:-
 Inulin is less sol...
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d) GLYCOGEN:
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Fig 4 - Glycogen
 Uses of Glycogen:-
 It...
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e) CELLULOSE:-
 Cellulose widely occurs i...
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 Physical properties of Cellulose:-
 It ...
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 Structure of cellulose:-
 Cellulose is ...
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Industrial Application of Cellulose:-
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f) Chitin:-
 Composed of N-Acetyl, D-Gluc...
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 Mucopolysaccharides :-
 They are hetero...
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b) HYALURONIC ACID:-
 Important GAG found in the ground substance of
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c) CHONDROTIN SULFATE:
 Chondrotin 4-sulf...
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 An anticoagulant that occur...
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BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF POLYSACCHARIDES:...
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 Thus polysaccharide is formed of monosaccharide
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The organic compounds which yield polyhydric aldehyde or k...
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REFRENCES
U.Satyanarayana,
U.Chakrapani
2006 Biochemistry3rd edition.
J.L.Jain,Sunjay
jain,Nitin jain
2007 Fundamentals...
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Polysaccharides types and Structural Features

Polysaccharides types and Structural Features
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Transcripts - Polysaccharides types and Structural Features

  • 1. A SEMINAR ON POLYSACCHARIDES TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES BY HUMA NAZ SIDDIQUI ASST. PROFESSOR G.D. RUNGTA COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY KOHKA KURUD, BHILAI 1
  • 2. POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES C O N T E N T S 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DEFINITION OF CARBOHYDRATE 3. CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATE A) Monosaccharides B) Oligosaccharides C) Polysaccharides  DEFINITION OF POLYSACCHARIDES  TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF POLYSACCHARIDES 1. Homopolysaccharides 2. Heteropolysaccharides 4. BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF POLYSACCHARIDES 5.CONCLUSION 6.REFERENCES 2
  • 3. POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES I N T R O D U C T I O N  Carbohydrates are commonly called as sugars which are composed of C, H, and O  The term saccharide is derived from the Latin word “sacchararum" from the sweet taste of sugars.  Carbohydrates are called as hydrolysis of carbon.  Compounds like glucose, fructose, cane sugar, starch and cellulose are called as carbohydrates.  They are of mainly 3-types i.e. Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.  Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrate and contain different classes such as Trioses, Tetroses, etc. 3
  • 4. D E F I N I T I O N POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES CARBOHYDRATE:- “The organic compounds which yield polyhydric aldehyde or ketone on hydrolysis are called as carbohydrates.”  They have an empirical formula as (CH2O) n.  The name "carbohydrate" means a "hydrate of carbon.“  For example glucose is written,C6H12O6. 4
  • 5. POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES C L A S S I F I C A T I O N A) MONOSACCHARIDES:-  They are simplest group of carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed into simplest sugar.  They are divided into different classes on the basis of number of carbon atoms present in it like TRIOSES, TETROSES, PENTOSES etc. 5 B) OLIGOSACCHARIDES:-  They are formed by the condensation of a few monosaccharide units (2-10)  During the union of monosaccharide units water molecule is eliminated and the remaining units are linked through an oxygen bridge called as glycosides bond  They are being divided into Disaccharide and Trisaccharides.
  • 6. POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES C L A S S I F I C A T I O N 6 C) POLYSACCHARIDES;-  Polysaccharides consist of repeating units of Monosaccharide or their derivatives held together by glycosidic bond.  These structures are often linear, but may contain various degrees of branching.  Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. DEFINITION:- Polysaccharides are the complex carbohydrates. They are made up of chains of monosaccharide (the sugars) which are linked together by glycosidic bonds, which are formed by the condensation reaction.”  Polysaccharides have a general formula of Cx(H2O)y .
  • 7. POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES 7  TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES:- 1. Homopolysaccharides:-  They are such polysaccharides which on hydrolysis yield a single type of monosaccharides.  Thus, Glucans are polymers of glucose and fructosans are polymers of fructose.  When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan. T Y P E S O F P O L Y S A C H
  • 8. 8 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES a) STARCH:-  Starch is the carbohydrate result of plants which is the important dietary source animals including man.  High content of starch is found in cereals, tubers, vegetables,  Starch is homopolymer composed of units held by α-glucosidic bonds.  COMPOSITION OF STARCH  Starch consists of 2-polysaccharide components, water soluble amylose(15-20%) and water insoluble amylopectin(80-85%).  SOME IMPORTANT HOMOPOLYSACCHARIDES ;-
  • 9. 9 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Manufacture of Starch:-  Germany and America are the largest Starch manufacturing countries in the world.  In Germany potato is the chief source of manufacturing Starch.  Manufacture is based upon the process of mechanical suppression from the associated superfluous matter.  For ex. potatoes are washed thoroughly and then passed to rasping machines.  The pulp obtained by rupture of cells is carried by fine stream of water.  The milky fluid which passes through the sieves is run into settling tanks for suppression of fine sand particles and finally starch particles are separated.
