National Disaster Management Authority
Government of Pakistan
National Disaster Management Authority
Government of Pakista...
NDMA Annual Report 2011
National Disaster Management Authority
Prime Minister’s Secretariat, Islamabad
http://www.ndma.gov...
Annual Report
2011
National Disaster Management Authority
Government of Pakistan
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011i
Chapter No.1
Disaster Management System in Pakistan
Chapter No.2
Disaster Risk Reducti...
3.5. Early Recovery Floods 2010
3.6. Operational Support Services
38
42
Chapter No.4
Achievements, Challenges & Looking Ah...
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011iii
Acronyms
ADPC Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
CBDRM Community Based Disaster Risk...
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011 iv
Acronyms
NOC No Objection Certificate
NFI Non-Food Items
NHEPRN National Health Emer...
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011v
Year 2011 is aptly characterized as the year of transition
from conventional Disaster ...
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011 vi
linkages, participatory consultations and bottom up approach and dedicated fiscal al...
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011vii
Pakistan's vulnerability to natural and human induced disasters is characterized by
...
Acronymswww.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011 viii
disaster preparedness and adaptation to climate change which lists a numbe...
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ha teC p r
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ha teC p r
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Disaster Management System
in Pakistan
Disaster Management System
in Pakistan
DisasterRiskinPakistan
A disaster is serious disruption in the normal
activities of a society, causing loss or damage of
h...
high magnitudes. Mountain ranges of Koh-e-
Suleman, Hindu Kush and Korakuram are
significantly vulnerable. Within the Sule...
Pakistan susceptible to climate change. Climate
change is being considered as a critical factor
behind unpredictable rainf...
1.1 Disaster Risk Management in
Pakistan
Realizing the importance of flood management the
Government of Pakistan initiated...
1.2 National Disaster Risk
ManagementFramework
National Disaster Management Commission: The
National Disaster Management C...
Disaster Management System in PakistanDisaster Management System in Pakistan www.ndma.gov.pk
Disaster Management System in...
Management Authorities and Emergency
Operations Centres at provincial, district and
municipal levels in hazard-prone areas...
Annual Report 201110
Disaster Management System in Pakistan
Chapter 1
Figure1.3.NationalDisasterManagementAuthorityOrganog...
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ha teC p r
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Disaster Risk Reduction
Making Communities Resilient
Disaster Risk Reduction
Making Comm...
Disaster Risk Reduction: Making
CommunitiesResilient
The NDMA is proactively working at reducing the
vulnerability to disa...
mean that while the government would be paying
the entire premiums for the poorest of the poor the
governments share would...
was established with the support of UN partners in
April 2010, with the mandate to develop
curriculum, organize training c...
and its dissemination to concerned stake-
holders;
d. MIG Safety and Explosives Rules formulated
and notified
e. Action Pl...
Production;
u. MWG of the Ministry of Defence approved 1-
2% of the development budget for allocating
to DRR related activ...
Shake-table was used to demonstrate as to how
risk-reduction techniques in building construction
can help buildings withst...
The NDMA in collaboration with NED University
of Engineering & Technology, Karachi organized a
two-day workshop on “Prepar...
To set an example, the NDMA planted over 100
hectres of Mangrove forest and developed best
practices for its regular maint...
The NDMA in coordination with DDMA, Rescue
1122 and line departments convened emergency
response trainings on medical firs...
2.3. One Million Safer Schools and
Hospitals Campaign 2011
The NDMA, in collaboration with UNISDR,
launched a campaign in ...
The plan included the following features:
¨ To map the vulnerability associated to disaster
threat
¨ To map the resources ...
of the GCC is to mainstream issues and concerns
of vulnerable segments of society; especially
women, children, elderly peo...
NDMA Study Delegation with the Governor of Uttaradit Province of Thailand
achievements was held on 23-24th March, 2011 in
...
www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient
Annual Report 201126 Chapter 2
meetingsandeventsinclud...
Chapter
3
Chapter
3
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Responding to Disasters:
A Year in a Retrospect
Responding to Disasters:
A Year in a Retrospect
RespondingtoDisasters
The NDMA's response to Floods 2010 was
commendable in every aspect of disaster
management. The perfo...
The table below shows total damages caused by
rain-generated floods during 2011.
Table 3.1: Details of Deaths and Damages ...
www.ndma.gov.pk
Annual Report 2011 31Chapter 3
NDMA’s robust relief goods supply chain management
Responding to Disasters:...
affected around 9.2 million people. The NDMA
initiated the rescue and relief operations on August
13, 2011 and shipped ten...
and over saw their timely distribution. These
officers also shared / provided the correct picture
and much needed informat...
plan envisaged interventions in areas of food
security, shelter / non-food items, health, water &
sanitationandhygiene.
Th...
Table3.2: Highlightsofsector-wisedamagesalongwiththetotalcostof reconstruction.
S.
No.
Country Date No. of
Flights
Items R...
3.4. Other Distastes During the
Year
3.4.1. Balochistan Earthquake
An earthquake, measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale,
was ...
damages. Furthermore, the flood resulted in a
massive landslide in Gabryal/Trang village, causing
further destruction in t...
3.5. EarlyRecovery Floods2010
After the success of response phase, the NDMA
initiated Early Recovery phase in February 201...
Table3.6: Activity and financial details of all the interventions undertaken by the NDMA, in collaboration
withthePDMAsand...
3.5.2. Challenges Faced
Early recovery needs were reasonably met. In fact,
the most impressive results were seen in educat...
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
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  • 1. National Disaster Management Authority Government of Pakistan National Disaster Management Authority Government of Pakistan AnnualAnnual ReportReport 20112011
  • 2. NDMA Annual Report 2011 National Disaster Management Authority Prime Minister’s Secretariat, Islamabad http://www.ndma.gov.pk For official use only Copyright © National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) This report has been produced under the overall guidance of Chairman, National Disaster Management Authority, Dr. Zafar Iqbal Qadir. An editorial team led by: Ms Zeb-u-Nisa, NDMA compiled the document. The editing was supported by Mr. Waseem Ahmed, One UN DRM Programme Design/Layout: Syed Sajid Hussain Naqvi Event Photography: Muhammad Saqib Iqbal, NDMA
  • 3. Annual Report 2011 National Disaster Management Authority Government of Pakistan
  • 4. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011i Chapter No.1 Disaster Management System in Pakistan Chapter No.2 Disaster Risk Reduction: Making Communities Resilient Chapter No.3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect 3 13 29 Disaster Risk in Pakistan 1.1 Disaster Risk Management in Pakistan 1.2 National Disaster Risk Management Framework 1.3 National Disaster Management Authority 03 07 06 07 2.1 Policy Initiatives 2.2 Institutional Initiatives 2.3 One Million Safer Schools and Hospitals Campaign 2011 2.4 Contingency Plan for Monsoon 2011 2.5 Urban Search and Rescue Teams 2.6 The Gender Imperative 14 13 13 22 23 22 23 2.7 NDMA at International Fora 24 2.8 NDMA Global Outreach 25 Responding to Disasters 3.1 Rain Floods - Sindh and Balochistan, 2011 29 29 30 Contents 3.2. Government Response Contents 3.3 Rapid Response Plan 33 Disaster Risk Reduction 3.4 Other Disasters During the Year 36
  • 5. 3.5. Early Recovery Floods 2010 3.6. Operational Support Services 38 42 Chapter No.4 Achievements, Challenges & Looking Ahead Tables Figures List of Tables & Figures 47 4.1 Achievements 4.2 Challenges 4.3 Way Forward 1.1 Analysis of Natural Disasters in Pakistan(1987 - 2011) 3.1 Details of Deaths and Damages during 2011 Floods 3.3 Estimate of Total Damage Costs by Sector 3.4 Estimate Damage and Reconstruction Costs by Province/Area 3.8 Technical Details of Attabad Lake 3.7 Relief Items Distributed Among the Affectees of Attabad Lake Annex Detail of trainings availed during 2011 3.6 Activity and financial details of all the interventions undertaken by the NDMA, in collaboration with the PDMAs and humanitarian organization 3.5 Floods 2010: Sector wise Summary of Damages 3.2 Highlights of the sector-wise damages along with the total cost of reconstruction 50 47 54 30 35 38 40 3.9 International Aid Received 41 1.3 National Disaster Management Authority Organogram 10 1.2 Neighborhood of Vulnerability 5 1.1 Neighborhood of Vulnerability 5 35 36 39 41 43 5 www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 ii Contents
  • 6. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011iii Acronyms ADPC Asian Disaster Preparedness Center CBDRM Community Based Disaster Risk Management CAT DDO Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option DRM Disaster Risk Management DMA District Management Authorities DRI Disaster Risk Insurance DDMA District Disaster Management Authority DM Disaster Management DC Deputy Commissioners DCO District Coordination Officers DIA Disaster Impact Assessment DFI Development Financial Instruments DNA Damage and Need Assessment DRR Disaster Risk Reduction ERC Emergency Relief Cell EWS Early Warning System FFC Federal Flood Commission FWO Frontier Works Organization GB Gilgit Baltistan GCC Gender & Child Cell GIS Geological Information System GSP Geological Survey of Pakistan GCISC Global Change Impact Studies Center GBDMA Gilgit Baltistan Disaster Management Authority HFA Hyogo Framework for Action IFI Investment Financial instruments ICT Islamabad Capital Territory IOM International Organization for Migrants IPCC Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change INGO International Non-Governmental Organizations JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency KP Khyber Pakhtunkhwa LBOD Left Bank Outfall Drain MHVRA Multi-hazards Vulnerability and Risk assessment MIS Management Information System NGO Non-Governmental Organization NDMO National Disaster Management Ordinance NDM National Disaster Management NDMC National Disaster Management Commission NEOC National Emergency Operations Center NDRRP National Disaster Risk Reduction Policy NDMP National Disaster Management Plan NIDM National Institute of Disaster Management Acronyms
  • 7. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 iv Acronyms NOC No Objection Certificate NFI Non-Food Items NHEPRN National Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Network OMSSH One Million Safe Schools and Hospitals PDMA Provincial Disaster Management Authority PDMC Provincial Disaster Management Commissions PRCS Pakistan Red Crescent Society PMD Pakistan Metrological Department PDMF Provincial Disaster Management Funds SADKN South Asia Disaster knowledge Network SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SDMC SAARC Disaster Management Centre SMC School Management Committee SPU Strategic Planning unit SUPARCO Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission UNISDR United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction UNDP United Nations Development Programme UC Union Council USAID United States Aid USC Utility Stores Cooperation UN OCHA United Nations Office of Coordination Humanitarian Assistance WPP Wetlands Programme Pakistan
