NGM. COM MARCH 2012
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WILDLIFE As CANON SEES IT
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March 2012
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UNICEF has saved more children's lives than any
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EDITOR'S NOTE
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A black rhino flees ropers in eastern Kenya in 1968.
Its capture was part of a relocation effort.
...
PAPER because
a lot of places worth going to don’t get a signal,
and hopefully never will.
High in the mountains, out...
LETTERS
Africa’s Albertine Rift
I was recently involved in a project to improve nutrition
- among subsistence farming f...
More than words.
Drive.
You test yourself. Daily.
Learning a new language
gives you an advantage.
It's the game-chan...
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ON TV
Warrior Graveyard
Fifteen years ago in Kamakura, Japan,
bulldozers unearthed a mass grave
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PHOTO JOURNAL 'l'nicr‘Si‘ufi‘
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anticipating fleeting moments.
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Well, hello.
Introducing a new discount for
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members.
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beating he endured for refusing to renounce his Ch...
n the town of Parur, India, in the
southern state of Kerala, the polished stone
floor of the old church of Kottakkavu
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one couple who held back a portion of their
donation to the community.
In its earliest days the movement was too
insigni...
Each Friday, Roman Catholics remember Christ’s final hours with
a procession between the stations of the cross along the ...
SPREADING THE GOSPEL
The Bible says Jesus named
a dozen of his most devoted
disciples Apostles, or messen-
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echoing the uncertainty, if not the deep skepti-
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matters. How can we k...
A medieval legend says that Mary Magdalene spent her last years
in France, praying in the cave of Sainte-Baume. Nuns at...
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a medievalist at the University of Venice and
a leading expert on St. Mark, told me. “I don’t
think there are other exa...
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National geographic mar 2012

National geographic mar 2012
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Entertainment & Humor      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National geographic mar 2012

  • 1. NGM. COM MARCH 2012 A _ _, ‘ ‘ ‘ . : —». .»-, ' , ‘ _‘ ‘ ‘ _ N :1 “I . , t x . <. ~ ‘ . 1" I r , -r -. —, -7 , , THERH| ND'S . , HDRN 4 " SEAS Curse or N 1 __ 1 Treasures Salvation? and Threats
  • 2. @701 7 Canon Inc <anon. com WILDLIFE As CANON SEES IT Red alert. When the helmeted woodpecker is excited, its bushy, rounded red crest flares out in a magnificent crescent; when the bird is calm, the crest remains at rest in a folded red triangle. One of the world's rarest and least-known woodpeckers, it is also among the most silent, drumming and calling only for a few minutes in the first hour after sunrise. Its foraging makes little noise as it probes bark fissures and pecks in soft, Helmeted (Dryocopus galeatus) body length, inches) forest Surviving number: than 10,000 4: § 5 E E '2: . . : '1 E E -5 E 4; % F! ‘ E Q. rotted trees. But the trees it needs are increasingly scarce as Atlantic forest disappears and less than 1% of what remains is old—growth forest. For the woodpecker, there is much cause for alarm. As we see it, we can help make the world a better place. Raising awareness of endangered species is just one of the ways we at Canon are taking action—for the good of the planet we call home. Visit canon. com/ environment to learn more. Can Oil Woodpecker Size: Head and approx. 28 cm (1 1 inches); wingspan, approx. 54 cm (21 Weight: Approx. ‘ 137 g (4.8 oz) Habitat: Prefers primary, native montane and lowland Atlantic Estimated at fewer mature individuals
  • 3. "OIL. Ilzll -‘Ni 1‘ ‘Iii: miwiiopiiioiirrici‘ mu“ tmlt tum: gun: ttutvu sitygm fiultv mil‘ iii: iritmnailta u: Eg‘: .‘ AI‘! Dart. hoist. and helicopter: That's the first step in a program to introduce black rhinos to new habitats in South Africa. HHFFI. RFfilAlS3§Aty(’LF. ".’i'. ’iF March 2012 lll| l|lllllllllllllllllllIIllllllllIllIIlllllllllllllIlll| l|l| ll| ll| |lll| l|| ll| lllllllllllllllllllllll 38 The Apostles’ Eternal Iourney They preached their faith across thousands of miles. Today pilgrims still follow in their footsteps. By Andrew Todhunter Photographs by Lynn Johnson Tales of the Arabian Seas Ponder the riddle of the reefs. meet the happy mudskippers, marvel at on—the—go ghost crabs. By Kennedy Warne Photographs by Thomas P. Peschak 66 90 How the Rock Got to Plymouth Glaciers carried boulders hundreds of miles and left them to rest in some very unlikely spots. By Hannah Holmes Photographs by Fritz Hoffmann IlllIllllllllIlllllllllllIllllllllllllllIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lbu 126 148 Rhino Wars The horn, whose black market value rivals that of gold, could be the rhino‘s curse—or salvation. By Peter Gwin Photographs by Brent Stirton Fraternité in Marseille Immigrants from just about everywhere seem to get along. Can the harmony last? By Christopher Dickey Photographs by Ed Kashi Destination Europe Foreign workers are driving population growth. Where are they from—and where are they now? OFF-l(IlAl. JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
  • 4. March 2012 l rillllll| .il ll l ll ll llrllldllrirllllll l lflll l lllllllrl il ll l lr llllllr lllrillllll. l l ll1.l, l l Hl‘HHrl Here are the coolest extras in our electronic editions. 4 Editor’s Note Letters 8 National Geographic on TV 12 VISIONS! 18 Your Shot 21 Photo loumal Holy Trek Photographer Lynn Johnson talks about walking in the footsteps of the Apostles- and the people she met along the way. gloom-o-lPed Hom Grinders See how rhino horn is 25 (illegally) ground for medicinal purposes in Vietnam. 4* W04 American as Cheese > Its name and hue owe a debt to mid-1800s English cheese lovers. Saving Aussie Bats Eucalyptus trees and koalas are especially grateful. LOL= ha3=mdr The world has many ways to e-laugh. El On the Cover In a detail from Leonardo da Vinci's “Last Supper. " three Apostles protest Jesus’ prediction of betrayal. Left to right: Jesus, Thomas, James the Greater, and Philip. How to Remember Batman and a dreidel can aid in memorizing the order of a deck of cards. Coconuts: Mail ‘Em. .. > The U. S. mail will deliver the whole nut! . “An Se )Enl for Fuel ' Photo by Haltadeiinizione Coconliit%iI {pKCcW0nut ’”""’*’ 33”“ ”°""" "“”" ' courtesy Ministry of Culture, water can power an athlete. Superintendency or Milan Subscriptions 32 N For subscriptions, gift memberships, or changes of address, contact Customer Service at ngmservicecom or call 1—800—NGS—LlNE (647-5463). Outside the U. S. and Canada please call +1-813-979-6845. New Spin on Germ Warfare Spies can now encode secret information in colonies of E. coli. Redirecting Flight Paths A new navigation system will enable pilots to fly shorter, more precise routes. Monumental Repairs > Washington's famed obelisk is under- going a post-earthquake tune-up. Conrnbiitii; -ns 1:7 rte National Geographic Society are tax deductible under Sectrrgn 50! [c‘i(3‘i of the U. S. tax rode. Copyright ‘C 2012 National Geographic Society All rights reserved. National Geographic and Yellow Border: Registered liaderriarks W Maicas Hegistraoas, National Geographic assumes no responsibility for unsolicited materials. Printed in USA, 150 . N§, ,(_‘A. _>, nnect 152 The Moment Flashback PRlNTED ON PEFC-CERUFIED PAPER Please recycle.
