ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
ISSN: 2312-7694
Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2...
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Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attack In Wireless Sensor Network via NS-2

Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attack In Wireless Sensor Network via NS-2
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Engineering      
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Transcripts - Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attack In Wireless Sensor Network via NS-2

  • 1. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 708 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attack In Wireless Sensor Network via NS-2 Shishupal Kumar Dr. Vijay Km Chaurasiya Dept. of Wireless Communication and Computing Dept. of Wireless Communication and Computing IIIT-Allahabad IIIT-Allahabad India India robincoolmasti@gmail.com vijayk@iiita.c.in Abstract—A wireless sensor network encompasses many number of sensor nodes which are used to observer the conditions of physical environment surroundings like temperature, pressure etc. They are very limited in power. Sensor are used to carry sensed data from one location to another desired location for further processing. They are very useful in many application areas like agriculture, military, industrial applications etc. However they are distributed in nature and contains wireless characteristics. So it is obvious that they are more vulnerable to security attacks just because of their wireless nature and simple architecture. Security creates great impact on the performance of any network. More secure network tends to high performance of wireless network. In this paper, we propose a method to prevent the denial of service attack which is one of the most serious attack in the wireless nature network. The proposed method provides some sort of prevention to the network from the Denial of service attack. Also, we have used some simulation results in order to compare the performance of wireless sensor network without any prevention of denial of service attack to the network of sensor nodes with exhibits the proposed methodology. The results are simulated in terms of throughput, packet delivery fraction and delay. Index Terms— Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Denial-of- Service (DoS), NS-2, Mannasim I. INTRODUCTION In the evolution of 1970’s, some sensors deployed which are wired in nature and connected to any central location. After, in 1980’s, sensors had been deployed which are wireless in nature and contained distributed property. First, use of Wireless sensors in military applications to sense the detection of enemy. Now wireless sensor network reaches in the peak level of industrial applications and as well as a research area. [1] The nodes in wireless sensor network comprise of trivial components like batteries, microcontroller, limited memory, etc. They have very limited processing capability because of partial power and memory. The properties of the sensor nodes are, they cope with node failure very rapidly, they can work in severe environmental conditions, they support a very high number of nodes, and they efficiently support high mobility. [2] The task performed by the nodes of sensor network environment is very time sensitive i.e. at the exact time the data should reach to the end user so that further processing will take place. [3] Wireless sensor network consists of nodes which are designed to perform specific functions and all the nodes in the network perform the function altogether. [4] The basic function of the sensor nodes in the wireless sensor network to sense the data and to record it and sends this recorded data to particular destination when event of specific conditions occurs. [5] The hardware of the wireless sensor network are very small and can transfer data at very low energies which basically makes different to nodes in wireless sensor network from other wireless network nodes. A simple structural layout of sensor nodes in a wireless network is presented in the below figure. Fig 1: The simple architecture of Wireless sensor network
  • 2. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 709 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com In a wireless sensor network, after sensing and recording the data whenever a particular condition occur, the recorded data is sent by the particular sender sensor node to the end user. So for transmitting the data from one location to another location definitely, a routing protocol is necessary. [6] The routing protocol should be in such a way that it has to consume very minimum energy and also have very minimum capability i.e. not as much of overhead, for the reason that sensor nodes have precise limited power and processing competency. The protocols used in wireless sensor network for routing of data from source node to destination node are AODV, DSDV etc. The nodes of the wireless sensor network are distributed in nature and because of their wireless nature they are always vulnerable to security attacks. Security is one of the major parameters which can directly impact on the performance of the network. [7]There are various types of security attacks possible in the wireless sensor network like flooding attack, wormhole attack, denial of service attack, sinkhole attack, and Sybil attack. [8]For enhancing the security of the sensor network some cryptographic techniques can be used like key exchange algorithm, [9]which provides authenticity, availability etc. [10] an Extra remote home server (RHS) can also be installed which take care of any illegal activity of all the sensor node and can work as an administrator of the wireless sensor network. [11] But the key goal should be to propose a mechanism which takes very minimum energy consumption and also provides some prevention from the any kind of security attack. [12, 13, 14] A framework is proposed for estimation of secure location of sensor nodes for various WSN applications because of prevention from any unauthorized access. [15, 16] Providing security in the network of sensor node is very difficult as compared to mobile ad hoc network because the nodes in wireless sensor network are limited in power and processing. [17] For further enhancing security, a distributed scheme is proposed which provides security from replay attack in sensor network and