  • 8. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011v Year 2011 is aptly characterized as the year of transition from conventional Disaster Risk Management (DRM) concepts and approaches to world class, cutting edge (DRM) interventions both at policy and operational levels in Pakistan. During the course of 2011, the NDMA was confronted with a major challenge to deliver on real time basis and roll out most of the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) related institutional development and policy initiatives embarked upon in 2010. While the organization was fully engrossed in implementation of early recovery programme to manage the aftermaths of 2010 floods, the country was severely hit by the torrential rains of 2011 resulting in unprecedented floods in two provinces of the country, which called for immediate interventions of NDMA towards rescue and relief. This was high time, as the NDMA was spearheading a number of new institutional dynamics and policy imperatives concerning DRM in tandem. The 2011 floods exacerbated the humanitarian emergency of 2010 floods and precipitated in increasing demand on the NDMA's limited capacity to respond both at the level of headquarters, as well as in the field. A thorough analysis of the situation compelled me to adopt a multi-pronged strategy to manage the colossal aftermaths of two consecutive catastrophes resulting in massive human and property losses and to galvanize the organizational capacity to respond in a coordinated manner. Adoption of an institutionalized approach with bottom-up planning process, rigorous consultations with a broad range of stakeholders, and external resource mobilization were cornerstone of institutional strategy of NDMA. Though the Provinces and Regions were primarily focused considering the 18th constitutional amendment yet pre-monsoon, mitigation and preparedness measures remained topmost priority to tackle. To ensure effective coordination and stakeholder ownership in the process, a team of DRM experts commissioned whirlwind pre monsoon visits to Provincial/ Regional DMAs besides engaging them in consultations with political leadership, civil and military bureaucracy, national and international NGOs and civil society organizations. This served the basis for a well orchestrated mitigation and response strategy to manage any possible disaster situation. In organizational context, significant progress was achieved in articulating policy formulation, harnessing political ownership and mainstreaming DRM into development. In addition, DRM needs assessment was carried out in collaboration with external and internal partners, while the agenda of organizational change, process and institutional capacity building of NDMA was followed in true letter and spirit. Stakeholder's coordination, institutional Chairman Message Chairman Message
  • 9. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 vi linkages, participatory consultations and bottom up approach and dedicated fiscal allocations byprovincesandregionsforDRMremainedsignificanthallmarkof2011. Contemporary developments and innovation in DRR initiatives, viz, Multi-Hazarads Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (MHVRA) Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM), Disasters Risk Insurance (DRI) and Gender Mainstreaming in DRR were carefully reviewed and adopted after necessary readjustment in accordance with the indigenous context. Vertical and horizontal programme integration was ensured at all levels to maximize programme coherence, effectivenessand impact during the reporting year. At the end, let me acknowledge the enduring support and collaboration of all development partners in Pakistan including federal, provincial and local governments, PDMAs, DDMAs, international community , donor agencies, the UN system, national and international NGOs, civil society oranizations philanthropists, academia and media fraternity to help transforming the concept of DRM from rhetoric to reality. Without their cooperation, NDMA could not have achieved the gigantic task of making Pakistani nation more knowledgeable and resilient to disasters. Finally, let me also applaud the hard work and dedication of NDMA staff, who have been working tirelessly,day and night for this supreme cause. I earnestly hope that you will find this report a useful and informative document on NDMA's endeavors for promotion of DRM in Pakistan. (Dr. Zafar Iqbal Qadir) Chairman NDMA Chairman Message
  • 10. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011vii Pakistan's vulnerability to natural and human induced disasters is characterized by earthquakes, floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides, sea hazards and a range of complex emergencies. The response to the earthquake of 2005 signified the importance of a national platform to manage and coordinate the response efforts to deal with the risk of disasters in a synchronized manner. To address the existing shortcomings in disaster response and management, and to be compliant with the international commitments including the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) 1999 and Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, National Disaster Management Ordinance (NDMO) was promulgated in 2006, which was formally enacted as National Disaster Management (NDM) Act in 2010 by the Parliament. The Act provides a framework based on decentralized risk governance and disaster risk reduction. Foundation of the required institutional infrastructure was laid down and National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC), National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Provincial Disaster Management Commissions (PDMC), Provincial/State Disaster Management Authorities (P/SDMAs) and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) were established in 2010 and 2011 for policy advocacy and mainstreaming the Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in the development paradigm. 2011 was a year of transition for NDMA, whereby the philosophy of DRM was actually transformed from its conceptual phase to integration at policy and implementation phase. Despite managing the aftermaths of 2010 floods and responding to the unprecedented floods of 2011, a number of key organizational milestones were achieved, which remained key successes of the year 2011. Among these initiatives, National Disaster Risk Reduction Policy was of foremost importance, which was formulated with focus on prevention, mitigation and preparedness aspects of DRM. To translate DRM policy imperatives into an implementation framework, a ten year National Disaster Management Plan (2012-2022) was formulated. The plan will help manage the entire spectrum of DRM through policy intervention, implementation of critical actions and institutional capacity building for mitigation, prevention andpreparednessbesidesresponseandrecovery. NDMA is trailblazing the concept of establishing the Disaster Risk Insurance Fund (DRIF), which is a major innovation in the development history of Pakistan. The Fund aims at providing viable insurance solution to poor and vulnerable of the society covering different types of disasters. NDMA has been in contact with leading national and international insurance firms to come with index-based micro insurance solutions, covering life, food security, housing, small businesses, crops and livestock. Cognizant to its role as policy advocate for DRM, NDMA was actively engaged with the newly created Ministry of Climate Change for considering inclusion of a chapter on DRM in draft National Policy on Climate Change. Based on inputs from NDMA, National Climate Change Policy document now includes a section on Executive Summary Executive Summary
  • 11. Acronymswww.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 viii disaster preparedness and adaptation to climate change which lists a number of policy measures. On institutional front, One UN DRM Joint Programme remained a collaborative effort of the UN system in Pakistan, being implemented by NDMA together with 19 UN agencies. Adequate financial and technical assistance has been received through this programme for institutionalizing DRM and enhancing capacities at national, provincial and district levels. Executive Summary
  • 12. N D M A ha teC p r 1 ha teC p r 1 Disaster Management System in Pakistan Disaster Management System in Pakistan
  • 13. DisasterRiskinPakistan A disaster is serious disruption in the normal activities of a society, causing loss or damage of human and/or financial assets that are beyond the capacity of the dwellers to cope with. A disaster's severity is measured by how much impact a hazard has on society and the environment. It influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affected area.Disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately These risks are the product of a combination of bothhazard/sandvulnerability. Pakistan is vulnerable to disastersand is facing serious threats and challenges from large-scale natural and man-made disasters such as, seismic events, landslides, droughts, floods, fog, torrential rains, tropical cyclones, dust storms, fires, oil-spills, etc. A number of factors lay behind the vulnerabilities of Pakistani society to hazards. These include poor construction practices, livestock, agricultural management, fragile natural environment, weak early-warning systems, awareness and education, poverty. Lack of communication infrastructure and scant critical facilities aggravate vulnerabilities of communities. In mountainous regions the non- availability of safe land for construction, scattered settlement patterns and harsh climatic conditions further intensify vulnerabilities. The human and animal population growth, environmental degradation, resulting from poorly managed urban and industrial development processes, climate change and variability are major dynamic pressures that increase vulnerabilities of Pakistani society. In the coming decades, frequency, severity and impact of certain hazards may increase that might lead to greater social, economic and environmental losses. The absence of comprehensive Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and preparedness mechanisms in the country has been the major factors that caused the large-scale destruction in the past. Geological assessment has unfolded vulnerabilities managed risk. in seismically active zone posing permanent threat of calamities. Pakistan is geographically situated at the junction of major tectonic plates and world's tallest / youngest ranges: the Himalayas, the Hindu KushandtheKarakoram. The regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir GilgitBaltistan and parts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes and landslides. Deforestation in these areas is the major contributing factor besides increased incidences of landslides. The Kashmir region and northern areas of Pakistan are prone to avalanches. Indus basin-related flash flooding through hill torrents also poses threat to the communitieslivinginthesurroundings. Floods The Indus River system offers the world's largest contiguous irrigation system, thereby, supporting the fertile flood plains downstream Terbela. Floods particularly hit Punjab and Sindh while hill torrents/flash floods tend to affect the hilly areas of KP, GB and Balochistan. The floods of 1950, 1973, 1976, 1988 and 1992 resulted in a large number of deaths and severe loss of property, while the July 2010 floods have been described as the worst in the last eighty years and led to nearly 20 million people being significantly affected with an estimated 1,800 human loss. The estimated loss to economywasaboutUSD10Billion. During the year under report, heavy monsoon resulted in severe inundation of lower Sindh and eastern Balochistan, thereby, affecting over 9.5 Million people. The monsoon floods of 2011 adversely affected major portions of cash crops in Sindh province with an estimated economic loss of USD 2.47 Billion Earthquakes Pakistan lies in a seismic belt and, therefore, suffers from frequent earthquakes of small, medium and Disaster Management System in Pakistan Annual Report 2011Chapter 1 3 www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan
