Emerging trends in Nano-dentistry
Introduction
Emerging nano-level technology has the potential to transform dental practi...
Dental cosmetics
Tooth durability and appearance might be improved by replacing upper enamel layers with
more fracture res...
implant material. It has been claimed that composites made with such nanoscale reinforcing
materials as nanotubes, platele...
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Nanodentistry / dental courses

The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - Nanodentistry / dental courses

  • 1. Emerging trends in Nano-dentistry Introduction Emerging nano-level technology has the potential to transform dental practice by advancing all aspects of dental diagnosis and therapeutics. Studying dental structures and surfaces from a nano perspective leads to better understanding of the structure, function and the physiological relationship of dental surfaces. Using nano-characterized tools, a number of oral diseases can be well understood at the molecular and cellular levels1 and thus can be prevented. Various applications of nanotechnology in dentistry are presented here. Anti-hypersensitivity agents Dentin hypersensitivity is based on the fact that hypersensitive teeth have eight times higher surface density and diameters twice as large as non-sensitive teeth. Dental nanorobots may selectively and precisely occlude sensitive tubules in seconds, rendering patients a quick and permanent relief. 1 Nanorobotic dentifrice Dentirobots are invisibly small (1–10 micron), with 103–105nanodevices, with a speed of 1– 10 microns/second. These nanorobotic dentifrices delivered in the form of mouthwash or toothpaste should be used at all supragingival and subgingival surfaces at least once a day, which leads to metabolization of trapped organic matter into harmless and odourless vapors and continuous calculus debridement. 1, 2 Nanomaterials The disparity between the particle size of conventional composites and HA crystal, dentinal tubule, and enamel rods is such that there is a potential for inappropriate adhesion between the tooth structure and the restorative material. Nanocomposites have the potential to improve the continuity between the tooth structure and the nanosized filler particle and provide a more stable and natural interface between the two. One such nanocomposite system (Premise, Kerr/ Sybron, Orange, CA) is composed of three different types of filler components: non- agglomerated “discrete” silica nanoparticles, prepolymerized fillers and barium glass.Advantages of these nano composites include superior hardness, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, translucency, 50% reduction in filling shrinkage, excellent handling properties.Nanosolutions produce unique and easily dispersible nanoparticles,which can be used in bonding agents (trade name: Adper Single Bond Plus Adhesive Single Bond).Nanofiller particles are integrated in vinyl polysiloxanes, thus producing a unique siloxane impression material. 1, 3 Local anesthesia and Nanoneedles A colloidal suspension which can contain millions of active analgesic micron-size particles called dental robots has been proposed as anaesthetic which can be applied on patient’s gingiva.2 Suture needles incorporating nano-sized stainless steel Crystal shave been developed (trade name: Sandvik Bioline, RK 91 needles, Sweden). Nanotweezers are also under the development stages. This will make the cell surgery possible in the near future. 4, 5, 6
  • 2. Dental cosmetics Tooth durability and appearance might be improved by replacing upper enamel layers with more fracture resistant material such as nanostructured composites, possibly including embedded carbon nanoparticles. 2, 7 Tooth repair and reminerilization Manufacturing and installation of a biologicaly autologous whole tooth that includes both mineraland cellular components would become feasible. Chen et al took advantage of this latest nanotechnology to simulate the natural biomineralization process to create the hardest tissue in the human body i.e. enamel, by using nanorod-like calcium HA crystals arrangedroughly parallel to each other. reminerilization procedure may become popular among patients who desire to have their old dental amalgams excavated and their teeth remanufactured with native biological materials, and full coronal renaturalization procedures in which all fillings, crowns are removed, with the affected teeth remanufactured to become indistinguishable from original teeth. 3, 7, 8 Nanopores or Tubes These are tiny holes that can allow DNA to pass through onestrand at a time. DNA sequencing might become moreefficient with this.Nanotubes are carbon rods of diameter half that of a DNAmolecule that not only can detect the presence of altered genesbut also may help to locate the exact position ofthese changes. 