Political Science - Types of Goverment
Political Science - Types of Goverment
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Political Science - Types of Goverment
Forms Of Government
Major Forms Of Government :
Monarchy: A monarchy consists of rule by a king or queen. There are
no large monarchies today. The United Kingdom, which has a queen, is
really a republic because the queen has virtually no political power.
Aristocracy: An aristocracy is rule by the aristocrats. Aristocrats
are typically wealthy, educated people. Today, typically, the term
"aristocracy" is used negatively to accuse a republic of being
dominated by rich people, such as saying, "The United States has
become an aristocracy."
Republic: A literal democracy is impossible in a political system
containing more than a few people. All "democracies" are really
republics. In a republic, the people elect representatives to make and
Dictatorship: A dictatorship consists of rule by one person or a
group of people. The dictator may be one person, such as Castro in
Cuba or Hitler in Germany, or a group of people, such as the
Communist Party in China.
Democracy: The word "democracy" literally means "rule by the
people." In a democracy, the people govern. The government is
elected by the people. Everyone who is eligible to vote has a chance
to have their say over who runs the country.
Democratic Republic: Usually, a "democratic republic" is not a
democratic neither is a republic.
A government that officially calls itself a "democratic republic" is
usually a dictatorship. Communist dictatorships have been especially
prone to use this term. For example, the official name of North
Vietnam was "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam." China uses a
variant, "The People's Republic of China."
Unitary And Federal
In the unitary system all the powers of government are concentrated
in a single set of authorities, so that the entire force of the
government can be brought to bear upon the problem of
administration. Now-a-days unitary government is seen in United
Kingdom, Japan, Belgium, Holland, France and Italy.
Uniformity of law and administration.
The central government becomes overburdened with work.
Not suited to a state of large size.
Apprehension of the central government becoming despotic.
A federal government is a system of government in which powers are divided
and distributed between the national government and constituent units
(states, provinces, republics, regions or cantons). Like- Venezuela, Mexico,
Argentina, India and Pakistan.
Division of powers between the centre and states leads to administrative
Good for economic and cultural progress.
Distribution of powers checks the despotism of the central
Lack of uniformity in administration.
Constitution, being rigid, cannot be adjusted to the fast changing conditions.
Distribution of powers leads to many conflicts.
Federations should not be confused with confederations which are
essentially alliances between several sovereign states to agree to
adopt certain similar procedures and policies. The European Union is
at the moment a confederation. If it set up a central executive with
some sovereign powers over member states, it would become a
Parliamentary and Presidential
Based on the relationship between the executive and the legislature modern
governments are classified into parliamentary and presidential governments.
Parliamentary government: is that form of government in which the real
executive, consisting of the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime
Minister is collectively responsible for all it’s acts before the
legislature.(India And U.K)
Harmony Between Legislature and Executive.
Executive works as a responsible Executive.
Executive cannot be come despotic.
Executive is weak because its tenure is not fixed.
Minister’s are not appointed on merit.
Executive Dominates the legislature.
When there is a separation of powers between the legislature and the
executive and the latter is not responsible before the former, the
executive is termed as presidential executive and the system of
government is called Presidential system.
In such a system, the head of the state (President) is also the head of
government and he is his own Prime Minister.(U.S.A)
Stability of government.
Executive is free from aggressive party politics.
Minister’s are experts.
A single person (President) enjoy very powerful position.
President can use his powers in an arbitrary way.
Executive cannot be easily changed.
Unicameral And Bicameral Legislature
Unicameral: stands for a legislature with a single house. Most of the
states, usually small states, have unicameral legislature.(Zimbabwe,
In India, some states of the Union have bicameral legislature whereas
other have unicameral legislature.( Uttar Prades, Maharashtra, Bihar,
Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh have bicameral
Bicameral: stands for legislature with two houses. A large numbers of
modern legislature, particularly big states, have bicameral
legislature.(Canada, Germany, U.S.A and India )
Arguments in favor of Unicameral legislature:
Two chambers confuse public opinion.
Second Chamber is either mischievous or superfluous.
Delay in legislation.
Arguments in Favor of Bicameral legislature:
Second chamber lessen the burden of first chamber.
Second chamber is essential for preventing hasty and ill-considered
Two houses better represents public opinion.
Essential for a federation.