this scheme is called RED protocol. [18] For the handling of node failures, also there are various protocols introduce like Tiny IDS. [19] Bluetooth technology can also be used for providing security in Wireless sensor network. [20] In a sensor network , a sensor node sends data and sends to the base station and during this process a secure communication and reliability is required which can be provided by using the Hybrid Multipath Scheme. [21] An entropy-based trust model is used for detection of malicious nodes in environment of wireless sensor network. [25] To cop up the link failures various types of data gathering methods can be used which inherits colouring algorithm in wireless sensor network called as SERENA. In this algorithm each colour is allotted a unique time slot. [26] A new technology is proposed whose name is ANT for wireless sensor network which is widely uses the mac layer protocol and specially developed for sports concerning sensor devices. Its main focus on the proper optimization of bandwidth of the network and low consumption of power. [27] To maintain the continuous service and connectivity some strategy can be followed like the Centralized Maintenance Strategy (CMS) and the Centralized Maintenance Strategy with Anticipation (CMSA). These strategy contains a small number of mobile like robots which looks after the network of sensor nodes and reports timely regarding failure, connectivity loss, coverage problem etc. [28] a multi tree based approach can be used in wireless sensor network which ensures that at least one node can connect to the communication network when network failure occurs. [29] Automatic firing practice system (AFPS) can be used for special operations force, tactical paramilitary and Law Enforcement Agencies. This implemented firing system is very flexible and contain small alarms and supports various mode of firing. In this paper, our main focus is in denial of service attack because this is considered as one of the most dangerous and serious attack in the network environment. In the next, Section 2 will describe about denial of service (DOS) attack. Section 3 will contain the related work about proposed method. Section 4 will contain simulation parameters in tabulated form and at last, Section 5 will contain results and comparison of wireless sensor network without prevention to the wireless sensor network under prevention from denial of service attack. II. DENIAL OF SERVICE (DOS) ATTACK IN SENSOR NODES OF WIRELESS NEYWORK Wherever Denial of service attack is one of the harmful attack for the network because in Denial of service attack (DOS), [22] whenever a sensor node have data to send, it forwards data to its neighbouring node which is in its communication range and if this neighbouring node is working as a malicious node then it does not forward data even creates overloading request for data to the sender node and consumes all its bandwidth. Sensor nodes in the wireless sensor network have limited in power so the node will eventually die by this type of attack as well as Denial of service attack also enlarge the delay time by consumption of processor time and bandwidth. It creates alternation in the content of data and disturb the activity of the routing protocol by disruption of routing information. It distorts the activity of the physical components of the sensor nodes as well as it creates an obstruction between the communication between the sender and intended receiver. [23, 24] It aims to target on applications of physical layer where the sensor nodes are located. DOS attacks make the sensor node dies very rapidly because they have already scarcity of limited computational power and processing capability. In a wireless sensor network, every sensor node is intended to perform a particular sensing tasks and in the presence of malicious node there may be an event of sending wrong information to the base station also happen. To make the network under DOS the malicious node take two ways to implement this attack. The first one is jamming and the second one is power exhaustion. In this paper, we are
  • 3. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 710 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com discussing only DOS attack related to the network layer in which malicious node drops all the data forward from the source node and create network flooding by sending dummy packets. The main focus is to prevent power exhaustion of sensor nodes in the network because they are very limited in energy resources. This type of DOS attack aims to disturb sleep/duty cycles of sensor node continuously and results the network of sensor node will die very soon. Denial of service attack rapidly decrease the performance of overall wireless sensor network and directly does bad impact on the functionality of the sensor nodes. In the below figure 2, wireless sensor network below DOS attack is described in a practical manner and simulated in NS-2 environment. In this scenario, node 18 act as a base station. Node 7, 8, 12, 14 act as a malicious node have aimed to degrade the performance of the WSN environment. Node 17 and 19 act as a source node and their task is to forward data to the base station by using AODV protocol. So for initiating the communication between source node 19 and node 18 which act as a base station, source node 19 communicates with their neighbourhood sensor node, i.e. node 8 and this node 8 acts as a malicious node in this scenario. The main focus of the malicious node is to get attention from the source node so that it always advertises itself with a higher sequence number with minimum hope count. When source node 19 starts forwarding data to the node 8 then malicious node 8 drops all the packets so that the performance of wireless sensor network degrades very rapidly. For making the system under into DOS attack, these malicious node flood dummy data all over the network with aim of consumption of power of sensor nodes in WSN by disrupting their sleep or duty cycle. Eventually the power of sensor nodes degrades very rapidly result nodes will die very soon and the whole system of wireless sensor network will be under DOS attack. Fig 2: Wireless sensor network with AODV routing protocol under DOS attack II. PROPOSED METHOD The In this paper, we are introducing a method which provides prevention to the network from the denial of service attack. The nodes in the wireless sensor network use very simple