3, 9, 10 Nanoencapsulation South West Research Institute (SWRI) has developed targeted release systems which includes nanocapsules including novel vaccines, antibiotics, and drug delivery with reducedside effects. Other products manufactured by SWRI includeProtective clothing and filtration masks, medical appendages for instantaneous healing, biodegradable nanofiber delivery platforms for hemostatic wound dressings are in development along with nanocrystalline silver particles with antimicrobial propertieson wound dressings, bone targeting nano carriers: calcium phosphate-based biomaterial is developed, which is an easily flowable and moldable paste that conforms to and interdigitates with host bone. 10, 11 Bone replacement materials Bone is a natural nanostructuredcomposite composed of organic compounds (mainlycollagen) reinforced with inorganic ones (HA). It is this naturalnanostructure that nanotechnology aims to emulate for orthopedic and dental applications. The smaller the particleis, the larger the surface area is in volume and Nano-Bone® uses this principle. Because the cells are too big for the smallpores, blood plasma containing all the important proteins isretained in the interstices. The surface of the pores (and also of the nanopores) is modified in such a way that it literally“hangs on” to the proteins. Features of nano-bone graft materials include osteoinductive, fully synthetic, non sintered, highly porous, nanostructured, absorbs natural proteins into the nanopores, should be degraded by osteoclasts, should have good processability and no ionic solution inclusions. 4, 5, 10 Use of nanotechnology in implant material fabrication In recent years, the development of nanostructured ceramic materials in order to achieve increased strength and toughness has attracted the interest of the manufacturers of ceramic
  • 3. implant material. It has been claimed that composites made with such nanoscale reinforcing materials as nanotubes, platelets, and nanofibers would have exceptional properties. It has been shown that a possible path to combining high strength and toughness in a ceramic material is to take advantage of the transformation toughening mechanisms in nanozirconia- alumina materials. Alumina-zirconia nanocomposites with relatively low zirconia content (below the percolation limit, ~16 vol%) exhibit similar hardness values to alumina and are not susceptible to the hydrothermal instability. It offer an example of how nanotechnology offers an attractive path to the development of new implant materials but ceramics, even nanocomposite ceramics, will not replicate the unique combinations of mechanical properties of tooth tissues as they are, for example, much stiffer and wear-resistant. 4, 5 Conclusion Nanotechnology will modify the dentistry, healthcare and human life more than any other developments of the past. Nanotechnology also holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery making health care more effective and affordable. In the long-term, medical and dental nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and expulsion, individualized cell surgeries in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological functions. References 1. Nagpal A, Kaur J, Sharma S, Bansal A, Sachdev P. Nanotechnology-the Era Of Molecular Dentistry. Indian J Dent Sci 2011;3:80-2. 2. Kanaparthy R, Kanaparthy A. The changing face of dentistry: nanotechnology. Int J Nanomed 2011;6:2799–804. 3. Saravana KR, Vijayalakshmi R. Nanotechnology in Dentistry. Indian J Dent Res 2006;17(2):62-5. 4. Liu H, Webster TJ. Nanomedicine for implants: A review of studies and necessary experimental tools. Biomaterials 2007;28:354–69. 5. Mantri SS, Mantri SP. The nano era in dentistry. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013;1:39–44. 6. Chandki R, Kala M, Kumar K, Brigit B, Banthia P, Banthia R. ‘Nanodentistry’: Exploring the beauty of miniature. J Clin Exp Dent 2012;4(2):119-24. 7. Ozak ST, Ozkan P. Nanotechnology and dentistry. European Journal of Dentistry 2013;7:145-51. 8. Bhardwaj A et al. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. Journal of International Oral Health 2014;6(1):121-6. 9. Shetty NJ, Swati P, David K. Nanorobots: Future in dentistry. The Saudi Dental Journal 2013;25:49–52. 10. Wasem M, Köser J, Hess S, Gnecco E, Meyer E. Exploring the retention properties of CaF2 nanoparticles as possible additives foe dental care application with tapping- mode atomic force microscopic in liquid. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014;5:36–43. 11. Kumar PS, Kumar S, Savadi RC, John J. Nanodentistry: A Paradigm Shift-from Fiction to Reality. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2011;11(1):1–6.