IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)
Volume 20, Issue 1, Ver. III (Jan. 2015), PP 38-41
e-ISSN: 2279-...
Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community
DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 3...
Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community
DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 4...
Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community
DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 4...
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Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community

Tobacco use is a global pandemic and is the leading cause of preventable death. Most of the deaths are occurring in the low and middle income countries. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adults in an urban community. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using face to face interviews on 403 individuals aged 18 years and above residing in an urban community of Imphal West, Manipur. Descriptive statistics and Chi –square test was used for analysis. Results: The prevalence of ever use of tobacco use was 66.3% and of which 95.5% were current users. Tobacco was used predominantly in smokeless form (zarda pan, khaini, gutkha) by 85% of the users. Smoked tobacco was used only by 15% of the users. The commonest influencing factor for tobacco use was peer pressure. Conclusion: Prevalence of tobacco use in this community was high. There is a need to develop effective health education and multifactorial tobacco quitting strategies with focus on help and support for those who wish to quit tobacco.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community

  • 1. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 20, Issue 1, Ver. III (Jan. 2015), PP 38-41 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 38 | Page Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community Laishram Jenibala Devi1 , Dr. W. Pradip Kumar Singh2 1 Department of Sociology, Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India 2 Department of Sociology, Liberal College, Imphal, Manipur, India. Abstract: Tobacco use is a global pandemic and is the leading cause of preventable death. Most of the deaths are occurring in the low and middle income countries. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adults in an urban community. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using face to face interviews on 403 individuals aged 18 years and above residing in an urban community of Imphal West, Manipur. Descriptive statistics and Chi –square test was used for analysis. Results: The prevalence of ever use of tobacco use was 66.3% and of which 95.5% were current users. Tobacco was used predominantly in smokeless form (zarda pan, khaini, gutkha) by 85% of the users. Smoked tobacco was used only by 15% of the users. The commonest influencing factor for tobacco use was peer pressure. Conclusion: Prevalence of tobacco use in this community was high. There is a need to develop effective health education and multifactorial tobacco quitting strategies with focus on help and support for those who wish to quit tobacco. Keywords: Cross sectional study, prevalence, pattern, tobacco use, urban community, Manipur I. Introduction` The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. It kills nearly six million people a year of whom more than 5 million are users and ex-users and more than 600 000 are non- smokers exposed to second-hand smoke. Approximately one person dies every six seconds due to tobacco and this accounts for one in 10 adult deaths. Up to half of current users will eventually die of a tobacco-related disease. Nearly 80% of the more than one billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of tobacco-related illness and death is heaviest.1 In India, tobacco consumption is responsible for half of all the cancers in men and a quarter of all cancers in women,2 in addition to being a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.3,4 India also has one of the highest rates of oral cancer in the world and it has been partly attributed to high prevalence of tobacco chewing.5,6 The World Health Organisation predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020.7 In recent years, the prevalence of smoking has been declining in many developed countries.8 But in developing countries there has been a large increase in the number of young adults starting to smoke and in per capita cigarette consumption.9 It is high time for the health planners and medical professionals to detect the main force behind which push our generative population in the clutch of this dreaded killer. So far very few reliable and valid studies have been conducted in the whole North-East States of India including Manipur. Hence this study was conducted with the objectives to determine the prevalence and to assess the pattern of tobacco use in an urban population of Imphal, Manipur. II. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in an urban community of Imphal West district of Manipur. Manipur is in the north-eastern part of India. The study population comprised of all adults aged 18 years and above residing in this urban community. Sample size was calculated using the formula 4PQ/L2, using a prevalence of 30% from previous study10 , 95% confidence interval and an allowable error of 5%. Assuming a non-response rate of 20%, the final calculated sample size was 403. Sampling was done by simple random sampling method. Sampling frame was prepared from the most recent electoral roll of the state. Data was collected by face to face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire had questions on socio demographic characteristics, form of tobacco used, frequency, duration of tobacco use and reasons for initiating tobacco use. Ever user was defined as those who had used any tobacco product in his or her lifetime, even once. Ever users were again classified as current and past user. Current users were those who have used any tobacco product anytime in the last 30 days. Past users were those who had used any tobacco product any time in the past but not within the last 30 days. Never users were those who had never used any form of tobacco.