  • 14. high magnitudes. Mountain ranges of Koh-e- Suleman, Hindu Kush and Korakuram are significantly vulnerable. Within the Suleman, Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountain ranges, the Northern Areas and Chitral district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kashmir including Muzaffarabad, and Quetta, Chaman, Sibi, Zhob, Khuzdar, Dalbandin, the Makran coast including Gwadar and Pasni in Balochistan are located in high or very high risk areas. Cities of Islamabad, Karachi and Peshawar are located on the edges of high risk areas. Four major disasters in 20th Century include 1935 Quetta earthquake, 1945 Makran Coast earthquake, 1976 Northern areas, and, 2005 Kashmir/KPquake. Droughts: Pakistan is also vulnerable to long-spell and seasonal droughts. In recent years,large areas of Balochistan, Sindh and Southern Punjab where average rainfall recorded below 100 mm have suffered heavy damages due to drought. Severe drought periods in 1998-2002 affected livelihood, resulted in human deaths, forced tens of thousands people to migrate and also destroyed a large number of cattleheads. The drought led to 120 casualties and affected 2.2 Million people. Arid rangelands are Thar, Cholistan, Dera Ghazi Khan, D.I. Khan, Thal, and western Balochistan, Most drought-prone areas of Pakistan do get occasional monsoon rains that are erratic in nature and scattered in geographic spread. Western Balochistan comprising Kharan and Chaghi desertsremaindrythroughouttheyears. The country needs to have a robust infrastructure to store enough water to secure itself against repeated droughts. In retrospect, the eastern side of the Indus has a huge irrigation network of barrages and canals. The western side of the river lacks much needed irrigation and flood infrastructure. The need for irrigation and flood works on the western side of the river has been widely felt in the last couple of years with the apparent westward shift of the monsoons. Tsunamis&Cyclones: The country has a long coastline making it prone to coastal disasters and emergencies including tsunamis and cyclones. A number of cyclones were recorded between 1971 and 2010. The cyclone of 1999 in Thatta and Badin districts wiped out 73 settlements, resulting in loss of 168 lives, 11,000 cattle-heads and 1800 fishing boats. Nearly 0.6 million people were affected. Moreover,the Cyclone Yemyin and PHET caused severe damagesinPakistan. ANeighbourhoodofVulnerability: The forecast of increasing temperature makes Future Global Predictions for Climate Change (IPPC Fourth Assessment Report, 2007) ¨ Temperatures will increase by 0.2°C per decadeforthenexttwodecades. ¨ Increased precipitation is likely at high latitudes, while decreases are likely in most subtropicalregions(suchasPakistan). ¨ Heat waves and heavy rainfall will become morefrequent. ¨ Therewillbeadecreaseinsnowcover. ¨ Due to past CO2 emissions and future emissions, global temperatures will continue to warm the lower layers of the oceans, causing the sea level to rise even if emissions arecontrolled. ¨ Summer precipitation is likely to decrease in South Asia, as well as during December to February. ¨ There will be an increase in the inter-annual variability of daily precipitation in the Asian summermonsoon. ¨ An increase of 1020% in tropical cyclone intensity is likely for a rise in sea surface temperature of 24°C relative to the current thresholdtemperature. ¨ Storm surge heights could increase as a result of stronger winds and increases in sea surfacetemperaturesandlowpressure. ¨ Disaster Management System in Pakistan www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan Annual Report 20114 Chapter 1
  • 15. Pakistan susceptible to climate change. Climate change is being considered as a critical factor behind unpredictable rainfall patterns and the visible increase in precipitation during monsoon seasons in Pakistan. These temperature increases are expected to be higher than the global average. The forecasts indicate a temperature increase by 0.9 Celsius by 2020 and 1.8 Celsius by 2050. Lying under the northern highlands, which include parts of the Hindu Kush, the Karakoram Range, and the Himalayas, Pakistan, is heavily reliant on the monsoons and snow-fed rivers. In the short term, the retreating glaciers in the Himalayas have increased risk of floods, due to more runoff in the main rivers. Similarly, it has also resulted in formation of glacial lakes that are potentially unstable. However, in the long term, there can be no replacement for the water provided by the glaciers and their retreat could result in water shortage at an unprecedented scale, with a steep decrease in annual river flows. The threatening patterns of climate change go beyond receding glaciers in the Himalayas as there would be serious consequences such as water scarcity, harsh weather trends, and lower crop yields resulting in higher prospects of famines, epidemics and sea-level rise, threatening the coastline. Geographical milieu and climatic variables are made more complex by the geo-strategic positioning. Increasing conflict in the region, coupled with socio-economic factors like high population growth rate poverty,poor urban management have made Pakistan more vulnerable to disasters. Figure: 1.2. Neighborhood of Vulnerability www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan Table No 1.1: Analysis of Natural Disasters in Pakistan (1987 - 2011) 1 Flood 8,927,685 11,702 1,262 38,669,447 47,589,394 2,746,030 86 1 2 Earthquake 2,853,585 142,812 88,096 1,294,429 4,236,110 5,019,255 8 2 3 Drought - 223 - 2,269,300 2,269,300 247,000 4 3 4 Famine - - - 300,000 300,000 - 1 4 5 Epidemic - 283 211 16,275 16,486 - 0 5 6 Wind Strom 22,579 11,654 1,183 1,057,000 1,080,780 4,100 2 6 7 Landslides 3,100 384 114 200 3,414 - 0 7 8 Extreme Temperature - 1,406 324 250 574 - 0 8 9 Total 11,806,967 168,464 9,190 43,606,901 55,505,058 8,016,385 - - 10 Flood 2010 1,744,471 1,984 2,946 20,184,550 20,184,550 10,000,000 - - 11 Flood 2011 1.5 520 1180 9.2 m US$ 247 # Disaster Type People Homeless People Killed People Injured People Affected Total Affected Total Damage $000 % Rank Source: NDMA Annual Reports Figure: 1.1. Neighborhood of Vulnerability Annual Report 2011 5Chapter 1
  • 16. 1.1 Disaster Risk Management in Pakistan Realizing the importance of flood management the Government of Pakistan initiated the Floods Control Program in the 4th Five-Year Plan (1970- 75). In 1974, Federal Emergency Relief Cell came up with the draft National Disaster Plan. It described organizational hierarchy, procedures, responding agencies, primary responsibilities, procedures of monitoring relief operations. The plan could not be completed. Disaster Risk Management in Pakistan till 2005 had been following the conventional relief and response model for coping with and managing the risk of natural disasters. West Pakistan National Calamities (Prevention and Relief) Act 1958 and Civil Defence Act 1952 were the first key legal instruments for organizing and coordinating the relieforientedmodel. The October 2005 earthquake left Pakistan spellbound and exposed the inadequacies of the existing disaster and emergency management apparatus. The response to the earthquake of 2005 highlighted the importance of a national platform to manage and coordinate the response efforts and to deal with risk of disasters in a holistic manner. In order to address the existing shortcomings and in compliance with the international commitments spelt in United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) 2000 and Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, National Disaster Management Ordinance (NDMO) was promulgated in 2006. Subsequently, the Parliament enacted National Disaster Management (NDM) Act in 2010 that provides a national disaster framework. Constitutional Basis of National Disaster Management Act 2010 Disaster Management is a subject under the exclusive jurisdiction of provinces as it is neither included in the Federal legislative list nor the defunct concurrent list. National Disaster Management Act 2010was enacted by invoking the powers given to the Federal Legislature under Article 144 (Part V Chapter 1), which confers the power upon Federal Legislature to legislate for two or more Provinces, if two or more provincial legislatures pass resolutions to the effect that the Parliament may by law regulate any matter not enumerated in either legislative list in the fourth schedule of the constitution. Therefore National Disaster Management Act 2010 was promulgated after the Federal Legislature was empowered by four provincial assembliesthroughtheirresolutions. Disaster Management: “Managing the complete disaster spectrum, including preparedness, r e s p o n s e , r e c o v e r y a n d rehabilitation and reconstruction.” NDMA Act 2010 1. The National Calamities (Prevention and Relief) Act was enacted in 1958 with a limited focus on relief and compensation. Besides The National Calamities (Prevention and Relief) Act 1958, major building blocks of Pakistan's Disaster Management system till 2005 included; Federal Emergency Relief Cell(ERC)- a central disaster management structure working under the Federal Cabinet Division, Civil Defence department established under Civil Defence Act 1952 (as amended in 1993), Fire Fighting services(Fire Brigade) etc 2. International covenants on DRM (e.g. UNISDR, HFA) establish two key obligatory benchmarks which include, DRM as a comprehensive framework instead of a fragmented approach and establishment of a national platform for responding to disasters as the desired approach. (Priority 1, HFA 2005) 3. Ordinance No XL of 2006, December 21, 2006. The Ordinance was promulgated under the powers conferred to the President of Pakistan under Article 89, Constitution of Pakistan 1973 Disaster Management System in PakistanDisaster Management System in Pakistan www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan Annual Report 20116 Chapter 1
  • 17. 1.2 National Disaster Risk ManagementFramework National Disaster Management Commission: The National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC), headed by the Prime Minister of 4 Pakistan, is the national policy making body for managing disasters. Besides the Prime Minister, members of NDMC include key Federal ministers, Leaders of opposition in National Assembly and Senate, Chief Ministers of all the provinces including GB, Prime Minister AJK, Governor KP, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, and representatives from the civil society and any other member appointed by the PrimeMinister. National Disaster Management Authority: The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the executive arm of the NDMC to coordinate and manage DRM activities at the national level. It is responsible for developing guidelines to be used by federal ministries, provincial departments and district authorities for preparing DRM plans. Provincial Disaster Management Commissions: Provincial Disaster Management Commissions (PDMC), headed by the respective Chief Minister, is mandated to formulate policies, approve provincial plans and oversee the Disaster Risk Management. Its members include; Leader of the Opposition at the provincial legislature and one member nominated by him, rest of the members are to be nominated by the Chief Minister. The provincial commissions operate through the Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMAs). Provincial Disaster Management Authorities: PDMA is headed by a Director General appointed by the Provincial Government. PDMA is responsible for coordinating with line departments and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) for DRM initiatives in the province and also responsible for implementing policies and plans for emergency response. District Disaster Management Authorities: At the district tier District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMA) have been established in all the provinces and regions. The district authorities are headed by Deputy Commissioners/District Coordination Officers. The DDMAs are responsible for district level planning, coordinating and implementation for disaster management and take all measures for the purpose of disaster management in the district under the guidance of thePDMAs. 1.3 National Disaster Manage- ment Authority: NDMA is the national body mandated to implement, coordinate and monitor disaster risk management in Pakistan. Main functions of the authorityinclude: ¨ Act as Secretariat of NDMC to facilitate implementation of disaster risk management strategies; ¨ Coordinate the complete spectrum of disaster risk management at the national level; ¨ Map all hazards in the country and conduct riskanalysisonaregularbasis; ¨ Develop guidelines and standards for national and provincial stakeholders regardingtheirrolesinDRM; ¨ Ensure establishment of Disaster 4. Section13-14,ChapterIII,NDMACT2011 5. Section15-16,ChapterIII,NDMACT2011 6. Section18-22,ChapterIV,NDMACT2011 www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan Annual Report 2011 7Chapter 1
  • 18. Disaster Management System in PakistanDisaster Management System in Pakistan www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan Government of Pakistan reaching out to the flood affected Annual Report 20118 Chapter 1
  • 19. Management Authorities and Emergency Operations Centres at provincial, district and municipal levels in hazard-prone areas; ¨ Provide technical assistance to federal ministries, departments and provincial DM authoritiesforDRMinitiatives; ¨ Organize training and awareness raising activities for capacity development of stakeholders, particularly in hazard-prone areas; ¨ Collect, analyse, process, and disseminate inter-sectoral information required in an all hazardsmanagementapproach; ¨ Ensure appropriate regulations are framed to developdisasterresponsevolunteerteams; ¨ Create the requisite environment for participation of media in DRM activities; ¨ Serve as the lead agency for NGOs to ensure their performance matches accepted international standards, e.g., the SPHERE standards; ¨ Serve as the lead agency for international cooperation in DRM. This will particularly include information sharing, early warning, surveillance, joint training, and common standards and protocols required for regional and international cooperation; ¨ Coordinate emergency response of the federal government in the event of a national level disaster through the National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC); ¨ Require any government department or agency to make available such persons or resources as are available for the purpose of emergency response, rescue and relief. The DM System, thus, has extended its approach to the grass root level by establishing PDMAs and DDMA. This has increased the capacity of the government to swiftly respond to disasters and resultantly make communities pliant and supple. The NDMA is in the process to strengthen the capacities of PDMAs and DDMAs in addition to institutionalizing the contemporary DRM practices. However, capacities of PDMAs and DDMAs vary largely in terms of emergency response,reliefoperationsandpreparedness. The DM system now has the capacity to mainstream DRR at national, provincial and local levels; and, bring in international technical expertiseandexperiences. The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act 2010 & its Implications for National Disaster Management The National Disaster Management Act 2010 was promulgated under Article 144, by the National Assembly after being empowered by all the Provincial Legislatures to legislate on the behalf of provinces. Moreover the NDMA Act 2010 is in consonance with the spirit of the Eighteenth Amendment Act, as it is centrifugal in nature and provides a framework based ondecentralizedriskgovernance. It provides for independent policy making, independent fund creation, utilization & administration at provincial level. Similar approach is evident in the case of district and local tiers. Annual Report 2011 9 www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Management System in Pakistan Chapter 1
