By Dr. Iram Rizvi
Narrative theory
 Narrative is somebody telling somebody else, on some
occasion, and for some purposes, that something
ha...
 It enables us to grasp temporarily the events in a given
situation.
 Narratives develop a link while we live in absolut...
Significance of narratives:
 Narrative extends beyond structure or sequencing of
moments in time and into the realm of va...
Application of Narrative theory
 Narrative theory has been studied in such fields as:
 Rhetoric, literary theory, philos...
Theorists of Narrative Theory
 Vladimir Propp, was a Russian critic and literary
theorist
 He analysed over 100 Russian ...
 Tzvetan Todorov a Bulgarian literary theorist
 He suggested most narratives start with a state of
equilibrium in which ...
.
Roland Barthes, French
semiologist
 He suggested that narrative works with five different
codes which activate the read...
 Symbolic – (connotation)
 Semic – (denotation)
 Cultural – a narrative device which the audience can
recognise as bein...
Claude Levi-Strauss
 Social Anthropologist.
 Studied myths of tribal cultures.
 Examined how stories unconsciously refl...
Walter Fisher
 The "stories" people tell are evaluated based on if they
relate to an "audience's" own personal values.
 ...
References
 Appel, M. & Richter, T. (2007). Persuasive effects of fictional narratives
increase over time. Media Psycholo...
 Fisher, W.R. (1989). Clarifying the narrative paradigm. Communication
Monographs. 56, 55-58.
Gans, H. (1979). The organi...
 Narration. (n.d.) In Oxford English Dictionary online. Retrieved
from http://dictionary.oed.com
Narrative. (n.d.) In Oxf...
Thank You
of 15

Narrative theory made easy By Dr. Iram Rizvi

Narrative theory gives us an insight how human communication has evolved. The theory helps us to understand the meaning of human communication. This theory is widely used to study Film, News and Group Communication
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narrative theory made easy By Dr. Iram Rizvi

  • 1. By Dr. Iram Rizvi
  • 2. Narrative theory  Narrative is somebody telling somebody else, on some occasion, and for some purposes, that something happened to someone or something.  Narratives organize the meaning for current experaince.  They act as active agents in shaping collective meanings with others.  Actively piece together concepts, characters, values and motives, themes, plots to create coherent frames for interpreting and speaking about lived experience (Ricoeur, 1984).  Act as agent in shaping collective meanings with others.
  • 3.  It enables us to grasp temporarily the events in a given situation.  Narratives develop a link while we live in absolute now, our conceptions about lived past and its relationship to our unlived future.  Narratives enable us to continuously experience and then interpreting the experience.  Narrative sense making is not just about attending what is told, but also about considering what lies in the fragments of the world.
  • 4. Significance of narratives:  Narrative extends beyond structure or sequencing of moments in time and into the realm of values or ethics.  According to Ricoeur (1990); his configurational meaning of narratives, narratives combine events together to eliminate key points, moral values and general plots.  Characters, motives, actions and outcomes are assigned relational significance to order and explain both, the how and why of experience.
  • 5. Application of Narrative theory  Narrative theory has been studied in such fields as:  Rhetoric, literary theory, philosophy, history (see for example: White, 1980), psychology, political communication, journalism, studies of folklore, persuasion theory, and media studies  In communication, scholars have studied narrative’s role in politics and their use in news media.
  • 6. Theorists of Narrative Theory  Vladimir Propp, was a Russian critic and literary theorist  He analysed over 100 Russian fairytales in the 1920s & proposed that it was possible to classify the characters and their actions into clearly defined roles and functions.  The model is useful, however as it highlights the similarities between seemingly quite different stories.
  • 7.  Tzvetan Todorov a Bulgarian literary theorist  He suggested most narratives start with a state of equilibrium in which life is ‘normal’ and protagonists happy.  This state of normality is disrupted by an outside force, which has to be fought against in order to return to a state of equilibrium.  This model can easily be applied to a wide range of films.
  • 8. . Roland Barthes, French semiologist  He suggested that narrative works with five different codes which activate the reader to make sense of it.  Barthes’ Codes are:  Action – a narrative device by which a resolution is produced through action, e.g. a shoot-out.  Enigma – a narrative device that teases the audience by presenting a puzzle or riddle to be solved. Works to delay the story’s ending pleasurably.
  • 9.  Symbolic – (connotation)  Semic – (denotation)  Cultural – a narrative device which the audience can recognise as being part of a culture e.g. a “made man” in a gangster film is part of the mafia culture.
  • 10. Claude Levi-Strauss  Social Anthropologist.  Studied myths of tribal cultures.  Examined how stories unconsciously reflect the values, beliefs and myths of a culture.  These are usually expressed in the form of binary oppositions .  His research has been adapted by media theorists to reveal underlying themes and symbolic oppositions in media texts.
  • 11. Walter Fisher  The "stories" people tell are evaluated based on if they relate to an "audience's" own personal values.  Fisher explains how we as humans communicate by taking complicated information and tranforming it into narrative stories.
  • 12. References  Appel, M. & Richter, T. (2007). Persuasive effects of fictional narratives increase over time. Media Psychology. 10, 113-134. Aristotle. (2007). On rhetoric: a theory of civic discourse. (G.A. Kennedy, Trans.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Burgchardt, C.R. (1995). Narrative criticism. In C.R. Burgchardt (Ed.), Readings in Rhetorical Criticism (pp. 271-272). State College, PA: Strata Publishing. Fisher, W.R. (1984). Narration as a human communication paradigm: the case of public moral argument. Communication Monographs. 51, 1- 22. Fisher, W.R. (1985). The narrative paradigm: an elaboration. Communication Monographs. 52, 347-367.
  • 13.  Fisher, W.R. (1989). Clarifying the narrative paradigm. Communication Monographs. 56, 55-58. Gans, H. (1979). The organization of story selection. Story suitability. Deciding what’s news. NY: Pantheon Books. Green, M.C. & Brock, T.C. (2000). The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 79(5), 701-721. Jahn, M. (2005). Narratology: a guide to the theory of narrative. English Department, University of Cologne. Retrieved from http://www.uni- koeln.de/~ame02/pppn.htm Lewis, W.F. (1987). Telling America’s story: narrative form and the Reagan presidency. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73(3), 280-303. Lule, J. (2001). Seven master myths in the news. The other world: Haiti and international news values. Daily news, eternal stories. NY: Guilford. Moyer-Gusé, E. (2008). Toward a theory of entertainment persuasion: explaining the persuasive effects of entertainment-education messages. Communication Theory. 18, 407-425.
  • 14.  Narration. (n.d.) In Oxford English Dictionary online. Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com Narrative. (n.d.) In Oxford English Dictionary online. Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com Scott, R.L. (1984). Narrative theory and communication research. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 70, 197-221. Selby, G.S. (2008). Martin Luther King and the rhetoric of freedom: the Exodus narrative in America’s struggle for civil rights. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. Todorov, T. (1971). The 2 principles of narrative. Diacritics. 1(1), 37-44. Todorov, T. (1980). The categories of literary narrative. Paper on Language & Literature. 16(1), 3-36. White, H. (1980). The value of narrativity in the representation of reality. Critical Inquiry. 7(1), 5-27.
  • 15. Thank You

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