  • 5. UNICEF has saved more children's lives than any other humanitarian organization in the world. I U n Working in more than 150 countries, UNICEF provides children with healthcare, clean water, . nutrition, education, emer enc relief and more. united states fund . 9 Y. UNICEF and its partners are working together to Whatever it takes to save a child. eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT). To learn more, please visit www. unicefusa. org. Helping all people live healthy lives Partners preventing tetanus Despite recent progress reducing global BD’s total commitment makes the Company MNT deaths, a newborn still dies every nine one of the largest single corporate donors minutes from tetanus‘ while many mothers to the U. S. Fund for UNICEF MNT campaign die as a result every year as well. MNT has and is the largest single philanthropic activity been eliminated in most of the developed in BD’s 115-year history. w°"d — but tetanus 'ema'"s '3 d. ead'y pub! “ Named one of the World’: Most Admired health threat in over 30 developing countries. Companies” as we" as one of the Worldg Preventing the occurrence of MNT requires Most Ethical Companies, ” BD provides uncomplicated solutions and strong advanced medical technology to serve partnerships. BD is supporting UNlCEF's the global community's greatest needs. elimination efforts by donating more than 22 million auto—disab| e injection devices and nearly $3 million to the initiative. BD — Helping all people live healthy lives. BD recommends that healthcare workers wear gloves for preparation and administration of medication. ‘UNICEF based on CHERG study, 2010 ‘FORTUNE’ Magazine, March zoii ’i. =mispheie- Magazine, April 2011 Please visit www. bd. corn ED and BD Logo are trademarks of Becton. Dickinson and Company. 02012 BD
  • 6. EDITOR'S NOTE —. Z} A black rhino flees ropers in eastern Kenya in 1968. Its capture was part of a relocation effort. Unless poaching is stopped, their future looks bleak. Horns of a bilemma It would have been difficult to convince the black rhino being pursued by our helicopter that the plight of rhinos in South Africa had taken a turn for the better. Clearly annoyed by our aircraft. she was blasting through the bushveld at a remarkable pace, her calf right behind. Suddenly, the massive rhino spun around and faced us head-on. She looked up and shook her head, her horns swinging in an arc. Enough was enough. It was time to stand her ground and call our bluff. I marveled at her defiance. That was in 1995, when rhinos——especially white rhinos—in southern Africa were rebounding to such a degree that our helicopter flight was part of a population survey for an upcoming Natal Parks Board game auction. The animals were to be auctioned off to parks, reserves, and hunting lodges. The work of dedicated conservationists and private game farmers had paid off, but that was then. Today things are not as promising. This month Peter Gwin and photographer Brent Stirton take us to the front lines of the recent poaching crisis in “Rhino Wars. " Peter writes that the optimism of the 1990s has suffered a reverse. In 2008, 83 rhinos were poached in South Africa alone. In 2011 the figure was more than 400. Unless poaching is stopped, their future looks bleak. Rhinos may not be as attractive and charismatic as tigers or elephants—the species we see in typical conservation campaigns—but the mother I saw 17 years ago was indisputably wild and beautiful in her defiance. é(. t‘ PHOTO PETER BEARD, ART 9 COMMERCE
  • 7. PAPER because a lot of places worth going to don’t get a signal, and hopefully never will. High in the mountains, out in the country, even your nearest nature trail 9, are just a few places that are more enjoyable with a simple map, D0n1taf your senses, and no distractions. Learn more at PAPERbecause. com.
  • 8. LETTERS Africa’s Albertine Rift I was recently involved in a project to improve nutrition - among subsistence farming families. Thereis a certain "~. ‘,t. i.'W. ,i. '.‘ , ".', Y.iFl9,t9.i'T‘. PY9‘. ’_e, ”WFi1,i9T‘, ?IlFU‘. YiT?9 $. t.‘i‘, '.‘. d."-‘, ‘.’, C,‘5, among people farming plots too small to support a family. Rwanda is investing in becoming a regional high-tech and business center. Experience shows that fertility rates fall with improving economic opportunity, especially for women. With fewer people on the land, farms can grow and adopt better technology, leading to greater food production while taking pressure off dwindling natural resources. I found it chilling to read that in the 1990s some Rwandans argued that “war is necessary to wipe out an excess of pop- ulation and to bring numbers into line with the available land resources. " Tragically, this sentiment may become more common in the future in other areas of the world as an ever burgeoning human population increases pressure on dwindling land and water resources. JOSEPH KEDDELL, JR. Annandale, Virginia STEEV LYNN Brattleboro, Vermont I reject that population density leads to genocide, mass rapes, and other degradations. When organizations hijacked by self- serving thugs are strengthened by international investment or indifference, there will be situations such as those in the Albertine Rift. Human ingenuity has little of positive input. Populations, dense or otherwise, are not the cause of atrocities; they are the victims. WILLIAM BENOIT Kitchener, Ontario w_1u, -J (‘IUURD ‘Hy November 2011 Mystery Hoard I was struck by the item on page 46 captioned “may represent a horse—or a bear, or a boar, or even a wolf. ” I wish to suggest another more promising option: a seahorse, a creature that is to this day native to brackish waters in the estuary of the River Thames. The curve of the neck and narrow snout are in keeping with this, and the dead giveaway is the delicately crafted fin visible on the lower part of the object. SCOTT OGDEN Austin, Texas According to early medieval metalwork expert Kevin Leahy: "/ lnimal depictions in Anglo-Saxon art are so unreliable that if a thing looks like a seahorse, it is extremely unlikely to be one. " Corrections NOVEMBER 2011 POSTER: AFR| CA'S GREAT LAKES The town identified as Matola, on Lake Malawi, is officially known as Makanjila. RIFT IN PARADISE. The photo on page 94 is of a foot, not a hand, of a mountain gorilla. F F. F. 1) BA C K Numerous readers of the November issue had their own theories on the Icemans demise. — Iémfd Hercule Poirot ; ~ "thef 1. murder "Caught in a snowstorm . dressed im Properly, - xv . <,, <:v. .m. :u ». .r. ‘w me Dim «um, ‘h ’r, /. . ,3’ and died of expgs-u, e', . ”; ,// j ' »- I _‘ 1,. HP erhaps the Iceman had ‘m/ u/u». /,; /1;, -A», . .. . '.". 'r0Ilg [, :I0me”_7II EMAIL ggsfom_rn@ngm. com TWITTER @NatGeo WRITE National Geographic Magazine, PO Box 98199, Washington, DC 20090-8199. Letters may be edited for clarity and length. 6 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - MARCH 2012 AFIT‘ JUAN VELASCO, NGM STAFF . Q
  • 9. More than words. Drive. You test yourself. Daily. Learning a new language gives you an advantage. It's the game-changer for all that comes next. START LEARNING A LANGUAGE TODAY. 6 (866) 348-3380 - gosetggsgggagm Roset'taStone” - ezcu Imam star Ltd All wmagnm Risen sure no my mneuns, nan, mnmct mmau same «mun used ‘Elam! !! registered mnulnlurtnoeurla at Rnum sum to ill me u S n: ma mumns
  • 10. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ON TV Warrior Graveyard Fifteen years ago in Kamakura, Japan, bulldozers unearthed a mass grave of 14th-century samurai. Now their bones—a| ong with those recovered from a British naval cemetery and a crusader battle site in the Middle East- are being studied by scientists and scholars. Watch them on the National Geographic Channel as they unleash modern forensics on the ancient remains, scrutinizing scars, deformities, and scraps of DNA to determine how these warriors lived—and died. NAT GEO America the wild WILD Based on bone analysis, computer- generated imagery shows how the Samurai likely beheaded their foes. For listings go to natgeotv. com and natgeowild. com. 8 NAT! O. 'A I. GFOGR A PHIC - M A R C H 2 0 I 2 = i-mos OCTOBER l'ILlJSiI'LL, 3 GFIAP-iir: siNGc ii«: z=s RIITK ; '‘III'I (Jill/ /.V (‘iii I K I Ilvl! ~"l(i(i
  • 11. More suction power than any other. The new DC4l has higher suction power at the cleaner head than any other vacuum. The new cyclone airways have been engineered to reduce turbulence and maximize suction. The brush bar automatically lowers to suit the floor type. The cleaner heod automatically self-cidiusts to better seal with the floor, reducing air leaks to retain powerful suction. dyson. com clgseri boll The strongest suction of the cleaner head.
