Narcoticsby Victor KouzmanovMagdalena Mladenova Max Mayer Stanyo Zhelev Irina Zlatanova
Nicotine
History• Name after Nicotiana tabacum• Which is after Jan Nicot (french)• First used as a poison in 1828• In 1904 it is sy...
Structure• Formula -> C10H14N2• Definition: An alkaloid which is the active principle of tobacco. It is a colorl...
Where could it be found?• Biosynthesised in the roots of plants• In the body of plants from the nightshade family • Tom...
Chemical properties• Hydrophilic substance• Dissolves in water• Nicotine base forms salts with acids that are dissolved i...
How can it be found?• As said it is very easily absorbed• => found with many tests of • Blood • Urine • Hair • Ski...
Addiction• Rises dopamine in the brain• One becomes more addicted to nicotine than to cocaine and heroine• Rise in noradr...
Effects• Causes a rise in the blood pressure• Damages the central and peripheral nervous system• Tolerance -> addiction• ...
Amphetamines,Metamphetamines, Ecstasy
Amphetamine• Also known as: speed, uppers, dexies, whizzes, billy whizz, whites.• Class B illegal drug (Class A if prepar...
Effects• Increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain, and prevent these chemicals ...
Amphetamines
Effects• Rapid breathing; increased heart beat and temperature• Dilated pupils• Produced within 3 to 20 minutes after sno...
Controlled Usage• Firstly legally used to fight the fatigue of soldiers and improve their mental condition; legally pres...
Risks• Large amounts for a short period of time- exhaustion and psychological problems (esp panic and paranoia)• Long te...
That’s not all..• Users might become very run down and more vulnerable to other infections and diseases• Depression is co...
How to find out who takes it and Window of Detection• Gets metabolized slowly -> Can be found through urinary t...
Methamphetamine• Sometimes called crank, ice, tina, crystal meth• Similar to amphetamine in structure, but more powerful...
• Releases even more dopamine than amphetamines – leads to euphoria, “rush of pleasure”• For example, in lab experiments...
Severe effects on your body•Changes your brain chemistry by destroying the wiring inthe brain’s pleasure centers – make it...
MDMA (a.k.a. Ecstasy)
General• Generally solved as a tablet in various colors and shapes (sometimes with logo imprinted)• Both hallucinogenic ...
Risks• Can cause confusion, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, paranoia• Muscle tension, involuntarily teeth clenching,...
Sources• http://teens.drugabuse.gov/mom/tg_intro.php• http://science.education.nih.gov/Customers.nsf/HSAd diction.h...
Cocaine
What is cocaine?• Cocaine is white powder-like substance produced of the leaves of the coca plant;• Cocaine is a...
• In bigger doses Cocaine can cause tremors, convulsions, and increased body temperature• The excessive or prol...
Cocaine in Chemistry• Cocaine is also known as benzoylmethylecgonine• Cocaine is a weakly alkaline compound (an "alkaloid...
Laws and World Use• According to research approximately 12 million Europeans have used cocaine at least once in their...
Marijuana
Marijuana (depressant)Dried, shredded leaves, stems,seeds and flowers of the hempplant Cannabis sativa.Most widel...
How it works• Primary ingredient: THC (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol)• When inhaled, smoke moves to the lungs and ...
TestingBlood, saliva, sweat, urine and hair Time period of detection – 3-10 dayscan ...
Sources• http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfa• http://www.drugs.com/marijuana.html• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C...
Heroin a.k.a diacetylmorphine, diamorphine or(5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro-4,5- epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol ...
Structure • derivative of morphine – achieved through the addition of two acetyl groups to the molec...
Application• In the beginning, heroin was used as a substituent for morphine in order to cure morphine addiction, but it...
Effects• when injected, heroin has no problem crossing the blood-brain barrier because of its acetyl groups which ...
Detection• window of detection: 5-7 days after heavy usage• in saliva – 1 hour after usage• urine samples – 1-2 days...
• http://www.homehealth-uk.com/medical/hero• http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/rzepa/mim/drugs/html/• http://www.urban75.com/Drugs/dr...
