Juliet Akello
Prevalence of aflatoxins in Zambian maize and
groundnuts
Stakeholders’ Consultative Meeting on Aflatoxin Awa...
Aflatoxins
2
 Highly toxic substances
 Causative agent: Green mold (Aspergillus spp)
 Fungus is common & widespread in ...
Aflatoxins
 Contamination is favoured by several
factors:
• Climate: drought, high temperatures &
insect damage.
• Poor p...
Year Maize Groundnut Reference
1979 - 5 Kannaiyan et al. 1979
1998 900-929 6200-8600 Njapau et al. 1998
2009 0.7-108 - Kan...
Aflatoxin prevalence (2011-2014)
Survey sites
 Eastern Province
• Nyimba
• Petauke
• Mambwe
• Chipata
• Lundazi
 Central...
Soil samples Unshelled groundnuts
MaizeProcessed commodities
Aflatoxin prevalence in ZambiaAflatoxin prevalence in Zambia
Incidence of aflatoxin producing fungi in soil
Key
Low
<100 cfu/g
Medium
100-499 cfu/g
High
500-999 cfu/g
Very high
>1000 ...
Incidence of aflatoxin producing fungi in Zambian soil
0
20
40
60
80
100
Non-toxin producers Toxin producers
Aspergillusin...
Levels of aflatoxin detected in maize grains at harvest & in storage
District Aflatoxin levels (ppb)
Harvest samples Stora...
District Range Mean Proportion of samples deemed safe (%)
< 4 ppb 4.1-10 ppb > 10 ppb
Chipata 0.4-3435 176.5 28.6 17.9 53....
Aflatoxin levels (ppb) in maize flour collected from markets & homesteads
District Range Mean Proportion of samples deemed...
Prevalence of aflatoxin in peanut butter
Red: >20 ppb
Black: >10 ≤ 20 ppb
Orange: ≥4 ≤10 ppb
Green: < 4 ppb
Mean aflatoxin...
Conclusion
 Aflatoxin producing fungi are highly prevalent in Zambian soils
 Consequently, the maize and groundnut commo...
www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium
-FAS
Research partners
Acknowledgement
of 14

Prevalence of aflatoxins in Zambian maize and groundnuts

Stakeholder's meeting presentation. Lusaka 28 April 2015
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prevalence of aflatoxins in Zambian maize and groundnuts

  • 1. Juliet Akello Prevalence of aflatoxins in Zambian maize and groundnuts Stakeholders’ Consultative Meeting on Aflatoxin Awareness & Management, 28th April, Lusaka
  • 2. Aflatoxins 2  Highly toxic substances  Causative agent: Green mold (Aspergillus spp)  Fungus is common & widespread in soil & decaying matter  Affects several crops (legumes, cereals, tuber crops, chilies, etc)  Maize & groundnuts: major sources of aflatoxin exposure in humans.  Contamination starts in the field & continues throughout the value chain
  • 3. Aflatoxins  Contamination is favoured by several factors: • Climate: drought, high temperatures & insect damage. • Poor post-harvest handling techniques: inappropriate storage, transportation & processing.  Incidence: prevalent in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa
  • 4. Year Maize Groundnut Reference 1979 - 5 Kannaiyan et al. 1979 1998 900-929 6200-8600 Njapau et al. 1998 2009 0.7-108 - Kankolongo et al. 2009 2010 10 - Mukanga et al. 2010 Aflatoxin levels (ppb) detected in maize & groundnut samples from different parts of Zambia Surveillance studies (1979-2010) Aflatoxin levels depended on: locality, crop, processing method & presence of microbial contaminants
  • 5. Aflatoxin prevalence (2011-2014) Survey sites  Eastern Province • Nyimba • Petauke • Mambwe • Chipata • Lundazi  Central Province • Chibombo • Kabwe • Kapiri-Mposhi • Mkushi • Serenje
  • 6. Soil samples Unshelled groundnuts MaizeProcessed commodities Aflatoxin prevalence in ZambiaAflatoxin prevalence in Zambia
  • 7. Incidence of aflatoxin producing fungi in soil Key Low <100 cfu/g Medium 100-499 cfu/g High 500-999 cfu/g Very high >1000 cfu/g Average CFU/g: 220-328000 Aspergillus population in Zambia
  • 8. Incidence of aflatoxin producing fungi in Zambian soil 0 20 40 60 80 100 Non-toxin producers Toxin producers Aspergillusincidence(%) Aspergillus population in Zambia
  • 9. Levels of aflatoxin detected in maize grains at harvest & in storage District Aflatoxin levels (ppb) Harvest samples Storage samples (3 months) Range Mean Unsafe (%) Range Mean Unsafe (%) Chipata 0-101 1.4 0.6 0-109 5.0 5.2 Mambwe 0-27 1.1 0.7 0-207 21.7 8.2 Nyimba 0-11 0.8 0.5 0-214 7.2 7.7 Petauke 0-6 1.0 0.0 0-86 4.3 10.7 < 4 < 10 < 20 > 20 EU WFP/ COMESA USA unsafe Maximum allowable aflatoxin level (ppb) Aflatoxin prevalence in maize grain
  • 10. District Range Mean Proportion of samples deemed safe (%) < 4 ppb 4.1-10 ppb > 10 ppb Chipata 0.4-3435 176.5 28.6 17.9 53.6 Lundazi 0.7-310 63.6 15.8 15.8 68.4 Katete 0.3-482 77.9 6.7 6.7 86.7 Mambwe 1.1-5234 523.3 10.0 10.0 80.0 Nyimba 1.4-376 76.0 33.3 11.1 55.6 Petauke 1.7-775 147.3 13.3 20.0 66.6 Total aflatoxins (ppb) in groundnut flour, from markets & homesteads Aflatoxin prevalence in groundnut flour
  • 11. Aflatoxin levels (ppb) in maize flour collected from markets & homesteads District Range Mean Proportion of samples deemed safe (%) < 4 ppb 4.1-10 ppb > 10 ppb Chipata 0.7-108.8 15.1 69.2 0.0 30.8 Katete 0.0-10.9 3.3 85.7 0.0 14.3 Mambwe 0.0-255 55.1 10.0 10.0 80.0 Nyimba 0.0-81.4 16.6 60.0 6.7 33.3 Petauke 0.1-103.2 17.5 73.3 6.7 20.0 Aflatoxin prevalence in maize flour
  • 12. Prevalence of aflatoxin in peanut butter Red: >20 ppb Black: >10 ≤ 20 ppb Orange: ≥4 ≤10 ppb Green: < 4 ppb Mean aflatoxin B1 levels in peanut butter (ICRISAT 2014)
  • 13. Conclusion  Aflatoxin producing fungi are highly prevalent in Zambian soils  Consequently, the maize and groundnut commodities that are produced and marketed in Zambia are contaminated by aflatoxins  There is need to join hands in mitigating this poison in maize/ gnut value chains
  • 14. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium -FAS Research partners Acknowledgement

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