NationalLiberationMovement (Albania)
The National Liberation Movement (Lëvizja Nacional Çlirimtare or Lëvizja
main concernfor Italians were the northern bands. The Italians had given
up on governing Northern Albania. The security po...
economic struggle against Italian companies,and sabotage the collection
of agricultural products from fascists.In already ...
of 3

National liberation movement of Albania

National liberation movement of Albania
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      

Transcripts - National liberation movement of Albania

  • 1. NationalLiberationMovement (Albania) The National Liberation Movement (Lëvizja Nacional Çlirimtare or Lëvizja Antifashiste Nacional Çlirimtare (LANÇ)),[1] also translated as National LiberationFront,was an Albanian resistance organization that fought in World War II. It was created in 16 September1942,in a conferenceheld inPezë, a village near Tirana. Apart the communist figures which had the majority in the General Council it also included known nationalist figures likeMyslym Peza, etc. The Albanian National Liberation Front was later transformed in May 1944 in the governmentof Albania and its leaders became governmentmembers.It was replaced in August 1945 by the Democratic Front. The Albanian National Liberation Army (Albanian: Ushtria Nacionalclirimtare)was the army created during the National Liberation Movement.[2] Creationof National LiberationFront Albanian resistance background Albania did not put an organized resistance to the Italian invasion of 7 April 1939.However differentAlbanian groups of patriots such as Mujo Ulqinakuand Abaz Kupi made a brief resistance to the invasion force in Durrës on the day of invasion. Durrës was captured on April 7, Tirana the following day,Shkodër and Gjirokastër on April 9, and almost the entire country by April 10.[3] After the Italian invasion there was no general resistance to the Italian army, although some local leaders like Myslym Peza, Baba Faja Martaneshi, Abaz Kupi etc. created small çetas (small detachments) which from time to time to undertake small attacks on Italian forces.Meanwhile the communist activity in Albania increased and culminated with the creation on 8 November 1941 of the Albanian Communist Party. The communistparty began to create from December1941 to the beginning of 1942 their own groups of resistance made up of 5-10 people.These detachments started to engage in various acts of sabotage to the Italian forces.They also started to make antifascist propagandain order to gain the attention and the support of the masses.[4] As of 1942 the local press and the foreignconsulates began to report an increasing number of attacks. The mostspectacular act of sabotage was the interruption of all telegraphic and telephone communications in Albania in June and July 1942.Although the communist activity was increasing, the
  • 2. main concernfor Italians were the northern bands. The Italians had given up on governing Northern Albania. The security posts composed of gendarmes in Northern Albania were mostly concerned fortheir own security and rarely ventured themselves outside their posts,and convoys along the roads were to be accompanied by strong Italian military detachments.[5] Conference of Pezë Mother Albania. The partisan monument and graveyard on the outskirts ofTirana, Albania It was at this time (September1942)that the Albanian CommunistParty made their bold move of calling up a national conference,the Conference of Peza, which took place in 16 September1942 in the house of Myslym Peza, a known resistance leader, (in Pezë village, near Tirana). In the conference the CommunistParty of Albania invited all the Albanian resistance leaders to create a national resistance front. The Communist Party saw the creation of this front as a necessaryneed for Albania. Its intention was to dominate this front although some figures within the Albanian Communist Party opposedthe idea of an organized front with other nationalist fearing a betrayal from them.[5] The conference decided to create the General Council which was composedof 10 people:seven communists including Mustafa Gjinishi, Enver Hoxha, and known nationalists like Abaz Kupi, Myslym Peza and Baba Faja Martaneshi. Mehdi Frashëri was the honorary presidentof the conference,a fact suppressed laterby the communist history.[6] The General Council would supervise local liberation councils. The councils in areas yet to be liberated would function as propaganda agencies,would collected material necessaryfor the war, conduct espionage,organize the
  • 3. economic struggle against Italian companies,and sabotage the collection of agricultural products from fascists.In already liberated areas, they were to function as new state. They were to maintain law and order developing local economy;overseeing food supply,trade, education, culture, and press.They would also settle blood feuds,and maintain readiness for war. The conference managed to set in place a joint National Liberation Movement with a provisional eight-membercouncil, with Enver Hoxha and Abaz Kupi among them, though it was dominated by the communists.[6] Communistcontrolover partisans Partisan bands were organized in fifty or sixty men including a communist commissary.The commander had the military jurisdiction except the cases when: 1)Orders were at variancewith party line 2)Orders were at variancewith interestsof liberation war 3)Treasonof commanderwas involved In other words the non communist commanders had the freedom to do exactly what they were told.[7] The party, whenever possible directed both politically and militarily. Each partisan band had a political cell and both the political cell and the commissarywere responsibleto regional committees of party. Miladin Popović a Yugoslav communist, who attended the Peza Conference as an adviser hoped to further strengthen party controls by creating a general staff that would tie the various units together,but his suggestionwas not adopted.The partisan units were supplemented by territorial units-irregular self-defensedetachments made up of volunteers. They were planned for every larger village or one for two-to-three villages together. Their function was to protect the liberated zones and to serve as a source of replenishmentfor the regular partisan units. At the end of 1942 there were 2000 partisans plus a larger number of territorial units.[8] MukjeAgreement The Mukje Agreement was a treaty signed on August 2, 1943 in the Albanian village of Mukje between the nationalist Balli Kombëtar and the communistNational Liberation Movement. The two forces would work together in fighting off Italy's control over Albania. However, A dispute arose concerning the status of Kosovo.Whereas the Balli Kombetar proposed to fight for the integration of Kosovo into Albania, the Communist representatives objected fiercely.