  • 10. 10 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Structure of Starch:-  Starch when hydrolysed yields α-D-Glucopyranose shown by Haworth.  In starch molecule, α-D-Glucopyranose units are linked with each other through oxygen atoms at carbon atom no. 4. As in case of maltose, 23 glucose units linked to form Starch molecules. FIG 1 -
  • 11. 11 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Physical properties of Starch:-  White amorphous powder having no taste and no odor.  Its granules consists of two polysaccharides units i.e. amylase and amylo pectin insoluble in water but swells up to form a gel in water.  Chemical properties of Starch:- 1. Reaction with Iodine:  Soluble Starch gives blur colour with iodine. The colour disappears on heating to 80°C and reappears on cooling.
  • 12. 12 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S 2. Effect of Heat:  On heating Starch to 200-250°C, it is changed to dextrin having low molecular weight.  Dextrin is used in Calico printing.  Uses of Starch:- 1. Main constituents of food to produce heat. 2. Employed as an adhesive in book binding. 3. Manufacture of Glucose and alcoholic beverages. 4. Used as a gelatin in preparation of sweets. 5. In paper industry for sizing paper.
  • 13. 13 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S b) Dextrin:-  They are the breakdown products of starch by the enzyme hydrolysis.  Starch is sequentially hydrolyses through different dextrin and finally to maltose and glucose.  The various intermediate are soluble starch, amylopectin, erythrodextrin and achrodextrin. Structure Of Dextrin:-  Dextrin is a polysaccharide similar to amylo pectin, but the main chains are formed by α(1-6) glycosidic linkages  And the side branches are attached by 1 α(1-4) linkages. 13
  • 14. 14 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S fig 2- Uses of Dextrin:- 1. Dextrin is an oral bacterial product that adheres to the teeth, creating a film called plaque. 2. It is also used commercially in confectioneries, as food additives, and as plasma volume expanders.
  • 15. 15 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S C) INULIN:-  Inulin is a polymer of fructose.  It occurs in Dahlia bulbs, garlic, onion  It is of low molecular weight( 5000) polysaccharides , easily soluble in water  Structure of Inulin:-  Inulins, also called fructans, are polymers consisting of fructose units that typically have a terminal glucose.  Oligofructose has the same structure as inulin, but the chains consist of 10 or fewer fructose units. Oligofructose has approximately 30 to 50 percent of the sweetness of sugar.
  • 16. POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S FIG 3 - Uses of Inulin:-  Inulin is less soluble than Oligofructose and has a smooth creamy texture that provides a fat-like mouth feel.  Inulin and Oligofructose are non-digestible by human intestinal enzymes, but they are totally fermented by colonic microflora. 16
  • 17. 17 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S d) GLYCOGEN:  Glycogen is the carbohydrate reserve in animals called as animal starch.  It is present in high concentration in liver followed by muscle, brain, etc.  Glycogen is also found in plants that do not possess chlorophyll.  Structure of Glycogen:-  The structure of Glycogen is similar to that of amylo pectin with more no. of branches.  Glucose is the repeating unit in the Glycogen joint together by the- (1-4) glycosidic bonds and α-(1-6) glycosidic bonds at branching points.
  • 18. 18 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S Fig 4 - Glycogen  Uses of Glycogen:-  It act as storage food reserve in animals and help in glycolsis.  Provides energy when needed.
  • 19. 19 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S e) CELLULOSE:-  Cellulose widely occurs in vegetables because it forms fundamental constituent of cell walls and vegetable tissues.  Sources of cellulose:-  Cotton, wood, paper, jute, flax, hemp.  All of them contain small amount of mineral matter which is left as residues when they are burnt.  Manufacture of cellulose:-  Pure cellulose is obtained by successively treating cotton, wool, flax, / paper with dil alkali, dil HCl, or HF.  This treatment removes mineral matter, water, and alcohol/ether.