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  • 14. U NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, DC, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization ‘tor the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge. ” inspiring people to care about the planet NAT| ONAL GEOGRAPHIC MJGAINE YIIY IIICI IAIY OOFVIXXAIUI Aflfiiiifllfi VTQIAIDIMI. IE“? Chm Johns oswrv sorrow Victoria Pope ceslivrvs onscroa Bil Mari sxscurrvs sorroes Dennis R. Dimick (Environment). Kurt Mutchler (Photography), Jamie Shreeve (Science) MANAGING sonoe Lesley B. Rogers osnriv DIECTOII Marc Silver. uuiiv nsvswrusur simoa: Barbara Paulsen All'Iu. El enrmii: Oliver Payne Isriion snrroiu: Lynn Addson (Features). Robert Kunzig (Environment). Peter Miller (Expeditions). sonar! AT unos: Cathy Newman. EATLIIES sorronsz Glenn Oeland. Jane Vessels a-irron. ussiou r-no. is<: rs: Hannah Bloch. BSIGTANT sorrow: Amanda B. Flegl seuiori wm'Ei'¢s: Jennifer 5. Holland. Tom 0'NeiL A R. Willams. wnrrsn: Peter Gwin Anmmrsrrvmou: Nicholas Mott; Katla Andreassi. Lacey Gray coirrnisurrrie warrsns: Caroine Alexander. Don Belt. Joel K. Boume. Jr. . Robert Draper. 0/nthia Gorney. Peter Hessier. Mark Jenkins. David Ouamrnen DEPAITIEIIYI niilscmiiz Margaret 6. Zackowitz osvurv unscrew: Luna Shyr. snrron: Jeremy Berin. ! Catherine Zuckerman as-viv mnscron: Ken Geiger union sorrona: Bil Douthitt (special Editions). Kathy Moran (Natural History). Susan Welchrrian (Departments). some in unas: Michael Nichols ssmoa more snrroas: Alice Gabriner. Kim Hubbard. Todd James. Elizabeth Kri-St. Sarah Leen. Sade Quarrier. more sorroci si= scui. isr: Deirdre Read. nsaanoii mrroe: Mary McPeak STAFF FKOTOGRAPDBII Mark Thiessen. sruoio: Flebecca Hale. DOGITAL mains: Edward 5arnueL Evan Wilder. more siiorissiauo: Waiter Boggs. David Mathews. Kenii Yamaguchi nroirrs Mnuiasnz Eizabeth Grady. Aournisrnmorvz Whitney HaIL Jenny Trucano; Sherry L Brulrbacher. Jeanne M. Modderrnan, Elena Sheveiko osnmr aismvs oanec-ion: Kaitlin M. Yarnall. DEIIBII oinscmn: David C. Whltmore Arir oiriscroe: Juan Veiasco. nu-3 ninscrori: Wiliam E. McNuity ssmon ossiou sorrows: John Baxter. Elaine H. Bradey. ossaau sorrow: Oliver R. Ubeiti ssmon orurnrcs sorrons: Fernando G. Baptista. Martin Garnache. Wginia W. Mason. John Tomanio. SENIOR ciwroonm-iv sorrow: Gus Platis. aim»-rrcs sorroes: Jerome N. Oooirson, Lawson Parker. ART iissaiincu sorroa: Amanda Hobbs. ssmon ossioiien: Betty Clayman-DeAttey. r»-nooiicriou SPECIALISTS: Sandi Owatverot-Nuzzo. Bethany Powell. Maggie smith. Hannah Tak. Matthew Twombly. Aoiamsriwiou: Cinde Reichard; Trish Dorsey, Michael Kritiros osrunr imuiaiim sum-iii: David Brlndley ssmon COPV snrroe: Mary Beth Oelkers-Kieegan. COPV sonona: Kitry Krause. Cindy Leitner osrirrv RESEARCH onscroa: Alice S. Jones. nsssmcn azrroesz Heidi Schultz. Elizabeth Snodgrass. Christy Ullrich. Barbara L. Wyckort. SEMOR RESEARCHERS: Karen C. Font. Nora Galagher. David A Lande. Nancie Majkowski. Taryn Salinas. Brad Scriber ewonucriou: Sandra Dane. Aomneriviriou: Jacqueline Flowe nnscion: Meissa Wiley ssmon vioso mooucsn: Hans Weise. nssiousn: Lindsay Powel mooucriou SPECIALIST} Susan Park Lee ssmon Pnooucsn: John Kondis. ASSOCIATE r-eooucsn: Wiiam Barr ssmoa Pncrro sorroe: Monica C. Corcoran. AM’ ornscron: Shawn Greene Karen Dutort Sligh (Asst to the Editor in Chief). Carol L Dumont (Scheduling), Valarie Cribb-Chapman (Finance). Nikisha Long; Alicia LaFiance ooiniuiuciinoiiii vics mssrnsurs: Beth Foster. Mary Jeanne Jacobsen: Barbara S. Mollet nuns couscriou All! ) IALEI vics i-was-osur: Maura A Muivihillz William D. Perry uuiiiiirr ornsr. -ron: Barbara Penlold Ferry: Renee Braden. Anne Marie Houppert asiiiori vice rrisurnurr: Phillip L. Schlosser iiuniuo VICE MEBDEMT: Thomas J. Craig. G£t£RAL wwiiasn: Bernard Ouarrick; John Ballay. David J. Bulebush. Neal Edwards. James P. Fay. Arthur N. Hondros. Gregory Luce, Ann Marie Pelish, Stephen L. Robinson. IOIIIIOGI Joseph M. Anderson. ouumr ixnscroa: Ronald E. Wiliarnson: Clayton R. Burrieston, Michael G. Lappin, William D. Reicherts oitriulimoii niiascroe: Mictael Swan snnoniu ornwroe: Amy Kolczak more we DESIGN sorron: Danen Smith PHOTDGRAHIC IJMSONI Laura L Ford PRODUC| 'ION: Angela Botzer. Iinuusriuriou: Wiliam Shubefl Annie Mohamed Al Hammadi KOREA Sun-ok Nam uuizii. Matthew Shirts umii Ailsiiiu Omar Lopez Vergara Iiimuiin Krassimir Dmmev I. ll'| I|MlI| A Frederikas Jansonas OIIIIA Ye Nan us‘ri¢iii. urns/ iisuliu Aart Aarsbergen aroma Hrvoje mic iionnic coiiimusn Karen Gunn asciiu Tomas Turerfek POLAIII) Martyna Woiciechowska ESTONIA Erkki Peetsalu Poiiruui. Goncalo Pereira FIAIICE Francois Marot IOIIAIHA Cristian Lascu usiiimnr Erwin Brunner iiuuui Alexander Grek aisscs Maria Atmatzidou asiinu Igor Rill iiuiimiiv Tamas Schlosser swvsiiui Marita Javornik Iiooiissu Hendra Noor Saleh sniii Josep Cabelo iaiusi. Daphne Raz nivuii Roger Pan mu Marco Cattaneo riunuuin Kowit Phadungmangkl; JAPAN Stigeo Otsuka ninxsv Nesibe B31 161 Sixth Avenue. New York. NY. 10013: Phone: 212-6105500; Fax: 212-610-5505 sirscurivs vies riissiosrir mo woriwarros nuusiisri: Claudia Malley. NATIONAL AIWERTISING oiriscron: Robert Amberg. vrcs rmsaroan uuarrsnuo: Jeniter Berman. vies mssiosrrr auerusss AND oweiwiousz Margaret Schmidt. NAHONAL wimose: Tammy Abraham wrsnumoiuii. wimarrio oinscroii: Charlie Attenborough. DIRECTORS: Nadine Heggie rlnrematioliall. Rebecca Hil (Mentoring). David Middis (British Isles) eoiiliiusri ruiursrlia vics vessrosur woamwios: Terrence Day. DIIECTDRS2 Christina C. Aiberghini (Member Services), Anne Barker (Renewals). Richard Brown (New Business). John MacKethan (Financial Planning and Retail Sales). John A. Seeley (lnterrianonal) 10 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 MARCH 2012 NATDNAL GEOGRAPI-IC SO%TV eiiuuwiii nun on John Fahey Innioniv Tim T. Kelly IXIGNWI HEAT? LEGAL AND IUERNATIDOIAL sornors: Terrence B. Adams/ an smsnriasss: Linda Berkeley oronrii. usoiri: John Caldwell rsisvsiou nnooucnou: Maryanne G. Culpepper Mrwou siioanms: Terry D. Garcia COMMUNICATDOMS: Betty Hudson oro: Christopher A Liedel ciio: Arny Maniafis PUBLISHING: Deolan Moore coo emu i/ mu: Edward M Prince, Jr. Joan Aorahamson. Michael R. Bonsignore. Jean N. Case. Alexandm Grosvenor Eller. Roger A. Enrico. John Fahey. Daniel S. Goldin, Gilbert M. Giosvenor. Tim T. Kely. Maria E Lagomasino, George Munoz. Reg Murphy. Patrick F. Noonan. Peter H. Raven. Wiliam K. Reily. Edward P. Roski. Jr. . James R. Sasser. B. Francis Saul II, Gerd Schultel-ilen. Ted Waitt. Tracy R. Wolstencrolt convict or uwioou ci-wrrum: Edward P. Roski, Jr. Darlene T. Anderson. Lucy C. Bilingsley. Michael R. Bonsignore. Howard G. Buffett. Wginia Busch. Jean N. Case. David Court. Roger A. Enrico. Jiliet C. Fotger. Robert B. Haas. David H. Koch, lara Lee. Deborah M. Lehr, 9/en-Olol Llldblfld- Bruce L. Ludwig. Claudia Madrazo de Hernandez. David P. Margulles. Michael L. Matkins. Mark C. Moore, Larry Mullen. Jr. . Saly Engelhard Plngree. W. Russell Ramsey. Catherine B. Reynolds. ‘fictoria P. Sent. B. Francis Saul ll. Ted Waitt. Sam Ft. Walton. Garry A Weber. Tracy R. Wolstencroft. Wiliam Wrigley. Jr. -iuutioii -win-tie: noun or oonnioas citniiuuiii: Gibert M. Grosvenor vies cwirawiu: Patrick F. Noonan Brendan P. Bechtel, Jadr Dangermond. Charles 0. Holiday. Jr. , Gary E. KnelL Gerry Lentest Jilie A McGee. Floretta Dukes McKenn‘e. William K. Rein}. Alex Trebek. Anthony A. Williams CHNRIMN2 Peter H. Raven vics CHAIRMAN: John M. Francis Kamaljlt S. Bawa. Coin A. Chapman. Keith Clarke. Steven M. Colman. J. Emmett Dmly. Philip Gingerich. Carol P. Harden. Jonathan B. Loses. John O'Lough| in, Naomi E. Pierce, Elsa M. Redmond, Thomas B. Smith. Wu‘! H. Wils. Melinda A Zeder unoiisn-nu-iuconics Robert Ballard, James Cameron. Wade Davis, Jared Diamond. Sylvia Earle. J. Michael Fay. Beverty Joubert. Dereck Jomert, Louise Leakey. Meave Leakey. Johan Reinhard. Enric Sala. Paul Serena. Spencer Wells sn. vics PFIIDENT, CONTENT osvsi. o9MsM'r: Mark Bauman vics vessrosur, snucmouz Daniel Edelson vii: wrosm, nos ciwns: John M. Francis CHIEF OPERATING omcsn: Sarah Laskln vics iaessrosur, PUBUC PROGRAIBZ Gregory A. McGruder vies PRIDENT, s-rwnscic mrrirrrrvss: Alexander Moen sn. vics PFIIDENT, GLOBAL wirmisnsi-irrs: Kristin Rechberger iiuiuui nuouricu SR. vrcs Pnssinarr: Thomas A. Sable’ osvnomlirr SR. vrcs vassiosirr: Jacqueline M. Holister nisuurisri: Barbara J. Oonstantz ciusr IUITIIIAIIUVV omcsn: Hans H. Wagner iunoui aloalunlic column cso: David Lyte Prlssiosm: Howard T. Evans CMOI Courteney Monroe
  • 15. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC The Zajics included National Geographic in their estate plans. TO MAKE YOUR BEQUEST to National Geographic, please use the following language: ”To the National Geographic Society in Washington, D. C., I give % of my estate. ” Or you can name a fixed dollar amount. Inspire Future Generations ormer U. S. Marine and aviation engineer, l. C. and his wife Ann, have had National Geographic magazine in their home since 1950. ”We rely on National Geographic as a source of timely, current, and balanced reporting, ” says J. C. ”We love the wide-ranging topics, international scope and that the information is accessible to everyone young and old alike. We are proud to be sending our great- granddaughter Isabella the children's edition. Your stories have a unique cross-generational reach and appeal. ” ”When we reviewed our long-term charitable plans, we created a stand-alone Charitable Remainder Unitrust in which National Geographic is the major benefactor. It is our way to ensure that future generations will be able to explore our amazing world and universe. We would encourage others who have charitable trusts or are planning on setting one up to think of including National Geographic. Your gift, like ours, will be well used and make a real difference. ” CONTACT US: Phone: (800) 226-4438 Email: plannedgiftinfo@ngs. org Web: wrvwlrrationalggograplgigoggidonate The National Geographic Society is a 5()llc}l3), taxexempt organization. YES! Please send me information on how to include National (jeograplric in iny will! I have already included National (jeogr in my will. Phone Please send me inlorinalion on a National Geographic charitable gift an nuily. Birtlidatclsl Minimum Argo 45. I’in'II1mt. x lwgirr ill iiggc ()5. ; mt: $l(), ()(l() $5(), ()()l) (llher (rliiiiIirr1ui; ,'ifrSlU, (.l(l()J Photo: john-Joseph van Haelewyn $lll(), (l()() Email Mail to: National Geographic Society Office ot"Fsla1e Planning ll-15 17th Street I W. Washington, T). C. 2l, )()36--1688
  • 16. ‘United States With aquatic tails plus full sets of legs. western spadefoot tadpoles display the magic of metamorphosis. Just days away from terrestrial life. these pollywogs will not eat until their tails are completely reabsorbed into their bodies. PHOTO BRUCE FARNSWORTH 12 NATIONAL GEOGRAPI'lIC - MARCH 2012
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  • 18. South Korea Rings of smoke pierce the air during a military exercise near the Demilitarized Zone. The South Korean tank, loosely camouflaged with tree branches, fires smoke shells amid man- made mounds of dirt. PHOTO Jill FON JF AFPICETTY IMAGES
  • 19. xr. ~A -I"'. ~.. -_ "“"w. vu-. ...