  • 20. Annual Report 201110 Disaster Management System in Pakistan Chapter 1 Figure1.3.NationalDisasterManagementAuthorityOrganogram ChairmanChairman Member S&S Member Ops Member DRR Sectoral Specialist Project Units GCC DRR-IIIDRMDRR-IIDRR-I Media Cell DirRes DirRec &Reh Log Officer Dir C&IM DirA/P Dir Finance DDIDDR-I DyLog Officer DDII Call Centre DD(K MGT) DD Network Coord Library ADHR DD Finance AD Account DDO DD/ADP &ImpIII DD/ADP &ImpI ADP& ImpIV DD/ADP &ImpII DD Admin DDPro &Legal AD Admin
  • 21. N D M A ha teC p r 2 ha teC p r 2 Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient
  • 22. Disaster Risk Reduction: Making CommunitiesResilient The NDMA is proactively working at reducing the vulnerability to disasters, and providing coping mechanisms and adaptive framework. The NDMA aims at mainstreaming risk reduction strategies to increase Pakistan's pliability to natural hazardsandmakeitadisasterresilientnation. A brief account of the progress made in the main programmes and projects during 2011 are as follows: 2.1 Policy Initiatives 2.1.1. National Policy on Disaster Risk Reduction In line with the National Disaster Management Act, NDMA initiated the formulation of national policy on Disaster Risk Reduction with emphasis on planning, prevention, mitigation and preparedness. This policy would address the entire spectrum of disaster management through a well- knit strategy and implementation plan. The UNDP provided technical assistance to draft this policy. 2.1.2 National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) To strengthen DRM system in Pakistan, the NDMA, with the assistance of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), initiated work on ten- year national disaster management plan. After detailed consultations and technical studies, the plan was drafted for consultation of all stakeholders. The plan comprises following four components: ¨ DisasterManagementPlan ¨ Human Resource Development Plan on Disaster Management including NIDM Operational Plan and Design ¨ National Multi-Hazard Early Warning Plan, which will identify high-priority activities to be undertaken during the course of implementation of the Plan ¨ Guidelines for Community-Based Disaster RiskManagement(CBDRM) 2.1.3 DisasterRiskInsurance Pakistan's economy has suffered a loss of billions of dollars due to disasters since 2005. Reliance on Funding from donors and multilateral financial institutions has major limitations in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and sufficiency. Shortfalls in resources affect the poor and vulnerable households the most and lead to discontentment andangeragainstthegovernment. The National Disaster Risk Management Framework provides for development of insurance schemes for disaster risk reduction as a priority. NDMA is trying to develop a model of micro insurance that encourages investments in disaster prevention and provide for a more dignified means of coping with disasters. It would cover life, housing, assets, small businesses and cropsandlivestocketc. Index-Based insurance contracts would be written against a physical trigger such as an earthquake of a predetermined magnitude or above. This would mean that each time there is an earthquake of the magnitude above the agreed level the people of the area would become eligible for the payment of certainamountirrespectiveofactualloss. In order to ensure that the maximum number of people benefit from the insurance cover the government may consider an option wherein the contribution to the premium is based on the score of a household on the poverty index. This would Disaster Risk Reduction: Making Communities Resilient www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 2011 13Chapter 2
  • 23. mean that while the government would be paying the entire premiums for the poorest of the poor the governments share would keep reducing for the households placed at the happier position on the poverty score card. Thus, the upper middle classes may be paying most of the premium, while the more affording would take the entire burden of premium. The insurance program would be run as a trust out of the government control and managed by an independent board of private philanthropist and representatives of the corporate sector. The board would manage the insurance program for disaster prone communities and would maintain a fund that attracts contributions from both the private and corporate philanthropist. The fund will act as a special purpose vehicle designed to provide continuity in premium payments and ensuring transparency. 2.1.4 Climate Change Policy Inputs and Considerations In Pakistan, climate change has repeatedly caused extreme events such as the unprecedented floods, droughts, storms, glacial lake outbursts causing colossal losses. Climate change has adversely impacted natural resources, agriculture and livelihood. Over the years, Pakistan made some efforts related to climate change mitigation and adaptation. The NDMA, in close coordination with relevant federal ministry, remained active in the formulation of the policy. The NDMA has undertaken different initiatives to build the capacity of provinces and districts to cope with the challenges arisen from visible impact of climate changeinPakistan. 2.2 Institutional Initiatives 2.2.1: One UN Joint Programme for DisasterRiskManagement The NDMA is implementing a DRM programme, supported by the UN system. The programme is monitored by a steering committee, co-chaired by the Chairman, NDMA and the country heads of World Food Programme (WFP) and UNDP. The programme includes: I. DRM planning and institutional development II. DRM training through NIDM III. DRR mainstreaming IV. Tsunami early warning system V. Flood & cyclone mitigation VI. Earthquake risk reduction, recovery and preparedness 2.2.2. DRM Planning and Institutional Development: The NDMA, in coordination with UNDP, is supporting Government of Pakistan in establishing policy, legal and institutional arrangements for disaster risk management. The main purpose of this program is to develop and strengthen capacities of the provincial and district authorities to adopt strategies for reducing threat of disasters, while mitigating impact of disaster on communities. The NDMA has developed DRM plans for 30 vulnerable districts. As part of this component, the NDMA also undertook the consultative process for contingency planning for Monsoon 2011. The process entailed a bottom-up approach involving district-based stakeholders, engage in participatory consultation. The district-based consultation was repeated at the provincial level, feeding into national level contingency planning intervention. The effectiveness of the contingency planning is reflected through wide ownership by its implementing agencies, i.e. PDMAs and DDMAs. Series of these consultative workshops culminated in sharing the monsoon contingency plan with international community and media during June 2011. 2.2.3. National Institute of DisasterManagement To address the capacity issues of DRM, the NIDM www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201114 Chapter 2
  • 24. was established with the support of UN partners in April 2010, with the mandate to develop curriculum, organize training courses, conduct scientific and academic research, and provide input into policy development on Disaster Management. NIDM is catering the needs of the public and private sectors on DRM. NIDM has the followingobjectives: a. Develop curriculum on various facets of disastermanagement b. Undertake training, research and other relatedactivitiesondisastermanagement c. Develop linkages and build partnerships with national and international academic institutions d. Develop network of disaster management professionals and master trainers working in variousdisciplinesinthecountryandabroad e. Publish newsletters, books, research journals, and audio visuals to raise disaster riskawarenessamonggeneralpublic f. Liaison with Disaster Management institutions in the country and NIDM alumni and engage them in different activities i.e. trainings, workshop and technical assistance g. Establish and maintain database on disasters in the country and give regular updates throughNIDMwebsite During the reporting year, 13 training courses / workshops were organized in Islamabad and different provinces. A total of 628 participants were trained in different aspects of preparedness belonging to governments, academia, media, NGOs,INGOs,etc. 2.2.4.`DRR Mainstreaming As a policy initiative, the NDMA engaged a few professionals to sensitize various government agencies, ministries and departments on disaster risk reduction. The primary objective of these professionals was to mainstream DRR into national policy formulation. Working groups were formed at different levels to structure the discussions toward policy review and adoption of disaster resilient measures. The achievements in thisregardareasfollows; a. A separate chapter on “Disaster Management” in the forth-coming 10th Five-Year People's Development Plan was proposed to the PlanningCommission; b. Three DRR Checklists made part of project proposal under public sector development programme; c. Development of “Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)” Participants of two days workshop on Disaster Reporting Annual Report 2011 15 www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Chapter 2
  • 25. and its dissemination to concerned stake- holders; d. MIG Safety and Explosives Rules formulated and notified e. Action Plan coupled with Mass Awareness Campaign in connection with “Avoidance of LPG / CNG cylinders explosions and designation of 3rd Party Periodic Testers” developed and approved f. DRR Demo Model Project (Marble City Risalpur) completed in collaboration with Pakistan Stone Development Company (PASDEC), Ministry of Production and its Final Report published g. DRR best practice case study on "Flats Construction Based on System Build Technology at Sector I-9, Islamabad- Pakistan", was developed and printed in collaboration with Ministry of Housing & Works; h. DRR best practice case study on “Post- Disaster Structural Rehabilitation Case Study: Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Fire Affected Shaheed-e-Millat Secretariat Building, Islamabad” was developed and printed in collaboration with Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Housing and Works ; i. NDMA has supported Ministry of Housing & Works for development of an implementation mechanism for the building code of Pakistan; j. Ministry of Industries was supported to initiate a survey for profiling of LPG cylinders manufacturers from DRR perspective; k. Draft Ministerial Strategy on DRR Mainstreaming for Ministry of Production was developed; l. Proposal on Capacity Building was provided to Ministry of Industries by developing proposal on the “Establishment of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); m. Feasibility and Technical Proposal on Profiling of Paint and Varnishes was developedforMinistryofIndustries; n. A detailed concept document on Cleaner Production (CP) in industrial sector was developed for Ministry of Industries for availing EU assistance on CP Programme leading to sustainable consumption and industrialproduction; o. Action Plan coupled with awareness campaign on avoidance of explosions of CNG vehicular cylinders was developed and shared with the Ministry of Industries and Ministry of P e t r o l e u m & N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . Consequently, a Technical Committee and Task Force on CNG Cylinder blast was constituted; p. A proposal was developed for Ministry of Industries on “Capacity Building on OccupationalSafetyandHealth(CBOSH)”; q. Draft Ministerial strategy for Ministry of Defence on DRR Mainstreaming was developed and submitted to MWG for circulation and finalization; r. A Proposal on GIS-based Risk Mapping of Industrial Area of Amangarh, Nowshera was developed for Ministry of Industries. NOC was received from KP but clearance is still awaited from Ministry of Defence; s. In order to raise awareness to avoid boiler explosions, an advertisement was financed to be released in the press was developed and approved by Ministry of Industries; t. A proposal of ''Economical Utilization of Marble Slurry was developed for'' Ministry of Box No. 2.1 Key partners in Mainstreaming DRR in 2011: Planning Commission, Ministry of Housing and Works, Ministry of Water and Power, Ministry of Industries, Ministry of Production, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Communication, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Ministry of Production, Ministry of Railways, Capital Administration and Development Division, CDA, World Bank, DFID, NESPAK, Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC, Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP), Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC),PunjabandKP www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201116 Chapter 2