and suitable routing protocol for routing of data from sender to the corresponding receiver. This property makes the wireless sensor network simple as well as lying to network security attack. Besides this, complex algorithms and techniques consumes lot of processing and computation power of the nodes in wireless sensor network and there is already a scarcity of these resources. So in this paper, a simple method is introduced which takes prevention before sending a packet to their neighbouring node. A sending node whenever have data to send, it senses the neighbouring node which in its range of transmission and communication. Before sending the data to its intended neighbouring nodes, it first checks for the historical throughput which is basically the value of the forwarded number of packets. The value of this historical throughput is stored in a variable. Whenever a node wants to send data, it authenticates its neighbouring node’s historical throughput value, whenever the value of this historical throughput variable is equal to 0 or exceed over the predefined threshold than that neighbouring node is suspected to be improper node and mark this neighbouring node as a malicious sensor node. After this step, the sending node again starts sensing another new neighbouring node to send the data to the intended receiver. For making a differentiation between the malicious node and valid sensor node, it periodically flushes the value of historical throughput of valid sensor node when its value becomes equal to the predefine threshold value. So the value of historical throughput of the valid sensor node will always lie between greater than 0 and less than a predefined threshold. Below figure 3 represents the flowchart for proposed methodology.
  • 4. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 711 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com Fig 3: Flowchart for proposed method In the above flowchart, H[Th] represents the historical throughput of the node. N.H[th] represents the historical throughput of the neighbouring node which is sense by the corresponding sender node and C.H[th] denoted historical throughput of the current working node. Historical throughput basically is the number of packets sent with respect to the time. The procedure of the above mentioned flowchart can be well understand by the following points: • Whenever a Sender node wants to send data then it first senses one of its neighbouring node. Before sending data to its neighbourhood sensor node it first authorizes it to ensure that it is not a malicious node to provide some protection to the system from denial of service attack or any kind of security attack. It does so by comparison of historical throughput of neighbouring node. • If historical throughput of neighbouring node is greater than the predefined threshold value or equal to 0 then it indicated that is working as a malicious node and sender node will not send data packet to that node and will mark this node as malicious node with again senses the another neighbourhood node with in transmission range and again the procedure Will applied. Below figure 4 shows above describe scenario: Fig 4: An example of sensor network which describe above mentioned procedure In figure 4, green circle represents sender and receiver sensor nodes while red circle represents malicious sensor node and besides theses, all circles are remaining nodes of the sensor network. • If historical throughput of neighbourhood node is less than the predefined threshold and also does not equal to 0 then sender node will send data to this neighbourhood node. In this scenario, if historical throughput of the current node becomes equal to its predefined threshold then it flushes its H[th] values and make it equal to 0 and after that it updated it by H[th] = H[th] + 0.1. This step is due to maintain the proper differentiation between the valid and malicious node. In this way, the value of H[th] of every sensor node in the network will between 0 and predefined threshold. Fig 5: A wireless sensor network which shows above mentioned procedure
  • 5. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 712 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com III. SIMULATION PARAMETERS In this paper, the proposed method of prevention from denial of service attacks is simulated in network simulator (NS-2). NS-2 is used for simulation of wired or wireless networking, for the simulation of wireless sensor network an Extra component is added in the NS-2 simulator which is called Mannasim. Mannasim is a software which enables easy simulation of wireless sensor network. The simulation parameters for our proposed method is tabulated below: Table I: simulation parameters of proposed methodology Sr No Parameter Value 1 Simulator NS-2(Mannasim) 2 Channel type Channel/Wireless channel 3 Radio Propagation Propagation/ Two ray Model ground wave 4 Network interface type Phy/WirelessPhy 5 MAC Type Mac /802.11 6 Frequency 914e+6 7 Routing Protocol AODV 8 Antenna Antenna/Omni Antenna 9 Initial energy 10 10 Area ( M*M) 500 * 500 11 Simulation Time 250 sec 12 No of Nodes 50 13 rxPower 0.5 14 txPower 1.0 15 idlePower 0.0 16 sensePower 0.3 17 CPThresh_ 10.0 18 sensing 2.28289e-11 range_CSThresh_ 19 communication 2.28289e-11 range_RXThresh_ IV. RESULTS AND COMPARISON The simulation of proposed wireless sensor network environment is done in network simulator with Mannasim software. The simulation results are evaluated in terms of throughput, Packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay. In this paper, we compare the performance of a network of sensor nodes under the prevention of the proposed methodology with the network of sensor node without prevention from denial of service attack. This result will evaluate the impact of the proposed methodology to the wireless sensor network. A: THROUGHPUT The principal performance is measured in the relations of the throughput. Throughput is represented in bits per second (bps) and it is the number of packets which is received in per unit of time. Figure 3 represents the throughput of the wireless sensor network environment under no prevention Fig 3: Throughput of wireless sensor network without prevention In the above figure, it is shown that the Throughput of the simulated wireless sensor network comes out to be about 1179.25 kbps. Figure 4 represents the throughput of the proposed methodology in wireless sensor network.