  • 20. Uganda On a lodge terrace in Queen Elizabeth National Park, a photographer's butter and roll prove irresistible to the local lunchtime crowd. East Africa is home to many species of weaverbirds, known for their skill in building nests. PHOTO JOEL SARTORE R Order prints of National Geographic photos online at PrintsNGS. com.
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  • 22. VISIONS I YOUR SHUT New Views of the City Readers from all over the world sent in their city-themed photographs for this month's Your Shot. These are two of our editors’ favorites—but we'd like to see more. Get out your camera and show us how you see your own city (or any other staple in your photographic repertoire). Find more information at ngm. com/ yourshot. Peter F100‘: Guernsey, Channel Islands Root, 33, spent 40 hours building this city—inspired art installation out of stacks of staples. It stood for three weeks in a Channel Islands financial building before toppling. Root crouched low to get this immersive shot of a section detai| —about one-fifth of the whole piece. G31’; ;r'; ui: elicl; Boston, Massachusetts A prolonged exposure let Stubelick. 58, create this July 4 photo in Boston. ‘‘I like the irony of a fire hydrant on fire, ” he says, "and a ‘fire source’ like sparklers implying water flowing from a fire hydrant. " 18 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - MARCH 2012
  • 23. if J A body in motion tends to stay in motion. . ... .. 'e'If‘. .-v‘ . ... . . . Celebrex can help relieve arthritis pain. .. so you can keep moving. Staying active can actually relieve arthritis symptoms. But if you have arthritis, staying active can be difficult. Celebrex can help relieve arthritis pain. ..so your body can stay in motion. Just one 200mg Celebrex a day can provide 24-hour relief for many with arthritis pain and inflammation? Celebrex is proven to improve pain, stiffness and daily physical function in clinical studies. ** Celebrex is not a narcotic. I I, -I I I [.14 . ,‘ I, I I . , When it comes to finding the right arthritis treatment for you, you and your doctor need to balance the benefits with the risks. so ask your doctor about prescription Celebrex. It could be an important step towards keeping your body in motion. Visit celebrex. com or call 1-888-CELEBREX for more information. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA lflsit www. fdagov/ medwatch or call 1-800-FDA -1088. *lndividual results may vary. “Clinical studies with osteoarthritis patients. Important Safety Information: All prescription NSAlDs, like CELEBREX, ibuprofen, naproxen and meloxicam have the same cardiovascular warning. They may all increase the chance of heart attack or stroke, which can lead to death. This chance increases if you have heart disease or risk factors for it, such as high blood pressure or when NSAlDs are taken for long periods. CELEBREX should not be used right before or after certain heart surgeries. Serious skin reactions, or stomach and intestine problems such as bleeding and ulcers, can occur without waming and may cause death. Patients taking aspirin and the elderty are at increased risk for stomach bleeding and ulcers. See the Medication Guide on the next page for important information about Celebrex and other prescription NSA/ Ds. Uninsured? Need help paying for Pfizer medicines? Tell your doctor if you have: a history of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach or intestines; high blood pressure or heart failure; or kidney or liver problems. CELEBREX should not be taken in late pregnancy. Life—threatening allergic reactions can occur with CELEBREX. Get help right away if you’ve had swelling of the face or throat or trouble breathing. Do not take it if you’ve had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergies to aspirin, other NSA| Ds or certain drugs called sulfonamides. Prescription CELEBREX should be used exactly as prescribed at the lowest dose possible and for the shortest time needed. answers Pfizer has programs that can help. Call 1-866-706-2400 or visit Pfizerllelpfu| Answers. com A Willi» lmre ii‘? A‘ lIl]I'lT‘}‘E"3E‘i‘r‘t3(I »", Sl‘. ’.li. i8-lCl— -liT>. «‘l—lT' C E L E B R E )( Fora body in motion ICELECOXIB CAPSULESLZC «'1! 91..