  • 26. Production; u. MWG of the Ministry of Defence approved 1- 2% of the development budget for allocating to DRR related activities within the Ministry fromtheforth-comingfiscalyear; v. National Economic Growth Policy drafted by Planning Commission of Pakistan was Reviewed with reference to disaster risk managementpracticesinPakistan; w. Draft concept note on future activities on DRR Mainstreaming in Punjab was developed and shared with PDMA; x. Work initiated on a conceptual framework for the proposed Provincial Disaster Risk Management Framework for Punjab and KP; y. Supported NDMA and PDMAs for review process on the proposed National Disaster Management Plan 2012-22, being preparedwithsupportfromJICA-Pakistan; z. Six capacity-building events under the DRR mainstreaming were organized in 2011 in which over 200 participants from the partners Ministries / Organization and Provinces were trained. These training events focused on raising awareness on DRR mainstreaming to the specialized areas identified by the concernedWorkingGroupsonDRR. 2.2.5. Earthquake Risk Reduction, Recovery and Preparedness (ERRP): The NDMA initiated detailed study on micro- zonation of major earthquake-prone cities of Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, Quetta, Murree and Chitral. Seismic hazard micro-zonation is a procedure for estimating the total seismic hazard from surface rupturing, ground shaking and other related phenomena by taking into account the effects of local ground conditions that may induce direct and/or indirect earthquake hazards. Micro- zonation maps identify the zones with similar levels of potential hazards. The objectives of this exercise were to assess and mitigate the earthquake risks, build resilience of vulnerable communities, strengthen the institutional and community level capacity to disaster resilience, plan and implement earthquake risk reduction strategies and knowledge sharing for sustained DRR impact. The assignment recognized the multifaced problems of the urban areas and adopted a systematic approach forsuccessfulriskreductioninthetargetcities. The maps produced through this initiative are being used for land-use planning for urban development and location/relocation of critical public facilities and utilities. 2.2.6. Pilot Study on Multi-Hazard V u l n e r a b i l i t y a n d R i s k AssessmentinMurree Multi-Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (MHVRA) is an important tool for identifying vulnerabilities, risks and capacities of a system. This tool helpful to mainstream disaster risk reduction consideration into development processes. It is a significant aspect of mitigating the negative impact of disasters and minimizing losses to human lives and property. 2.2.7. A w a r e n e s s R a i s i n g o n Earthquake-SafeConstruction The NDMA arranged a shake-table demonstration to raise awareness among the people of Murree on earthquake resilient construction. Engineers, architects, masons, government officials, students, teachers and general public participated in the demonstration th heldonMarch16 ,2011inMurree. www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 2011 17Chapter 2
  • 27. Shake-table was used to demonstrate as to how risk-reduction techniques in building construction can help buildings withstand such forces during an earthquake and enlightened people on the simplicity of integrating earthquake-resistance techniques into the buildings. The demonstrations involved creating two scaled-down models of buildings and placing them on a special platform that produces a shaking force similar to that of an earthquake. One of the model buildings was built using earthquake resistant technologies, whereas the other was built using traditional methods. The force with which the platform shakes was increased gradually. The building model using traditional methods inevitably collapsed, whereas the other buildingremainedunaffected. Besides the demonstration, the NDMA also trained around 1,000 professionals from the construction industry including engineers, masons, contractors and related officials. During the reporting year, Seismic content for Diploma of Associate Engineering - Civil (DAE- Civil) was developed and endorsed by NAVTTEC. The customization of RESIST software was also accomplished. The software enables students to analyse structure and to determine the numbers and sizes of earthquake andwindloadresistingelementsinabuilding. 2.2.8. Tsunami and Coastal Hazard Mitigation Considering the vulnerability of Makran coast against natural disasters like Earthquake, Tsunami and Cyclone, NDMA in collaboration with UNDP, initiated a pilot component on Strengthening Tsunami Early Warning System in Pakistan in November 2008. With the successful completion of work plan initiatives in Gwadar during 2009, the same initiative was planned to extend in Thatta for the year 2010 and to all five coastal districts in 2011 and beyond. During 2011, the component focused on Tsunami and Coastal Hazard Mitigation awareness along the coastal belt ofDistrictGwadarandThatta. The NDMA and UNDP have jointly launched a project called “Tsunami Awareness Campaign for Schools”. The objective of this campaign was to educate the inhabitants about disaster prevention andpreparedness. The campaign has been initiated in 40 schools of Lasbella, Karachi, Thatta and Badin districts. A total of 800 school children (boys and girls) participated in the series of trainings. Apart from the students, the campaign also engaged teachers, School Management Committee (SMC) members, civil society organizations, working in thesedistrictsandtheDDMA. www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201118 Chapter 2 Participants of Tsunami Evacuation Drill
  • 28. The NDMA in collaboration with NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi organized a two-day workshop on “Preparedness for Tsunami th and Coastal Hazards Risk Reduction” on 25-26 October 2011. The objective of the workshop was to introduce basic concepts of tsunami generation to the students of coastal districts of Sindh and Balochistan, and to highlight issues related to tsunami preparedness and mitigation measures. The workshop was also aimed at providing skills and training to the students who will not only be enable to plan and execute disaster management activities but also strengthen the early warning systems in the project area. Over 60 university students belonging to districts Badin, Lasbella, Karachi, Gwadar, and Thatta participated in the workshop. Another workshop, on 27th-28th Oct, 2011 was organized for the district officials and other stakeholders from Karachi, Gwadar, Lasbella, BadinandThatta. The NDMA also organized tsunami evacuation drills in districts of Badin and Lasbella. The objectives of the event were to equip local communities with necessary coping strategies against natural disasters especially tsunamis and to demonstrate local level mitigation and preparednessmeasures. 2.2.9. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f T s u n a m i Evacuation Route Keeping in view the vulnerability of Gwadar Town, the NDMA identified a safe zone of 106 acres of land at Koh-e-Batil, which is adjacent to the coast. A DRM park was planned to be developed on that site for relocating the residents of Gwadar in case of Tsunami/cyclone. The plan aims to provide safe shelters and warehouses on the plateau. A staircase has been developed on the Koh e Batil, providing safe walkway of the communities during emergencies. Total Length of the pathway is1,250 ft. To facilitate the movement of community, sea water tanks were also installed along the route for drinkingpurpose. 2.2.10. MangrovePlantation To conserve the coastal ecology and stabilize the coastal belt, Mangrove forests play an important role due to their elongated root structure. Besides strengthening the sandy soil, the plants also provide natural habitat to a variety of fish species. www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 2011 19Chapter 2 Tsunami evacuation route built by NDMA at Gawadar (Balochistan)
  • 29. To set an example, the NDMA planted over 100 hectres of Mangrove forest and developed best practices for its regular maintenance. The information so gathered was disseminated through awareness sessions of the communities in Gwadar district. The plantation sites and the nursery were kept under 24/7 surveillance to protect them. Training sessions for local school children and communities including exposure visits to the plantation site, lectures on the importance of mangroves and collection of seeds were carried out throughout the year. The local community including elders, fishermen and other stakeholders were mobilized onthevillagelevelconservationconcepts. 2.2.11. B a s i c E a r l y - W a r n i n g CommunicationEquipment In order to strengthen the communication/early warning system in coastal areas for timely evacuation during emergencies, early warning communication equipment was provided to the communities of district Gwadar & Thatta in consultation with the district governments. The equipment includes PTCL Wireless phones, Sirens, Torches, lifesaving jackets & Megaphones. In addition to Early Warning, this equipment can alsobeusedduringsearchandrescueoperations. 2.2.12. Satellite Early Warning System In January 2010, NDMA conducted a survey for the most vulnerable Tsunami-prone communities, as part of a pilot project. Accordingly, Gwadar was selected as the most tsunami prone area of Pakistan that needs installation of satellite based Early Warning System. The first EWS was installed and activated in Gwadar on February 3rd, 2011. The efforts of NDMA were highly appreciated by local stakeholders, print & electronic media and urged for the installation of similar high tech communicationsysteminrestofthecoastalareas. 2.2.13. F l o o d M i t i g a t i o n a n d InstitutionalDevelopment Pakistan local communities especially those living on riverbanks and flood plains lack communication/early warning systems regarding disasterthreats. During 2011, CBDRM trainings were initiated in the 10 most affected Union Councils of District Muzaffargarh. The trainings were imparted to 438 community members, including 100 females. In addition, CBDRM trainings were extended to districtBhakkar. www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201120 Chapter 2
  • 30. The NDMA in coordination with DDMA, Rescue 1122 and line departments convened emergency response trainings on medical first response, water search & rescue and fire fighting. Community members included 177 males and 45 females from eight flood-prone Union Councils (UCs) of district Jhang participated in the trainings. The NDMA carried out a series of training programmes for 386 government officials performing various departmental activities in ten districts across the country. These trainings ensured proper operationalization and functioning of DDMAs, as part of an institutional strengtheningstrategy. 2.2.14. A w a r e n e s s R a i s i n g Sessions/Workshops During 2011, the NDMA carried out several awareness-raising campaigns on Monsoon Floods in schools of Nasirabad, Layyah, Jhang, Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Gilgit, Skarddu, Neelum, Jaffarabad, D.I. Khan, Nowshera, Charsadda and Bhakkar. The NDMA was able to reach out over 15,500 students (girls & boys) from 280 schools. 2.2.15. Institutional support to PDMAs and DDMAs: The NDMA provided technical support to all provincial DMAs in 30 districts. The technical support comprised deployment of 37 DRM professionals along with the allied technological input to assist the provincial and district DMAs in disaster management interventions. This assistance resulted in compilation of district-based contingency plans for various disasters and building capacity of the officials of district governments on disaster preparedness and response. With the positioning of District DRM Coordinators in the 30 most vulnerable districts of Pakistan, a strong coordination mechanism was developed. 19 DDRMCs with their efforts were able to establish DRM and Gender forums. These fora advocate gender concerns and mainstream gender considerations into DRM initiatives in the districts. Box.No 2.2 Badin Shelter in Sindh Province: Delayed construction of a community emergency shelter in District Badin was carried out as per design changes suggested by the expert from NED University Karachi. The super structure of the shelter was successfully completed and is being used by the community for multiple purposes. During disasters, communities used this shelter as a safe-haven and took refuge in it. During peace times, the shelter is used for community gatherings, marriages, education activities and other social functions. After completion, the Emergency Shelter will be handed over to the district government which will be responsible for its maintenance. www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 2011 21Chapter 2