  • 2. Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 39 | Page The various tobacco products mentioned in the study were divided into smoked forms and smokeless forms. Cigarette and bidi are examples of smoked form of tobacco. Smokeless tobacco is tobacco that is not burned. It can be chewed, dipped or applied to teeth and gums. There are many types of smokeless tobacco. They are khaini, zarda pan, pan masala or gutkha to name some. Khaini is a form of chewing tobacco product which is kept in the mouth between the cheeks and gums. It is tobacco mixed with slaked lime and additional flavorings. In Zarda pan the main ingredients of pan are the betel leaf, areca nut, slaked lime and catechu. Sweets and other condiments can also be added. Pan masala or gutkha is a commercial preparation containing the areca nut, slaked lime, catechu, and condiments, with powdered tobacco. Tobacco leaf in dried form is also taken along with betel leaf and quid, with or without lime. For analysis, descriptive statistics like mean, percentages and proportions were used. Chi- square test was used to see the association between tobacco use and selected variables like age, sex, educational status, occupation etc. p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Informed consent was taken from all the respondents and confidentiality was maintained. Approval for the study was granted by Institutional Review Board of Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India. III. Results A total of 403 respondents participated in the study. Of them 60% (n=242) were females. Mean age of the respondents was 34.62(±13.437) years. More than half of the respondents were in the age group of 20-39 years (n=222, 55%). Majority of the respondents were Hindu by religion (89%). Literacy rate was 90.3% with over half (55.1%) having more than ten years of schooling. Unemployed males comprised 3%, housewives comprised 41.2% and manual laborer comprised 10.6% of the total respondents. Majority of the respondents were ever married (n=303, 75.2%). Two-third of the respondents have ever used tobacco and the prevalence of current user was found to be 95.5% (n=255). Of the ever users, 214(80.1%) were daily users. Past users constituted only 4.5% of the ever users (Table 1). Smokeless form of tobacco was most commonly used by 85% of the users. Most common form of smokeless tobacco used was zarda pan (52.6%) followed by khaini (15.7%), gutkha (13.6%) and tobacco leaf with pan (3.1%). Cigarette and bidi was smoked by 11.9% and 3.1% of the respondents respectively. Mean age of first use was found to be 24.72(±9.718) years. Minimum and maximum age of first use was found to be 8 years and 61 years respectively. Most of the respondents (44.6%) started using tobacco in the age group of 20- 29 years and 28.8% started using within 10-19 years of age. Table 2 summarizes the prevalence of ever use of tobacco by socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of tobacco use was 77.6% among men and 58.7% among women (p=0.000). The prevalence of tobacco use was highest among the age group of 40-49 years as compared to other age groups (p=0.000). Tobacco use was more prevalent among those who were educated below class ten (76.15%, p=0.004).Among all the occupations, manual labourers had the highest prevalence of tobacco use (88.4%) followed by those who were government employed (84.6%). Students had the lowest prevalence of 30.9% (p=0.000). Ever married respondents had a higher prevalence (73.5%) as compared to unmarried respondents (45%) and this was statistically significant (p=0.000). Religion and family income were not statistically associated with tobacco use Peer pressure was named as the most common influencing factor for tobacco use by 45.8% (n=141) respondents. Other reasons reported were experimentation, imitation of others, for medicinal purpose to relieve nausea, pain and stress. Of the total respondents, 315(78.4%) have knowledge of harmful effects of tobacco and majority of them knew that it causes cancer. Ever users had more knowledge compared to non-users but it was not statistically significant (p=0.557). Television and radio were the most common source of information about the harmful effects of tobacco followed by warning on tobacco product packets. Of the current users 84.3% were willing to quit tobacco. IV. Discussion The prevalence of ever use of tobacco in our study was found to be 66.3% and that of current user was 95.5% which is higher than that reported from other parts of the country 10-13,15,16 and elsewhere.6,17,18 The proportion of past users in our study was 4.5% which is consistent with other studies.12,18 The rate of tobacco was significantly higher among males as compared to females and this was comparable to other studies.15,18 However this finding was not consistent with another study which claimed that females were more likely to smoke than males.19 Educational status was significantly associated with tobacco use. This is consistent with observations that those with lower level of education are more likely to use tobacco.10,12,18,20 In this study, the age wise prevalence of tobacco use was higher as the age advanced and the highest rate was found in the age group of 40-