  • 24. Modloatimiilnfiuidc N n- i IAni-lnfl mm D N D th n lthiM i tin i What is the most importam information I should know about medicines called Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAlDs)? NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack orstroke that can lead to death. This chance increases: - with longer use of NSAID medicines - in people who have heart disease NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). " NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding: - can happen without warning symptoms - may cause death The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: - taking medicines called “corticosteroids" and “anticoagulants“ - longer use - smoking - drinking alcohol - older age - having poor health NSAID medicines should only he used: - exactly as prescribed _ - at the lowest dose possible for your treatment - forthe shortest time needed What are lion-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Dnigs (NSAlDs)? NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as: - different pes of arthritis _ - menstrua cramps and othertypes of short-term pain Who should not fake a Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)? Do not take an NSAID medicine: - if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or an other NSAID medicine - for pain righ before or after heart bypass surgery Tell your healthcare provider. - about all of our medical conditions. - about all 0 the medicines you take. NSAlDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist. - if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy. - if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor. What are the possible side effects of Non-steroidal Anti- lnllammatory Drugs (NSAlDs)? serious side effects include: - heart attack - stroke high blood pressure heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention) kidney problems including kidney failure bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine low red blood cells (anemia) | ife—threatening skin reactions | ife—threatening allergic reactions liver problems including liver failure asthma attacks in people who have asthma 000000000 Other side effects include: - stomach pain - heartburn - constipation - nausea - diarrhea - vomiting - gas - dizziness Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms: - shortness of breath or trouble breathing - chest pain‘ _ - weakness in one part or side of your body - slurred speech - swelling of the face or throat Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms: nausea more tired or weaker than usual itching your skin or eyes look yellow stomach pain flu—like sym toms vomit bloc Itmartea is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky I e r skin rash or blisters with fever unusual wei ht gain - swelling oft e arms and legs, hands and feet These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to our healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about N AID medicines. call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. : l'}l§m| Diri)formaIlon about llon-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs s - Aspirin is an NSA| D_ medicine but it doesmnotincrease the chance of a heart attack. Aspinn can cause bleeding in the brain. stomach, and mtestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and in es ines. - Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses with- out a prescription (over—the-counter). Talk to your healthcare pro- vider before using over-thecounter NSA| Ds for more than 10 days. ummm Tradename Cataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol) Dclobid Lodine, Lodine XL Ansaid Motrin, Tab—Profen, Vicoprofen‘ (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with o codone lndocin, lndocin SR, lndo-Lemmon, lndomethaan Ponstel Relafen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naproxyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with 00 00000000 Flurbiprofen Ibuprofen Ketorolac Mefenamic Acid Tolectin Tolectin DS Tolectin 600 * Vico[profen contains the same dose of ibuprofen as over-the-counter (OT ) llSAlDs, and is usually used for less than 10 days to treat pain. The OTC NSAID label warns that long term continuous use may increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. This Medication Guide has been approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • 25. VISIONS PHOTO JUUHNAL TI‘(l(. ’l‘S(‘(? fl‘ A woman is reflected in the glass of an African wild dog diorama at New York's American Museum of Natural History. Museuln P ass Set against painted backdrops and encased in glass, taxidermied animals brought exotic delight to museumgoers in the mid-1900s. Today dioramas are often dismissed as dull or outmoded; for me they hold a macabre beauty, at once alluring and disturbing. They’re also a window to my youth. For two summers when I was nine and ten, my mother took me with her to the natural history museum where she worked, near our home in Raleigh, North Carolina. I felt at peace as I communed with the animals there, some living and some dead. Three years ago I visited New York City’s American Museum of Natural History with my husband. I photographed him in front of a diorama, the glass catching his reflection. That inspired the images- all candid and single exposure—in this series. It's as much an allegory of humanity's relationship with nature as it is a tribute to my past. THE PHOTOGRAPHER Traer Scott is based in Providence, Rhoda Island, and has prodiiccd three books. See her work at traerscott. com. 21
  • 26. PHOTO JOURNAL 'l'nicr‘Si‘ufi‘ I try not to interact with visitors, because I don't want to compromise the candid nature of my photo- graphs. When I took this one of the giant panda diorama at Philadel- phia‘s Academy of Natural Sciences, people seemed rushed. Their hurry to pass by this endangered species struck me as ironic.
  • 27. I'm always hungry, particularly after long stretches of trolling museums. anticipating fleeting moments. This image, taken at the American Museum of Natural History. is one of my favorites. The deep interaction creates a confrontational feel and to me symbolizes our insatiable consumption of animal products. The moose diorama in the American Museum of Natural History encom- passes twice as much space as most of the other exhibits. I spent hours in front of it, trying to coax an image, Rediscovering dioramas has given me a sense of completion, as if a few of the loose ends of my youth have been neatly tied up.
  • 28. Well, hello. Introducing a new discount for National Geographic Society members. GEICO is known for saving people money on car insurance. And now, as a National Geographic Society member, you may qualify for a special new discount on GEICO insurance. Simply get a quote today, and mention your affiliation. In just 15 minutes, you can see how much you could save. Get a free quote. GEICO. geicmcom ’| -800-368-2734 or your local GEICO office AUTO 0 HOME 0 RENTERS 0 MOTORCYCLE - RV 0 BOAT - PWC Somediscounts, coverages, paymentplansandfeaturesarenotavailableinallstatesorallGE| C0companies. Discountaniountvariesinsomestates. Onegroupdiscountapplicable perpolicy. Coverage is individual. In NewYoikapremium reduction may beavailable. National Geographic Society membersare comprised ofsubscribersto National Geographic magazine. Fordetails on membership goto wvwii. nationalgeogranhig; ggnizmember Motorcycle coverage is underwritten by GEICO Indemnity Company. Homeownersrenters, boat and PWC coverages are written through non—affiliated insurance companies and are secured through the GEICO Insurance Agency, Inc. GEICO is a registered s; rgi8e2mgg(C()0f Government Employees Insurance Company, Washington. D. C. 20076; a Berkshire Hathaway Inc. subsidiary. GEICO Gecko image © 1999-2012.