  • 20. 20 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Physical properties of Cellulose:-  It occur in the form of hollow fiber which have characteristics appearance and dimension.  Cellulose is soluble in ammonical solution of cupric hydroxide and insoluble in all organic solvents.  Chemical properties of cellulose:- 1. Hydration:-  On treatment with acids it is exchanged to hydrated cellulose called hydrocellulose. 2. Action of alkali’s:-  When cellulose is treated with 15-20% caustic soda solution its reticulated fibrous walls swell to a cylindrical shape. 20
  • 21. 21 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Structure of cellulose:-  Cellulose is composed of β-D-glucose units linked by β(1-4) glycosidic bonds.  Hydrolyses of cellulose yields cellobiose followed by β- D-glucose. Fig 5 :- cellulose
  • 22. 22 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S Industrial Application of Cellulose:- 1. Textile Industry:- • Cellulose employed in manufacture of cotton and linen. •Jute is employed in smaller extent. •Flax in manufacture of Gunnies, Wrappings. 2. Explosives: • Gum, cotton which is cellulose tri-nitrate is used as blasting and propellant explosives. 3 . Celluloid:- • Synthetic plastic, manufactured by mixing colloid on cotton with camphor in the presence of ether or alcohol. 4. Artificial Silk:- Cellulose finds an extensive application in manufacture of artificial silk .
  • 23. 23 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S f) Chitin:-  Composed of N-Acetyl, D-Glucosamine units held together by β-(1-4) Glycosidic bonds.  Structural polysaccharides found in the exoskeleton of some invertebrates. Fig 6 :- chitin 2. Heteropolysaccharides:-  When the polysaccharides are composed of different types of sugars, referred to as heteropolysaccharides/heteroglycans. Fig 6 - chitin
  • 24. 24 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Mucopolysaccharides :-  They are heteroglycans made up of repeating unit of sugar derivatives namely amino/uronic acid.  They are commonly known as glucosamine glycans (GAG). a) PROTEOGLYCANS:-  Some of the Mucopolysaccharides found in combination with proteins to form mucoproteins/proteoglycans. Fig 7 - proteoglycans
  • 25. 25 b) HYALURONIC ACID:-  Important GAG found in the ground substance of synovial fluid of joints and vitreous humor of eyes.  Present in connective tissue and forms a gel around POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S  Structure of Hyaluronic Acid:-  Composed of alternative units of D- Glucoronic acid and N-acety D-Glucosamine. These two molecules formed disaccharides units held together by β-(1-3) Glycosidic bonds. Fig 8 – Hyaluronic acid
  • 26. 26 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S c) CHONDROTIN SULFATE:  Chondrotin 4-sulfate is a major constituent of various mammalian tissue.  Structure of chondrotin sulfate:-  Chondrotin 4-sulfate consists of repeating units disaccharides units composed of D- glucoronic acid and N- acetyl galactosamine. Fig 9 –
  • 27. 27 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S D) HEPARIN:-  An anticoagulant that occurs in blood, lung, liver, spleen, etc.  Heparin helps in the release of enzyme lipoprotein lipase which helps in clearing the turbidity of lipemic plasma. E) Dermatan Sulfate:-  Compound mostly occur in the skin is structurally related to chondrotin 4-sulfate.  Structure of Dermatan Sulfate: Fig 10 -
  • 28. 28 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF POLYSACCHARIDES:-  These act as a metabolic reserve in plants and animals – starch, glycogen.  They also serve as mechanical structures in plants and animals.  Wood, cotton, paper are made of cellulose which are useful in our day to day life.  Cellulose nitrates are used as explosives,lacquers,photograph.  Films are used for packing materials.  Xylan is also utilized in the cultivation of mushrooms.  Agar-agar is a polysaccharide used for the preparation of food stuffs.
  • 29. 29 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES C O N C L U S I O N  Thus polysaccharide is formed of monosaccharide units and is of great biological importance to us.  Normally, heparin act as an anticoagulant for the prevention of blood is a polysaccharide.  Thus they are the source of energy and help to carry out certain metabolism.  It is also used as solidifying agents in desserts.  It is also used as a sizing material in textiles.
  • 30. 30 POLYSACCHARIDES- TYPES AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES S U M M A R Y The organic compounds which yield polyhydric aldehyde or ketone on hydrolysis are called as carbohydrates.” They are heterogeneous group consist of slight modifications of the repeating unit. When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan. When the polysaccharides are composed of different types of sugars, referred to as polysaccharides/heteroglycans
  • 31. 31 REFRENCES U.Satyanarayana, U.Chakrapani 2006 Biochemistry3rd edition. J.L.Jain,Sunjay jain,Nitin jain 2007 Fundamentals of biochemistry 6th edition, S.Chand publication. Nelson and Cox 2009 Principles of Biochemistry, 5th edition.