  • 6. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 713 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com Fig 4: Throughput of the proposed method for wireless sensor network In the above figure, the Average throughput is evaluated in terms of Kbps and that comes out to be about 1305.71Kbps which is much higher than the throughput from the sensor network under without any prevention of security attacks. B: PACKET DELIVERY RATIO/FRACTION Packet delivery ratio (PDR) is the fraction concerning the data Packets received by the destination for those sent by sources. This evaluates the ability of the protocol performance and its efficiency. Figure 5 represents the Packet delivery ratio of wireless sensor network under no prevention. Fig 5: packet loss in the simulated sensor node network without proposed method In the above figure, it is clearly shown that is number of sending packets are 105266 and the number of received packets are only 77753, so the total number of packets which are lost are about 105266 – 77753=>27513 which is very high and does harmful impact for network of sensor nodes. Fig 6: Packet delivery ration of simulated wireless sensor network In the above figure, It is clearly seen that the total number of sent packets is 71574 and total number of receiving packets
  • 7. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 714 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com are 71572 i.e. the number of packets which are less in the simulated environment are only 2, which is very less and hence it leads to high performance of the wireless sensor network. C: END-TO-END DELAY End to end delay is the quantity of the time which is occupied to sending packets from source to their respective destination to receive those packets. More delay can lead to low performance of the wireless sensor network and low delay is the indication of high efficiency and speed of the network. Figure 6 represents the end-to-end delay of the wireless sensor network without taking any prevention. Fig 7: End-to-end delay of wireless sensor network without any prevention method “ Fig 8: End-to-end delay of simulated wireless sensor network with proposed method CONCLUSION Wireless sensor network is becoming very famous now days in the field of various industrial and research environments. They support a very large number of nodes up to thousands and also support a high degree of mobility. The main functionality of the sensor node to sense a particular data and to store in its limited available memory and by occurring on particular event they must send their sensed data to the corresponding end user. However, in the network environment, especially in the area of wireless, the nodes are distributed in nature and they lead high chance of getting attacked by intruder which badly decrease the performance of the network and let the sensor node die of consumption of its computing and power resources. As well as sensor node is like very small nodes which have smaller components and the use of very complex techniques for providing security leads to the sensor node dies very soon and enlargement of delay. In this paper, a simple methodology is proposed which takes very little computational power and does not impact on the battery consumption of sensor nodes as well as it offers some sort of authentication of nodes so that network will at all times inhibit from any denial of service attack (DOS). References [1] Raymond, D.R, Midkiff, S.F, „Denial of Service in Wireless Networks: Attacks and Defences, IEEE CS: Security and Privacy, 2008,pg 74-81. [2] Bokare, Madhav, and Mrs Anagha Ralegaonkar. "Wireless Sensor Network: A Promising Approach for Distributed Sensing Tasks." Excel Journal of Engineering Technology and
  • 8. ISSN: 2312-7694 Shishupal et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (5), 2015, 708-715 715 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.05 Oct 2015 www.ijccse.com Management Science 1 (2012): 1-9. [3] R. Shorey, A. Ananda, M. C. Chan and W. T. Ooi, “Mo- bile Wireless and Sensor Networks Technology Applica- tion and Future Directions,” China Machine Press, 2010. [4] Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks. http://www.worldscibooks.com/comps ci/etextbook/6288/6288 _chap Ipdf on October 8. 2008 [5] L. Guibas , F. Zhao. Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach. [6] R.; Boulmalf, M., "Routing in wireless sensor networks," Multimedia Computing and Systems, 2009. ICMCS '09. 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