Yay
Narcotics/Drugs
Narcotics/Drugs
Narcotics/Drugs
of 45

Narcotics/Drugs

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narcotics/Drugs

  • 1. Narcoticsby Victor KouzmanovMagdalena Mladenova Max Mayer Stanyo Zhelev Irina Zlatanova
  • 2. Nicotine
  • 3. History• Name after Nicotiana tabacum• Which is after Jan Nicot (french)• First used as a poison in 1828• In 1904 it is synthesised in a lab for a first time
  • 4. Structure• Formula -> C10H14N2• Definition: An alkaloid which is the active principle of tobacco. It is a colorless, transparent, oily liquid, having an acrid odor, and an acrid burning taste. It is intensely poisonous. (http://nicotine.thegraveyard.org/)
  • 5. Where could it be found?• Biosynthesised in the roots of plants• In the body of plants from the nightshade family • Tomatoes • Potatoes• In the leaves of coke
  • 6. Chemical properties• Hydrophilic substance• Dissolves in water• Nicotine base forms salts with acids that are dissolved in water• Easily absorbed by tissue (skin for example)
  • 7. How can it be found?• As said it is very easily absorbed• => found with many tests of • Blood • Urine • Hair • Skin • tissue
  • 8. Addiction• Rises dopamine in the brain• One becomes more addicted to nicotine than to cocaine and heroine• Rise in noradrenalin (derivative of dopamine)• High sensitivity of the receptors
  • 9. Effects• Causes a rise in the blood pressure• Damages the central and peripheral nervous system• Tolerance -> addiction• Cardiac problems• Respiratory deficiency• Sensory problems
  • 10. Amphetamines,Metamphetamines, Ecstasy
  • 11. Amphetamine• Also known as: speed, uppers, dexies, whizzes, billy whizz, whites.• Class B illegal drug (Class A if prepared for injection) with severe penalties for possession and sale• Stimulates the central nervous system, making the person taking it feel fresh and full of energy (even in cases of extreme exhaustion)• Exists in the form of pills, powder; can be sniffed, smoked, swallowed, or injected
  • 12. Effects• Increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain, and prevent these chemicals from being recycled =>• No feeling of fatigue• No appetite• Makes you more energetic, active, confident• Improved focus, concentration and wakefulness.
  • 13. Amphetamines
  • 14. Effects• Rapid breathing; increased heart beat and temperature• Dilated pupils• Produced within 3 to 20 minutes after snorting; lasting to 8 hours• As they wear off a feeling of anxiety may arise; the user might be irritable and restless, desperate to sleep but unable to do so• Final result: complete exhaustion
  • 15. Controlled Usage• Firstly legally used to fight the fatigue of soldiers and improve their mental condition; legally prescribed to people suffering from chronic depression
  • 16. Risks• Large amounts for a short period of time- exhaustion and psychological problems (esp panic and paranoia)• Long term: chronic sleep deprivation, reduced performance at work/school, discruption of relationships• Physical: low brood pleasure, nausea, headache, twitching and tremor• Long term: convulsions, coma, even death ;/
  • 17. That’s not all..• Users might become very run down and more vulnerable to other infections and diseases• Depression is common• Extreme cases: hallucinations, aggression, psychotic illness• Very addictive (esp when trying to avoid the effects produced when it’s wearing down)• Tolerance
  • 18. How to find out who takes it and Window of Detection• Gets metabolized slowly -> Can be found through urinary test from 8 to 10 days after the taking of the last dose
  • 19. Methamphetamine• Sometimes called crank, ice, tina, crystal meth• Similar to amphetamine in structure, but more powerful (it reaches the brain more easily and so its effects last longer)• Even a quarter gram of meth can propel a user through a weekend devoid of sleep and food.
  • 20. • Releases even more dopamine than amphetamines – leads to euphoria, “rush of pleasure”• For example, in lab experiments done on animals, sex causes dopamine levels to jump from 100 to 200 units, and cocaine causes them to spike to 350 units. With methamphetamine you get a release from the base level to about 1,250 units, something thats about 12 times as much of a release of dopamine as you get from food and sex and other pleasurable activities.