  • 31. 2.3. One Million Safer Schools and Hospitals Campaign 2011 The NDMA, in collaboration with UNISDR, launched a campaign in October 2011 to pledge commitment to a global project of 'One Million Safer Schools and Hospitals (OMSSH)'. The driving force behind this campaign was to provide a safe environment for children, as they are the most disadvantaged group of our society whenever a disaster strikes. The NDMA's purpose behind initiating this program was threefold: 1. Mitigate all future disaster impact; 2. Raise public awareness so as to create a demand for safer schools and hospitals; and 3. Encourage and promote participation from the public and private sectors of Pakistan such as Government departments, Ministries. INGOs, NGOs, industries, companies, the general population, service providers,donorsandthelegalcommunity. 2.3.1. Goals The goals of the One Million Safer Schools and Hospitals/SaferCities2011areasfollows: 2.3.2. Safer Hospitals: ¨ Creation of a functional environment with firm buildingconstructionandretrofit; ¨ Establishment of a hospital Disaster Risk Management plan along with community and hospitaldisastermanagementcommittees; ¨ Ensuring that the general population has access tosafeandprotectivehospitals; ¨ Training of hospital administrative personnel in Disaster Risk Reduction, effective response procedures and other essential skills by introducingaformalcurriculum;and ¨ The introduction of a presentation into the system through hospital preparedness, evacuationplansandearlywarningsystems. 2.3.3. Safer Schools: ¨ To create and maintain a safe learning environment with firm building construction; ¨ To retrofit and establish a school Disaster Risk Management Plan with an aim to teach disaster prevention and preparedness thus building a culture of access and safety. 2.4 C o n t i n g e n c y P l a n f o r Monsoon2011 During the pre-Monsoon meeting held in June 2011, the NDMA embarked upon initiating a consultative dialogue with all the stakeholders to effectively engage them in planning process for any flood emergency and develop a contingency plan. Box.No 2.4 1. NDMA adopted an innovative approach and took all concerned stakeholders on board for the 2011 Monsoon ContingencyPlanning. 2. Inclusive planning was hence done with thePDMA's. 3. Thereafter, in February 2011, NDMA formed a Technical Working Group which would map risk and vulnerabilities across flood affected areas and identify likelyscenarios. 4. This would help anticipate humanitarian mpact by forward contingency planning exercisethroughbottomupapproach. www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201122 Chapter 2 Dr. Zafar Qadir, Chairman NDMA, addressing at the launch of One Million Safe Schools & Hospitals Campaign
  • 32. The plan included the following features: ¨ To map the vulnerability associated to disaster threat ¨ To map the resources available to face the challenge ¨ To promote integrated lifesaving responses to monsoonhazards ¨ To highlight focus on disaster impact and its mitigation ¨ To examine life-saving response and improve theresponsemanagement ¨ To mobilize the resources and communities for preparedness and response 2.5 Urban Search and Rescue Teams The NDMA provided institutional capacity support of trained and fully equipped human resource of 88-member heavy team for urban search and rescue, specializing in collapsed building structures to the city governments of Karachi and Islamabad earlier. Capitalizing on past experience, similar support was extended to Pakistan Army by training and equipping a medium urban search and rescue team, comprisingof54personnelandafewsnifferdogs. 2.6 TheGenderImperative Women and children are particularly vulnerable in any disaster. The challenges that were faced by them in the aftermath of Floods 2010, exhibited the need to constitute an institutional mechanism within DRM structure to integrate their specific needs and concerns in the whole spectrum of disaster i.e. disaster risk management and preparedness, rescue, relief, early recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction . Consequently, NDMA established the Gender & Child Cell in August, 2011 with the technical and financial support of various donors. Main purpose Chairman NDMA Dr. Zafar Qadir, Senator Syed Nayyar Bukhari, Ms. Shehnaz Wazir Ali, (SAPM) in a meeting with UN delegation on Gender Policy Dialogue for NDMA www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Com munities Resilient Annual Report 2011 23Chapter 2 Training of USAR teams
  • 33. of the GCC is to mainstream issues and concerns of vulnerable segments of society; especially women, children, elderly people and those with specialabilities. The GCC organized a series of consultative workshops with a view to raise awareness on gender equality and child protection; thereby leading to a policy draft on social protection. The consultations involved greater interaction with key stake holders including representatives from government,UNandcivilsociety. The GCC organized a consultative session in Muzzafarabad-AJK, involving key ministers, parliamentarians and government officials. The main purpose of the consultative workshop was to build the capacity of NGOs and government departments in gender perspective & policy on protection, prevention & provision. The session was successful in facilitating and reinforcing synergies amongst various players in the developmentsector. 2.6.1. The Gender Markers The GCC conducted a session on the importance and application of gender markers in relation to project proposals that needed to be finalized. The purpose of the session was to sensitize the officials working at the NDMA and other federal agencies about the importance of gender markers with a view to prioritize the projects which had minimum acceptable threshold of gender concerns being addressed. 2.7. NDMA at International Fora 2.7.1: SAARC Disaster Management Centre Pakistan attended the sixth meeting of the Governing Board of SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) held in New Delhi, India on September 5-6, 2011. The Board reviewed the progress of DRM initiatives in the region and urged member states to also link up with the knowledge portal viz South Asia Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN), for timely sharing ofinformation. 2 . 7 . 2 : N D M A - A s i a n D i s a s t e r P r e p a r e d n e s s C e n t r e CooperationProgramme A High-Level Meeting to commemorate Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC)'s 25-year Federal Minister for Climate Change Rana Farooq Saeed Khan, Chairman NDMA Dr. Zafa Iqbal Qadir and Chairman IPCC (Nohle Peace Prize Winner) Dr. R.K. Pachauri with NDMA Officers. www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201124 Chapter 2
  • 34. NDMA Study Delegation with the Governor of Uttaradit Province of Thailand achievements was held on 23-24th March, 2011 in Bangkok, Thailand. The gathering took stock of key results and successes achieved by ADPC during the past 25 years and its future role in supporting Asia's DRR priorities. The NDMA used this occasion to develop collaborative partnership with ADPC with a view to enhance capacity on policy and implementation in the field ofDisasterRiskManagement. 2.7.3: UNFCC The NDMA participated in the climate change negotiations, organized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) during COP-17 held in November- December2011inSouthAfrica. During the conference, NDMA showcased the Climate Change challenges of 2010 super floods and rain generated floods 2011. Side event titled “Pakistan in the Grip of Climate Change” was also organized. Leading representatives from different countries including the Chairman of Inter- governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Nobel Laureate Dr R. K. Pachauri also participated in the event. 2.7.4:BilateralCooperationwithKorea The NDMA initiated a proposal for bilateral cooperation on disaster management with the National Emergency Management Agency of South Korea. The proposal seeks to tap mutual bilateral cooperation towards enhancing knowledge base through exchange of knowledge/information, training/ workshops/ expertsinthefieldofdisastermanagement. 2.7.5: Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA) The NDMA is actively engaged in pursuing its objectives in line with HFA. In this regard, the NDMA has initiated the formulation of national policy on disaster risk reduction. On the parallel, proactive approach on preparing National Disaster Management Plan for the next 10 years has been a significant achievement 2.8. NDMA Global Outreach The NDMA, being active partner of different formal and informal international regional and political fora, participated in various meetings related to Disaster Management. The important www.ndma.gov.pk Disaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 2011 25Chapter 2
  • 35. www.ndma.gov.pkDisaster Risk Reduction Making Communities Resilient Annual Report 201126 Chapter 2 meetingsandeventsincludedthefollowing: a. ECO's Regional Conference on Capacity Building for Disaster Risk Reduction in Kabul, Afghanistan b. SAARC Regional Training Workshop for Development of Framework on needs of Children, India c. 2nd UNISDR Asia Partnership (IAP) Program,Thailand d. Summit level Meeting to commemorative Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC)'s 25 years achievements in Bangkok,Thailand e. 9th Meeting of Regional Consultative Committee (RCC) of ADPC in Phnom Penh,Cambodia f. US Army Central Regional Civil Military OperationsSymposium,USA g. 30th International Conference of Red Cross and Red Crescent Society December29,2011 h. Wilton Park Conferences held in Switzerland and Thailand i. ADRC sponsored “Asian Conference on Disaster Reduction 2011” in Colombo, Sri Lanka j. General Assembly Meeting of Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region (EMME)inJordan k. Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER) Regional Planning Meeting in Manila, Philippines
  • 36. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 N D M A Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 37. RespondingtoDisasters The NDMA's response to Floods 2010 was commendable in every aspect of disaster management. The performance it showed during the turmoil and the progress through the recovery phase despite the onset of another flood was all aces. Pakistan was still living through the aftermaths of 2010 floods that 2011 brought its share of adversities. However, this year the NDMA swiftly responded to the disaster by incorporating an efficient supply chain and distribution network. The NDMA spearheaded and coordinated the emergencyreliefandresponsetotheaffected. The response encompassed provision of rescue, aid, transportation, temporary shelters and food to establish relief camps. It is noteworthy that the focus of emergency relief and response was to meet the basic requirements of the affected populace untilthepermanentsolutionswereinplace. An effective response on behalf of the NDMA and its humanitarian partners helped save human lives and financial assets. NDMA, along with its partners, responded to the following disasters during 2011: a. Rain Floods 2011- Sindh & Balochistan b. Earthquake - Dalbandin, Balochistan c. Flash Flood - Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa d. Mudslide - Village Talis, District Ghanche, Gilgit Baltistan 3.1. Rain Floods - Sindh and Balochistan,2011 The Floods 2011 in Sindh and Balochistan from 10th August to 14th September, 2011 affected 23 districts. Rainfall this year was unusual in a number of ways. In comparison to the floods of 2010, these floods neither hit the admittedly flood-prone areas along the eastern tributaries of the Indus River nor to its western side in Punjab and KP. Instead, it resulted from the pounding of water due to excessive downpour in southern districts of Sindh. The heavy showers were severe in contrast to the previous years' precipitation. These areas have had their fair share of droughts in the previous year’s and sudden rains were unanticipated. Most of the natural drains and culverts of the riverine system were blocked by way of encroachment or misuse resulting in water-stagnation in these areas. The stagnant water triggered disease germination, aggravatingtheadversitiesinthearea. The precipitation in parts of Sindh was estimated at 270 percent during this period, above normal rainfall in the region. Combined with the diverse topography of the region, both low-lying and flat terrains, the continued heavy rains over- capacitated the soil, as well as flood-mitigation infrastructure, resulting in the inundation of substantial areas. Despite several breaches along its length, the Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD) of the Indus River, not designed for flood or rainwater spill of the magnitude, facilitated the drainage of a considerable volume of floodwater from Sindh out Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect Prime Minister of Pakistan Constitutes Parliamentary Committee on Flood Relief In order to galvanise the relief efforts, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani instituted a parliamentary committee to supervise flood relief operations and ensure effective coordination with the provincial governments. The members of the committee included Senator Syed Nayyar Hussain Bokhari, members of the parliament; Mr. Raja Pervez Ashraf, Mr. Ch. Qamar Zaman Kaira and Mr. NazarMuhammadGondal. www.ndma.gov.pk Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect Annual Report 2011 29Chapter 3