  • 29. The term ‘Hmericaii cheese" can refer to a variety ofcheddur— based processed clieeses. In the US. about 85 percent is sold as slices. PHOTO CARY VVOLINSKV American Cheese Sliced and shrink-wrapped, squirted out of cans, liquefied or cubed, American cheese is a shape-shifter that is most often orange. Ironically the patriotic name and the color came by way of England. The booming British population of the mid-1800s was used to vibrant-colored cheddar. U. S. exporters answered by tinting their naturally milky white cheese with annatto— an orange powder made from the plant's seeds. The British bought 50 million pounds of the colored cheddar in 1863, calling it “American cheese, " notes food scientist Paul Kindstedt. The alias and hue stuck; as America added states, American cheese added consumers. Even orangier eats were derived during World War I when James L. Kraft cooked up processed cheeses that used this cheddar base. These hardier foodstuffs, labeled American cheese, got packed into soldiers’ rations. Back on the home front, they germinated today‘s demand for an increasing array of vivid edibles. —Johnna Rizzo 25
  • 30. NOW B at l:7.eccr, r.e Sinister and bloodthirsty? Conservationist Trish Wimberley thinks bats get a bad rap. So each year the director of the Australian Bat Clinic near Brisbane rehabili- tates scores of the nocturnal mammals that have been injured by power lines, barbed wire, and poorly installed fruit tree netting. Australia is home to more than 80 bat species, including the flying fox (right), which is in decline because much of its habitat has been lost to land development. |t’s also a target for fruit growers trying to protect crops. Key to koala survival, it laps eucalyptus nectar, then dis- perses pollen grains up to 60 miles away. That fosters growth of koalas’ main food source. Wimberley releases the bats after at least 12 weeks of care but says it's hard to part with the babies: “They’re like puppies with wings. " Of course, they do display a desire to suck—pacifiers, that is. —Catherine Zuckerman Melanie is one of hundreds of flying fox bats rehabilitated by the Australian Bat Clinic. . Ic'" Tracking E-Laughs The most common way to e—| augh is to use an abbreviation that mimics real laughter, says Indiana University linguist Susan Herring. But as the list below shows, e—mirth has many e-guises. -Marc Silver LOL , L/ _ English LOL = laughing out loud , mdr French mori de rire = died of laughter . lalala Spanish jajaja = ha ha ha , mkm . ,__/ Dari (spoken in Afghanistan) ma khanda mikonom = I am laughing ha3 L». in Malaysia ha3 = ha times three as s Afi SWEEllSh asgarv = roars of laughter 34 Danish griner = laughter S‘ '3‘ '3' l Korean hhh = ha ha ha PHOTO JOEL SARTORE
  • 31. Congratulations, Lucy, for being named this year's 28-Day Challenge Champion. Experience the difference that extraordinary nutrition can make in 28 days or get 110% of your money back. Visit facebook. com/ Eukanuba to learn more. 28-DAY CHALLENGE ©2011 P&G
  • 32. NIIW 'l. ‘l. t.-e Jri”: <11‘? I«. ./l". reiit. t.I= 'tr: *7 In the age before books and digital tablets, orators stored texts in less reliable devices: their minds. To boost his memory capacity, Roman philosopher Cicero used tricks called mnemonics to bind his words to vivid mental images, “as if inscribing letters into wax. " Such ancient techniques may no longer be needed, but this month they'll take center stage when some 50 “mental athletes" go head-to-head at the 15th USA Memory Championship in New York City. Their minds aren't photographic; even memory experts need a coding system to remember strings of words, numbers, names, or playing cards. The key is training—hundreds of hours of it. And speed. Linking items to celebrities is common practice because they're easy to visualize. However, “an emotional tie makes the image louder, " says last year's champ, Nelson Dellis. When creating his mnemonic code for cards, he passed on a popular heartthrob for the king of hearts. “Brad Pitt I had to think about. But my dad—| can picture him in an instant. " —OIiver Uberti A Memory Champion’s Method In 2011 Nelson Dellis used a mnemonic technique called the “memow palace" to memorize the random order of a deck of cards in one minute, three seconds—a U. S. record. This year he hopes to match his practice best of 34 seconds. Here's how he does it. Bear Grylls dribbling a cross l Michael Jackson cooking lipstick , . . .x . K gin :1 lb» , ,4 De| lis's , " sister crying ‘ p . « atop a '». _ 3 7 E} mountain ‘Van’ I/ / a " in " , . r; 'I: - , . vi Steve Jobs v", .§; ' " shopping for _ A horse large bras running with Harry Potter's ‘» wand , " n I} ’<‘. <f‘ — _ 2 ‘ / , ' V‘ 1 EXAMPLE: A Q . 2‘ ‘ as ‘ ‘-‘ ,3 Mil} v 93 Person Arnold Paris Delliss Schwarzenegger Hilton friend Schwarzenegger Action Lifting Dancing Driving Dancing Object Barbell Dance floor Car Car 1 ENCODE Dellis associates each card with a familiar person, action, and object. After months of practice he sees the ace of spades, for instance, as Arnold Schwarzenegger lifting weights. 2 GROUP As Dellis flips through the deck in competition, he “chunks" the cards into groups of three (see example) to reduce the number of images he must recall from 52 to 17.
  • 33. __. L i ‘ Edward Scissorhands l playing with a dreidel l. ll P ' Delliss girlfriend screaming atop a TV Shaquille O’Neal strumming a guitar with a vinyl record 5 , .r Arnold _ I. ‘V Schwarzenegger _, " ' dancing with V “ . <’¢; .‘_ - acar ‘ 9 V: _ it, . .-l- -l- , . '» N 1- -l- * I -r‘''-i- ‘ ‘_ 1' 1'3 I‘ The final card After 17 sets of V three, one card ' remains. Dellis l smphen recalls it by process ' Colbert of elimination. r A , ‘ teaching how ' 5 to wave . ‘ w ‘Jack Black Dellis's dog dressed 35,, doing the robot Batman Samng while holding a martini glass away on a pirate ship 6 U ggfl . :- ‘vi Satan K golfing . E, -4! . ‘QE-"" fin Del| is‘s 0 f b J”. Stephen Hawking la » £7 grgggirngoass Wm, a sub shooting a Game Boy Rubikis Cube sandwich = - .0 : .: ‘sit. v De| lis’s , 1' EV‘ ‘ father _ ‘:1. , , > ’ bouncing -"’. ' , I ’ on a glove 3 PLACE To keep the chunks in 4 RECALL He now order, Dellis imagines them as scenes has five minutes to put along a path in a familiar place, like a fresh deck in the same order. his girlfriend's Miami home (above). To do this, Dellis retraces his The time it takes for him to memorize journey through the “palace. ” the card deck is clocked. Judges compare the decks. ART ADAM SIMPSON
  • 34. Roughly 75 percent of the worlds ocean water is deeper than 3,300 feet, where no sunlight reaches Members 0 An‘0n i It's nice to know your neighbors. But f supercolanies when a society is supersize, forget familiarity. Argentine ants—whose that have 1'"W1d- invasive colonies may span hundreds of miles and multiple continents- ed several conti- have societies that, like ours, can be millions strong. What gives them (and us) the capacity to expand is anonymity, says an upcoming paper in Behavioral Ecology by entomologist Mark Moffett. “To cooperate, " he says, “members don't need to recognize each other as individuals. ” For most animal societies to function, everyone needs to know everyone (think chimps or elephants). But that limits growth to maybe a hundred, says Moffett—"as many faces as one can keep track of. " For Argentine ants there's no such ceiling. Yet there are territories, with pheromones defining friend and foe. So even with millions of strangers, he says, “there's no ambiguity about who's who. " —JenniIer s. Holland nents, Argentine ants devour a piranha’sface. _ _ SQUID SEX Promiscuity is Octopoteuthis deIetron’s MO. When another of these squid swims by—male or female—this five-inch cephalopod (left) slaps 50 or so ' sperm packets on its skin. Feckless? No. According to Henk-Jan Hoving of the . »,. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. it's an effective propagation strategy V‘? ,"3“‘ in deep seas, where encounters are few. In the inky darkness half a mile down. he . adds. squid flings are brief. "Two together are larger. '' says Hoving. "and they're bio| uminescent"—making moving on imperative to avoid predation. —Johnna Rizzo ‘ PHOTOS‘ MARK W MOFFETI (TOP): MONTEREV BAY AQUARIUM RESEARCH INSTITUTE. NGM ART SOURCE‘ NCAA ' ‘mi