  • 3. Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 40 | Page 49 years and then declined gradually as age advances. Similar finding was also reported by other workers 10,11,12,18 Manual labourers showed a higher rate of tobacco use and this was consistent with other studies.10,18 Those who were ever married had a higher rate of tobacco use as compared to the unmarried respondents. This may be due to influences of the spouses consuming tobacco. Peer pressure was named as the most common reason for initiation of tobacco use and similar findings were also reported in other studies.11,21 Smokeless tobacco was more commonly used as compared to smoked form. Zarda pan and khaini were the most commonly used form of tobacco in this study and similar findings were also reported.11 The mean age of first use was 24 years which was comparable with other studies.12,18 The higher age of initiation of tobacco use gives a wider scope for effective health education. Such an approach will be feasible in the study area as this one is a highly literate community. Of the current users 84.3% were willing to quit tobacco use which is much higher than reported in other studies.12 Knowledge of harmful effects of tobacco in the study population was found to be comparable with a study in India12 but this level was lower than that reported in a study elsewhere. V. Conclusion The high prevalence rate of use both among men and women points towards the fact that mere knowledge about the health hazards is not sufficient to make them stop using tobacco. So there is a need to develop effective health education and multifactorial tobacco quitting strategies with focus on help and support for those who wish to quit tobacco. References [1]. World Health Organization. Tobacco. Fact Sheet No.339. 2012. Available at: URL:http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/ factsheets/fs339/en/index.html. Accessed 18 June 2012. [2]. World Health Organization. Tobacco control: strengthening national efforts, World Health Report; WHO 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.2003; 91-5. [3]. Gupta R, Prakash H, Gupta VP. Prevalence and determinants of coronary heart disease in a rural population in India. J Clinl Epidemiol 1997; 50:203-9. [4]. Padmavati S. Prevention of heart disease in India in the 21st century. Need for a concerted effort. Indian Heart J 2002; 54:99-102. [5]. Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Herroro R, Munoz N. Comparison of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx worldwide: etiological clues. Oral Oncology 2000; 36:106-15. [6]. Dikshit R, Kanhere S. Tobacco habits and risk of lung, oropharyngeal and oral cancer: a population based case-control study in Bhopal, India. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29:609-14. [7]. Murray CJ, Lopez AD, eds. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, Massachussets: Harvard School of Public Health, 1996. [8]. Pierce JP. International comparisons of trends in cigarette smoking prevalence. Am J Public Health 1989; 79:152-57. [9]. Mackay J, Crofton J. Tobacco and the developing world. Br Med Bull 1996; 52:206-21. [10]. Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjourm L. Tobacco use in India: Prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control 2003:12:341. Available at: URL: http://www.tobaccocontrol.com/ cgi/content/full/12/4/e4. Accessed 28 June 2011. [11]. Daniel AB, Nagaraj K, Kamath R. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use in a highly literate rural community in south India. Natl Med J India 2008; 21:163-5. [12]. Joshi U, Modi B, Yadav S. A study on prevalence of chewing form of tobacco and existing quitting patterns in urban population in Jamnagar, Gujarat. Indian J Community Med 2010; 35:105-8. [13]. Gupta PC. Survey of sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco use among 99,598 individuals in Bombay, India using handheld computers. Tob Control 1996; 5:114-20. [14]. Patel DR. Smoking and children. Indian J Pediatr 1999; 66:817-24. [15]. Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Pednekar MS. Tobacco use among school personnel in eight north eastern states of India. Indian J Cancer 2003; 4:3-14. [16]. Shah SMA, Srif AA, Delclos GL, Khan A. Prevalence and correlates of smoking on the roof of the world. Tob Control 2001; 10:1- 4. [17]. Smith SS, Flore MC. The epidemiology of tobacco use, dependence and cessation in the United States. J Prim Care 1999; 26:433- 61. [18]. Fakhfakh R, Hsairi M, Maalej M, Achour N, Nacef T. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behavior and awareness. Bull World Health Organ 2002; 80:350-56. [19]. Giovino GA, Schooley MW, Zhu BP. Surveillance for selected tobacco use behaviours-United States, 1900-1994. MMWR CDS Surveill Summ 1994; 43:1-43. [20]. Gupta R. Smoking, educational status and healthy equity in India. Indian J Med Res 2006; 124:15-22. [21]. Peter S, Louise K, Dereck Y. Determinants of cigarette smoking in the black township population of Cape Town. J Epidemiol Com Health 1989; 43:209-13. Table 1. Prevalence of tobacco use (n=403) Tobacco use Number Prevalence(%) Never user 136 33.7 Ever user 267 66.3 Current user 255 95.5 Past user 12 4.5
  • 4. Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Use among Adults in an Urban Community DOI: 10.9790/0837-20133841 www.iosrjournals.org 41 | Page Table 2. Prevalence and characteristics of the respondents (n=403) Characteristics Number No. of ever users Prevalence (%) p-value Gender: Male 161 125 77.6 0.000Female 242 142 58.7 Age group(yrs): ≤19 49 18 36.7 0.000 20-29 115 72 62.6 30-39 107 80 74.8 40-49 70 53 75.7 50-59 35 26 74.3 ≥60 27 18 66.7 Education: Illiterate 39 29 74.4 0.004<ClassX 142 108 76.1 ClassX-XII 146 83 56.8 ≥Graduate 76 47 61.8 Occupation: Unemployed/Housewife 178 117 65.7 0.000Manual laborer 43 38 88.4 Govt. employed 26 22 84.6 Private sector employed 19 12 63.2 Self employed 69 57 82.6 Student 68 21 30.9 Marital status: Ever married 303 222 73.5 0.000 Unmarried 100 45 45 Religion: Hindu 326 221 67.8 0.17Non- Hindu 77 46 59.7 Monthly Family income (in Rs): <5000 72 48 66.7 0.5965000-9999 155 100 64.5 10000-14999 64 47 73.4 ≥15000 112 72 64.3

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