  • 21. Severe effects on your body•Changes your brain chemistry by destroying the wiring inthe brain’s pleasure centers – make it really hard for you toexperience any pleasure at all•Damages your cognitive abilities forever
  • 22. MDMA (a.k.a. Ecstasy)
  • 23. General• Generally solved as a tablet in various colors and shapes (sometimes with logo imprinted)• Both hallucinogenic and stimulant effects• Releases dopamine, noradrenaline (as amphetamines) and serotonin• Starts to affect you after about an hour and lasts from 3 to 6 hours
  • 24. Risks• Can cause confusion, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, paranoia• Muscle tension, involuntarily teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, tremors, rapid eye movement, sweating• Can increase heart beat or blood pressure• Risks of dehydration, hyperthermia
  • 25. Sources• http://teens.drugabuse.gov/mom/tg_intro.php• http://science.education.nih.gov/Customers.nsf/HSAd diction.htm• http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/emotional_health/addictio ns/amphetamines.shtml• http://www.drugsinfo-bg.org/bg/drugs-alphabet- 12.html• http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs3/3494/index.htm• http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/ecstasy/f/mdma_faq01 .htm• http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/mdm a-ecstasy
  • 26. Cocaine
  • 27. What is cocaine?• Cocaine is white powder-like substance produced of the leaves of the coca plant;• Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant, which can cause depending on the dosage feelings of extreme energy, sexuality, competence, and better performance in sports. Its effects can be present for about an hour. A pile of cocaine
  • 28. • In bigger doses Cocaine can cause tremors, convulsions, and increased body temperature• The excessive or prolonged usage of Cocaine can cause itching, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions, which can be life-threatening.• There are several ways of using Cocaine: Snorting/Sniffing Oral Through Coca leaf Inhalation Suppository
  • 29. Cocaine in Chemistry• Cocaine is also known as benzoylmethylecgonine• Cocaine is a weakly alkaline compound (an "alkaloid"), and can combine with acidic compounds to form salts. The hydrochloride salt of cocaine is the most commonly encountered, although the sulfate and the nitrate are occasionally seen. Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents – the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.
  • 30. Laws and World Use• According to research approximately 12 million Europeans have used cocaine at least once in their lives.• Cocaine possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for non-medicinal and non- government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world.
  • 31. Marijuana
  • 32. Marijuana (depressant)Dried, shredded leaves, stems,seeds and flowers of the hempplant Cannabis sativa.Most widely used illicitsubstance in the world Most commonly smoked through either a cigarette or a pipeCan be used medicinally
  • 33. How it works• Primary ingredient: THC (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol)• When inhaled, smoke moves to the lungs and through there, THC enters the bloodstream and goes to the brain• Specific, cannabinoid receptors in the brain respond to THC, causing euphoria• Areas of the brain that influence memory, concentration, pleasure, coordination and, sensory and time perception have a larger concentration of these receptors and are therefore, more affected.
  • 34. TestingBlood, saliva, sweat, urine and hair Time period of detection – 3-10 dayscan be tested for THC after useTests can reveal quantity of use,time elapsed since use, duration of 30-90 days for habitual users of theuse and differentiate between drugpassive exposure and active use.Tests cannot reveal if marijuanais being used medicinally orrecreationally
  • 35. Sources• http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfa• http://www.drugs.com/marijuana.html• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_drug_te
  • 36. Heroin a.k.a diacetylmorphine, diamorphine or(5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro-4,5- epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol diacetate
  • 37. Structure • derivative of morphine – achieved through the addition of two acetyl groups to the molecule of morphine • opiate • first synthesized by Charles Romley Alder Wright in 1874 • banned as illegal in many places not long after
  • 38. Application• In the beginning, heroin was used as a substituent for morphine in order to cure morphine addiction, but it was discovered that this only leads to heroin addiction• now it’s illegal in most countries; medical applications are rare – to relieve excruciating pain, as a prescribed controlled drug in the UK (for the same reasons as morphine, with lower side effects)• administration: inhalation, snorting, oral (little to no rush), through injection (huge rush), suppository methods (vaginal or anal intake which induces a huge rush)
  • 39. Effects• when injected, heroin has no problem crossing the blood-brain barrier because of its acetyl groups which make it very fat soluble• heroin attaches to certain opioid receptors and this blocks the transmission of pain messages• induce euphoria by affecting regions of the brain that mediate pleasure• warmth, drowsiness, reducing of the heart rate, detachment from pain, desires etc, tiredness and inability to move• the toxins make it highly addictive and increasingly larger doses are needed for the achieving of the same rush – many people overdose
  • 40. Detection• window of detection: 5-7 days after heavy usage• in saliva – 1 hour after usage• urine samples – 1-2 days• hair sample – 5-7 days after usage• blood tests
  • 41. • http://www.homehealth-uk.com/medical/hero• http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/rzepa/mim/drugs/html/• http://www.urban75.com/Drugs/drugsmak.htm• http://www.thegooddrugsguide.com/heroin/dr• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin
  • 42. Yay