  • 38. The table below shows total damages caused by rain-generated floods during 2011. Table 3.1: Details of Deaths and Damages during 2011 Floods In order to manage the emergency situations in 2011, the National Emergency Operation Centre (NEOC) was activated in the month of July, 2011 as per the SOPs of NDMA. The NDMA officials were active 24/7 for length of the operation. The team received and registered affectees' complaints and responded directly or referred them to PDMAsorDDMAsforimmediateactions. 3.2. Government Response Despite the challenges posed by the floods, Government of Pakistan launched one of the largest ever relief operation in August, 2011 with the available resources to the tune of PKR 10 Billion. The resources were dedicated to the purchase and distribution of relief items including family tents, ration packs, mosquito nets, water filtration units, tablets and other non-food items (NFIs). The NDMA in collaboration with the provincial governments of Sindh and Balochistan led the response activities and coordinated through the relevant PDMAs and DDMAs for the provisionofreliefitems. In its efforts to reach out to the affected population, the NDMA established 33 fixed and 22 mobile healthcare units to treat more than 1.53 Million patients. Insecticide fumigation was also carried out in the affected areas to reduce the risk of diseases like malaria. Details of damages and relief provided to Sindh and Balochistan in response is shown in Annex 6.1. Pakistan Cards were issued to flood affectees. Progress on distribution of Pakistan Cards in Sindh, up to December 31st, 2011, is shown Annex 6.2. Following major response activities were undertaken:- 3.2.1. Supply Chain The surprise element in the intensity and duration of heavy rainfalls in Sindh and Balochistan in 2011 was the major factor in undertaking the biggest ever relief operation by the Government of Pakistan. The PDMAs were operational and the NDMA spearheaded the process of providing rescue services and relief support to over 9 Million people for a period of more than three months. While providing rescue and relief services, the NDMA was also engaged in institutional strengthening of PDMAs and DDMAs with policy support, provision of trained human resource, technical assistanceandlogisticsupport. The NDMA established an effective supply chain mechanism, engaging manufacturers, suppliers and service providers. The transportation, communication and monitoring of logistic operations were institutionalized. Despite challenges, the NDMA was able to timely deliver goods and supplies in required quantities at the designated destinations without any significant interruption. The system was able to manage procurement and delivery of relief goods worth over PKR 5 Billion in a short period in the most transparent manner, with the details regularly published on the NDMA website( ). 3.2.2. Emergency Procurements: The unprecedented rains in Sindh during the monsoon season of 2011 severely affected major portion of Sindh, causing losses to life and property. Due to widespread inundations caused by continuous heavy rains from August 10, 2011 www.ndma.gov.pk S. No. Description Damages 2011 1 Death 520 2 Injuries 1180 3 Affected districts 23 4 Affected population 9.2 m 5 Affected houses 1.5 m 6 Affected area 25090 Sq km 7 Affected cropped area 881.03 thousand ha Source: NDMA, Islamabad www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 201130 Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 39. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 31Chapter 3 NDMA’s robust relief goods supply chain management Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 40. affected around 9.2 million people. The NDMA initiated the rescue and relief operations on August 13, 2011 and shipped tents, ration packs and non- food items from the reserved inventory at their warehouse to ravaged areas. During 2011 floods, NDMA resorted to emergency procurement of necessary relief items in accordance with the provisions of NDM Act 2010. This ensured a continuous provision of life saving relief items procured by the NDMA from Canteen Stores Department (CSD), the Utility Stores Corporation (USC) and other organizations / private vendors. The emergency procurements were made in a timely, swift, transparent and efficient manner by fulfilling the legal and procedural requirements of emergency procurement despite the time constraints. The emergency persisted during the month of Ramadan when the emergency relief efforts were even harder due to shorter working days and Eid holidays. The production capacity of food and non-food items was on the decline due to declined industrial productivity. While the emergency relief operations were underway, continuous monsoon rains further aggravated the conditions in Sindh and parts of Balochistan, increasing the demand of tents, ration packs, and other lifesaving NFIs. The emergency procurement was undertaken in a swift manner, being cognizant to the importance of transparency. It was ensured that all requirements and procedures for fair and timely procurement were followed despite the time constraint and urgency in supply of relief goods in accordance with statutory provisions under the sections 9 (a and f) and32 of NDM Act 2010,besides emergency procurement provisions under Rule 42 of Public Procurement Rules 2004. The NDMA sent the relief items to respective PDMAs to cater for the increasing flood-hit population. Details of relief items procured by the NDMA during Floods 2011 are as under: a.Family Tents 105,333 b. Ration Packs 2,016,516 (36297 metric tons) c.Water Purification Tablets 5,000,000 d. Mosquito Nets 100,000 e.Water Filters 5,100 3.2.3. USAID Support: The support provided by USAID through International Organization for Migrants (IOM) during the response of Floods 2011 enabled the NDMA to provide 23,000 ration packs (18 kg each) to the flood affectees in Sindh. USAID also built the logistic capacity of NDMA by providing transportationofreliefitemsfromIslamabadtothe floodaffectedareas. In addition, the support was also provided to enhance the human resource of NDMA during emergency phase. With this assistance, NDMA was able to hire the services of Emergency Support Staff to augment response capacity, and sectoral experts and programme officers as part of the Strategic Planning Unit (SPU) that effectively workedforfollowing:- (1) Preparation of Polices related to response, gender issues, camp management, and theirimplementation (2) Assistedplanning and tailoring of response activities in line with the ever changinggroundsituation (3) Assistedinresourcemobilization (4) Coordinate sustained relief and recovery efforts; and share information with all organizations for a common and clear picture 3.2.4. Coordination &Monitoring: TheNDMA deployed its officers in the affected districts for facilitation. In spite of damaged road- infrastructure, the Authority effectively mobilized relief items for the affected population. The officers so deployed, successfully coordinated the relief efforts with the District Authorities for the affected Districts, monitored the relief convoys www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 201132 Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 41. and over saw their timely distribution. These officers also shared / provided the correct picture and much needed information with the Authority for effective response. Subsequently, these officers played a pivotal role in on ground coordination with the UN and other implementing partners. 3.2.5. Tele-Healthcare Services: The NDMA launched Pakistan's first tele- healthcare mobile unit in September, 2011 to attend to the flood affected areas in Badin, Tando Mohammad Khan and Mirpur Khas districts. Speaker National Assembly Dr. Fehmida Mirza inaugurated the pilot project in Badin. These centres boasted live-video consultation, medical equipment and call centers operating 24/7 on toll-free numbers. Each unit comprised of 2 medical doctors assisted by 2 paramedics. Where required, calls would be forwarded to the specialists in Karachi. The centers had the facility to maintain medical records for future references.The patients were issued medical numbers by hand and/or via mobile phones. The system treated more than 200 patients on daily basis during the length of 2011 floods. The facility is still operational at Badin. 3.2.6. Telemedicine Mobile Units To provide timely and swift medical advice to the flood affectees in Sindh, the NDMA provided state-of-the-art telemedicine mobile units. The facility was inaugurated at Press Club, Karachi by the members of parliamentary committee on the flood relief. The mobile units were sponsored by AMAN Foundation; and, were fully equipped with vehicles sporting top-of-the- line biometric devices which streamed live video, and audio through wireless broadband or EDGE- based mobile internet to a specialist facility for the diagnosisofENT,dentalandskindiseases. 3.3. Rapid Response Plan The NDMA, in collaboration with UNOCHA, undertook a joint rapid needs assessment in the distressed districts of Sindh and Balochistan on September18, 2011. Information from the joint rapid needs assessment formed the basis of the Rapid Response Plan Pakistan Floods 2011. The e-Health services one of NDMA’s major concerns www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 33Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 42. plan envisaged interventions in areas of food security, shelter / non-food items, health, water & sanitationandhygiene. The Rapid Response Plan sought USD 356.7 Million to enable the UN agencies and their implementing partners to support the Government of Pakistan in addressing the needs of disaster-stricken families for six months. As of December, 31st, 2011, over USD 174 Million had been pledged to the humanitarian community which accounted for nearly 46 percent of the requested amount in the Rapid Response Plan for 2011 floods. 3.3.1.The UN and Humanitarian Assistance UN organizations and NGOs have been providing life-saving emergency assistance to flood-affected communities in response to the appeal by the GovernmentofPakistan. As of December 31, 2011, more than three million people received food assistance, and nearly 21,000 families benefited from agricultural support. Around 379,000 medical consultations were recorded and medicines, including life-saving and chronic disease drugs, were provided to 950,000 people. To support education 1959 temporary learning centres were set up supporting over 92,000 children. Over 1.2 Million people were assisted with potable water, while an estimated 480,000 people were provided with sanitation facilities and over 1.5 Million people with hygiene sessions. For the shelter requirements, there has been extensive consultations by the NDMA with the UN partners for adding resilience components to the temporary shelters. The idea of such value addition was to enhance the durability and strength of the structure so as to sustain few more events of the kind. The concepts so discussed embarked upon clubbing the shelter and wash activities together to cater for the issues of safe living and social protection. The specifications of such shelters having provision for project facilities were finalized but lack of funding was an impediment to implementtheplan. 3.3.2. Support from International Community The NDMA and the Government of Pakistan recognise and appreciate the generous support of the countries whose valuable and timely support Medical services provided to the affectees www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 201134 Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 43. Table3.2: Highlightsofsector-wisedamagesalongwiththetotalcostof reconstruction. S. No. Country Date No. of Flights Items Remarks 1. China 22 & 24 September, 2011 9 7000 tents 2. Turkey 24 September, 2011 1 250 tents,12 tons medicines 3. Korea 23 & 24 September, 2011 2 100 tents, 7110 blankets & 3300 Aqua Tablets 4. Egypt 26 & 28 September, 2011 2 110 tents and 2000 blankets. & 2.9 ton medicines 5. France 25 September, 2011 1 200 tents, 540 blankets, 16 tarpaulins, 168 kitchen sets, 900 jerry cans, 05 water pumps, 10 water tanks 6. Russia 6 & 11 October, 2011 2 280 tents, 2800 blanket s, 10 motor pumps, 12 water purifiers, 200 boxes of sugar, 200 boxes o f rice and 600 boxes of canned fish All foreign assistance was received directly by PDMA Sindh for further distribution to rain / flood affected districts Total Flights 17 Source: NDMA Table 3.3: Estimate of Total Damage Costs by Sector 1. Social Infrastructure Housing 77,420 8,046 85,465 982 Health 432 826 1,258 14 Education 10,157 1,856 12,014 138 Subtotal 88,009 10,728 98,737 1,135 2. Physical Infrastructure Irrigation and Flood Management 4,763 4,763 55 Transport and Communications 16,386 10,082 26,468 304 Water Supply and Sanitation 500 704 1,204 14 Energy 457 783 1,240 14 Subtotal 22,106 11,569 33,674 387 3. Economic Sector Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries 142,358 17,749 160,107 1,840 Private Sector, Industries, Financial Sector 22,694 4,560 27,254 313 Social and Gender 39 5 44 1 Subtotal 165,091 22,313 187,405 2,154 Total 279,540 44,992 324,533 3,730 Sector Direct Damages (PKR Million) Indirect Damages (PRK Millions) Total Damages PRK Millions USD Millions Source: DNA report 2011 www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 35Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 44. 3.4. Other Distastes During the Year 3.4.1. Balochistan Earthquake An earthquake, measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale, was recorded at 01:23 PM on 19th January, 2011. The epicentre was located 150 kilometres northwest of Kharan, Balochistan. All provinces and the neighbouring countries experienced the tremors. Immediately after the earthquake, the PDMA Balochistan started to determine the details of the damages. No deaths were reported, however, 250 houses were partially damaged in DalbadinandNokKundiofdistrictKharan. The NDMA immediately responded to the incident and dispatched relief goods for emergency response to the affected people. The relief dispatch included 300 Tents, 780 cartons of Ready to Eat Meals (REMs), 10 cartons of medicinesand7000blankets. The NDMA requested Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) to provide satellite imagery of the affected areas to identify the quake-hit locations and spot any on- going seismic activity. In addition, a coordinated aerial reconnaissance was undertaken on January 19th to assess the damages. The NDMA and PDMA Balochistan also launched an on-ground damage and needs assessment. The NDMA coordinated with armed forces and provincial authoritiesforanyunforeseensituations. 3.4.2. Flash Flood - District Kohistan, KhyberPakhtunKhwa The torrential rains in district Kohistan, KP resultedinaflashfloodonAugust24th,2011.The flooding caused serious human and property Table 3.4: Estimate Damage and Reconstruction Costs by Province/Area Province Damage Costs Reconstruction Option 1 PKR Million USD Million PKR Million USD Million Sindh 310,776 3,572 219,618 2,524 Balochistan 12,356 142 6,035 69 Federal / Cross Cutting Sectors 1,405 16 13,353 153 National Total 324,533 3,730 239,011 2,747 Source: DNA report 2011 www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 201136 Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 45. damages. Furthermore, the flood resulted in a massive landslide in Gabryal/Trang village, causing further destruction in the area. The incident resulted in 62 deaths (18 men, 22 women and 22 children)andcompletedestructionof68houses. The NDMA immediately launched operation at Kohistan to provide timely relief and rescue to the floodaffectedarea. The NDMA provided two helicopters for search and rescue operations in a timely manner to facilitate local authorities in those difficult terrains. The NDMA also constituted a team of experts to assess and ensure effective and efficient monitoring and coordination in the flood affected area. The NDMA in coordination with its humanitarian partners successfully completed the provision of winterized shelters for displaced people well before the winter season. 3.4.3. Mudslide - Village Talis near Skardu On July 30th, 2011, a devastating mudslide, due to glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF), ravaged through Talis village in district Ghanche, GB. The flood not only destroyed more than 130 houses, it also caused severe damage to the crops and infrastructure including buildings, water channels, roadnetworkandpowersupply. Immediately after the incident, Gilgit Baltistan Disaster Management Authority (GBDMA), district authorities and local military units approached the area with relief assistance (shelter, food and medicine) to the affected. On the request of Government of Gilgit Baltistan, the NDMA immediately provided all the necessary relief items to GBDMA for further distribution amongst affected population. A delegation headed by the Chairman NDMA visited the site soon after the incident and took cognizance of the situation for immediate relief and recovery support. The locals appreciated the efforts of the NDMA and GBDMA, and requested for reconstruction of houses before the onset of winter. The NDMA initiated the setup of emergency winterized shelters and latrines. UNHABITAT, IOM, PRCS and WFP provided assistance in the relief efforts. The project was completed within two months of its inception. www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 37Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 46. 3.5. EarlyRecovery Floods2010 After the success of response phase, the NDMA initiated Early Recovery phase in February 2011 in 29 severely affected districts. The focus was shifted to early recovery with an aim to temporarily restore shelters, services, livelihood and community infrastructure. To kick-start the project, an assessment of Early Recovery Needs was carried out. This covered eight key sectors namely Food & Agriculture, Housing, Health & Nutrition , Education, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Governance, Non-farm livelihood and Community physical infrastructure, and four cross cutting thematic areas of Protection, Gender, Environment and Disaster Risk Reduction. Humanitarian organizations assisted in the assessment which provided basis for the early recovery. It was based on the mapping and gap analysis carried out by each of the sector/thematic groups. The total prioritized needs for early recovery were estimated at USD 1195.38 Million (USD 1.2 Billion). Early recovery cumulative response up to December, 2011 was USD 1,018.50 Million(1.0 Billion), leaving an overall funding gap of USD 176.71 Million. However, there were significant variations across sectors/ thematic areas and provinces. The early recovery phase of the Floods 2010 was accomplished on December31,2011. 3.5.1. Early Recovery Interventions - KeySectorsandThematicAreas National Disaster Management Authority undertook a number of early recovery interventions in the area hit by Flood 2010. The NDMA's initiative of early recovery interventions were impeded by the onset of Floods 2011. The NDMA was forced to attend to both Emergency Response and Early Recovery phases. At some places, the Emergency Response, due to the unanticipated floods, overshadowed the Early Recovery phase. However, despite the overlap of the two calamities, the NDMA was able to accomplish most of the tasks beforetime. This allowed undivided attention to those flood-hit areas on the either side of Indus River that were not pronetothisordeal. S. No. Name of Sectors Damages Cost (US $M) 1. Housing 1.6 Million 1,588 2. Education Facilities 10,436 No 311 3. Health Facilities 515 No 50 4. Communication 25,088 Km 1,328 5. Water & Sanitation Schemes 6,841 109 6. Energy 92 Plants, 32 Grids, 3000 km line 309 7. Irrigation Channels Irrigation Channels 278 8. Agriculture Land & Livestock 2.1 m Hector Land, 1.5 m livestock 5,045 9. Private Sector 146 industries, 0.1 m Hotels / Shops 282 10. Financial Sector 90 Banks, 10 ATMs 674 11. Governance & Environment 1457 Structures 82 Source: Pakistan Flood 2010, Damage and Need Assessment Report of World Bank total USD 10.056 Millions Table 3.5: Floods 2010: Sector wise Summary of Damages www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 201138 Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 47. Table3.6: Activity and financial details of all the interventions undertaken by the NDMA, in collaboration withthePDMAsandhumanitarianorganizations:- Agriculture & Food Security 2.44 million (Food Security) 442,233 (Agriculture Support) 2. Housing 611,229 (Houses/Shelters) US$ 283.48 Million 3. Health & Nutrition 5.57 Million children screened 1.73 Million pregnant women screened US$ 60.55 Million 4. Water & Sanitation 154,600 households 5 Million Water Over 8 Million Hygiene 3 .5 Million Sanitation US$ 62.80 Million 5. Education 1.3 Million 485,479 Females 809,509 Males US$ 139.80 Million 6. Governance Over 4000 US$ 6.00 Million 7. Non-Farm Livelihoods 29 severely flood effected districts. US$ 22.00 Million 8. Community Physical Infrastructure 1.5 Million US$ 7.58 Million 9. Disaster Risk Reduction DRM measures incorporated over 63,000 transitional shelters Various Training events US$ 2.99 Million 10 Environment 2.32 Million Plants 50,000 building debris landslides, eroding treated 346 sites providing safety to about 48,000 peoples US$ 7.03 Million 11. Gender 124 Gender Response Projects Establishment of Women desks in PDMAs gender Tools developed US$ 0.05 Million 12. Protection Child Protection 351,970 legal & documentation Assistance to thousands of affected people through 25 protection advisory centers. US$ 29.87 Million S.NO. Sector Beneficiaries / Interventions Amount 1. US$ 125.03 Million Source: Early Recovery Report 2010 www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 2011 39Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect
  • 48. 3.5.2. Challenges Faced Early recovery needs were reasonably met. In fact, the most impressive results were seen in education, agriculture, housing, non-farm livelihood, community physical infrastructure and protection. By contrast, progress in governance interventions was limited. A common challenge faced by all sectors and thematic areas was to cope with the onset of Floods 2011; the calamity overlapped the Early Recovery Phase of the Floods 2010. Other challenges included lack of capacity, poor coordination, difficulties in dealing with local communities (e.g. lack of awareness about issues such as nutrition and hygiene), and lack of funds. Some of the challenges faced by individual working groupsarelistedbelow: ¨ Financial data was not available due to lack ofafinancialtrackingsystem ¨ Punjab provincial interaction was held up duetothedengueepidemic ¨ Floods 2011 made it difficult to mobilize newfundsforFloods2010Recoveryphase ¨ Availability of skilled labour, especially in the harvest season was scarce in the non- floodedareas ¨ Agencies engaged in the emergency phase were less responsive to early recovery coordination ¨ There was difficulty in coordination between different units at district, provincial and national levels due to lack of capacity of local staff; and adverse weather conditionssuchasthe2011monsoon 3.5.3. Attabad Lake, Gojal, Gilgit Baltistan Attabad Lake crisis which resulted in blockade of Hunza River due to massive landslide on January 4, 2010 kept the NDMA engaged during the year 2011. Distribution of relief, including cash disbursement through WATAN Card, was completed in June 2011. The NDMA also coordinated the deployment of an Aviation Squadron from January to July 2011. The NDMA, in collaboration with the Chinese Embassy, also coordinated the aerial provision of relief items to the population. The details of relief items provided by Chinese Government to the affected in 2011 are listed below: Table 3.7: Detail of Relief Items Distributed Among the Affectees (ton) 1. Flour 25kg/package 1620 2. Cooking Oil 180 3. Rice 25kg/package 810 4. Milk Powder 25kg/package 30 5. Salt 50kg/package 30 6. Sugar 50kg/package 210 7. Coal 505 8. Oil/Diesel 50 S.No Specifications Quantity Total 3435 Chairman NDMA being briefed at Attabad lake situation www.ndma.gov.pk Annual Report 201140 Chapter 3 Responding to Disasters: A Year in a Retrospect