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  • 36. NOW The Wondrous Don’t knock it: The coconut comes in a perfect package. For millions of years the tropical fruit has populated islands by floating from shore to shore in a buoyant husk. That packaging, it turns out, also helps it navigate the U. S. postal system. Mailing a coconut is surprisingly simple: Pen address on surface, affix postage, and off it goes. Each year some 3,000 “coconut postcards" (above) get shipped this way from Hawaii’s Hoolehua post office. But creativity can come from anywhere. Other self-contained mailings have included pumpkins, driftwood, flip—flops, and messages in sand-filled bottles. The U. S. Postal Service tries to deliver so long as objects don't pose a risk, says spokeswoman Sue Brennan. “Can you mail a dog? We get this question all the time, ” she says. “The answer is, no! ” —Luna Shyr New Zealand has 39 Smillion sheep . .-" and 4 4 million people—a 9 1 ratio that is the highest In the world . ‘.‘ . ‘ _ ' ‘. nIu‘‘ | ;| ~ / / Ii’: -E ILLLLLILJL _ Jr ‘V. ..-. ... ‘J . . ab . . . .. . , . . ealth drink. shredded sweet, woven mat, biofuel—is there anything a coconut can't become? umans have used this versatile pa| m—tree “nut" for half a million years, by one estimate. Even so, coconuts remain refreshingly cutting—edge Take their appeal as an energy source. This year Tokelau, a trio of South Pacific atolls. aims to generate all of its power with solar energy and coconut oil. It joins other coconut-rich places- including Papua New Guinea, the Philippines. and Vanuatu—that have blended or modified coconut oil to run things like ships. trucks. and official vehicles. On the health front. electrolyte-packed coconut water's been making waves in the U. S. and Brazil. where packaged consumption doubled from 2005 to 2010. Call it a gourmet turn for a hydrating drink long enjoyed straight from the shell. —LS PHOTO‘ MARK THIESSEN, NGM STAFF. GRAPHIC KISS ME I'M POLISH SOURCES’ UN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION; STATISTICS NEW ZEALAND
  • 37. Limited Mintage Striking. .. WORLD’S FIRST $100 SILVER PROOF . I smaller th actual size of 6" x 2%" Flrsbyear 201 I date Mirrored proof background larger Franklin portrait Liberty Bell, quill pen & July 4th date Minted in one Troy ounce of pure silver bullion ADVANCE STRIKE DISCOUNT The price for the 2011 OneOunce Silver Proof will be set at $129 per proof. However, if you place your order now, you can acquire this giant silver proof at the special advance New York Mint Announces the Limited Mintage Striking of an Extraordinary Silver Proof —the New United States $100 Bill Struck in Pure Silver Bullion. Discount Price $99 This extraordinary piece of pure silver bullion has a surface area that ex- ceeds 30 square inches. ..and it contains one Troy ounce of pure silver bullion! And now, during a limited strike period, the very first Year 2011 $100 Silver Proof is available at a special discount prictkonly S99! EXQUISITE DETAIL The historic First Year 2011 $100 Silver Proof is an exquisite adaptation of the United States Treasury’s $100 Federal Reserve Note—only the second new $100 bill design in 70 years. It is a true artistic masterpiece that will always be treasured. strike discount price—only 899. NOTE TO COLLECTORS: If you place your order for the S’ I 00 silver proof within the next I 0 days, it will be processed immediately, and the earliest orders will receive the lowest registration numbers. ADDITIONAL DISCOUNTS Substantial additional discounts are available for serious collectors who wish to acquire more than one of these exquisite silver proofs. You can order: ONE Year 201 l 3100 Silver Proofs for just $99 + s/ h FIVE Year 201 1 $100 Silver Proofs for just $95 + s/ h TEN Year 2011 8100 Silver Proofs for just $89 + s/ h 3.9-. - There is a limit of twenty $100 Silver Proofs per order, and all orders are subject to acceptance by New York Mint. -: .n ' . "7~"", _ _ _ ‘ .999 SILVER Best of all, this stunning Silver Proof is even more 3} beautiful than the original, because it's struck in precious silver bullion! It is a landmark in proof minting, combining unprece- dented weight with extraordinary dimension. The speci- fications for this colossal medallic proof are unparalleled. Each one: 0 is individually Struck from Pure .999 Silver Bullion. 0 Weighs one Troy ounce. ONLY 5,000 AVAILABLE New York Mint will strike only 5,000 One-Ounce Silver Proofs for the year 2011, so oversubscription is a virtual certainty. Telephone orders only will be accepted on a strict first- come, first-served basis according to the time and date of the order. Call Today to Order Your $100 Silver Proof! 0 Has a Surface Area That Exceeds 30 Square inches. - Contains 31.10 Grams (480 Grains) of Pure Silver. 1-800-926-MINT(s4ss) Offer Code: HSP 161 Pleme mention this code when you call. 0 is individually Registered and Comes With a _, mi Numbered Certificate of Aumenficitif _ A major credit card is necessary to secure your reser- ' '5 Fun)’ Encapsulated 30 Prolect "3 M“"'°"‘H“'5h- vation, and New York Mint guarantees satisfaction with ‘A. 0 Includes a Deluxe Presentation Case. a money-back policy for a full 30 days. , _ Price and availability subject to change without notice. Past performance is not a predictor of future performance. New York Mint i New York Mint is a private distributor of worldwide government coin issues and is not affiliated with flle United 2* . - “ States government. Facts and figures were deemed accurate as of April 2011. © 2012 New York Mint ‘*3, Visit our web site at www. newyorkmint. com 5’ 'i “I? .‘«. '~. i:. ’.L“i‘*"»“JP"“(. .’{. ":: -.-‘III? -"“ (? '(. ’:-_~. ?;T—»-"V -~. -W" (.5 n F
  • 38. flEXT Spies have a new tool for encoding secret texts: bacteria. NOTE TO 007: There's a new way to send covert communiqués. Dubbed SPAM (steganography by printed arrays of microbes). this living invisible ink was created by a team of scientists at Tufts University in response to an encryption challenge from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The result: Cold War subterfuge reimagined as a safe, playful spin on germ warfare. Encoders use a dropper or toothpick to arrange tiny circular colonies of E. coli on a thin sheet of paper, choosing among seven innocuous strains genetically altered to fluoresce a different color once a chemical is added. When the secret text reaches the right recipient, it’s “opened” by pressing it onto a petri dish, where the colonies grow. Adding the chemical cipher—the Tufts scientists used ampl- cl| |in—reveals the dot matrix to the naked eye. For more security, the bacteria can be modified to lose color capability after a set time—an automatic self-destruct mode that lead researcher David Walt likens to Mission: Impossible. 32 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - MARCH 2012 CO CO CO O0 O0 O0 -9 u-I‘. CCU. ‘ A This cryptic message was created with just an eyedropper and strains of harmless. fluorescing E. coli. The dot system works in pairs; seven strains squared equals 49 possible characters. That’s enough to represent the alphabet, numbers zero to nine, and a few basic symbols. Ironically, the main drawback is what makes the system so secure: It doesn’t use technology. “Its time—consuming to work with toothpicks and vials of bacteria, " says Walt. He hopes printable messages will one day be possible, perhaps to deter pharmaceutical tampering and counterfeiting—a case of germs protecting medicine. -Johnna Rizzo
  • 39. Decoder Key " Y :7 ~‘ ' Decode This ‘ Z ‘ The secret messaging . ,_ SPACE L. _, i system developed at Tufts University uses a code of paired, colored E. coli. Your mission: Use this key to reveal what's encrypted around the word “spy” in the image of glowing bacteria colonies above. EXAMPLE: = M PHOTO‘ CARV WOLINSKY
  • 40. There are at least 140 Web pages j for each person In the world w Redirecting Flight Paths If you’ve been stuck in an airport lately. you know that flight delays are annoying. One big reason for the wait is that airplane navigation is stuck in the 1940s, with a system that relies on ground-based radio beacons. But new satellite- based navigation procedures, called RNP (Required Navi- gation Performance), define three-dimensional highways in the sky that enable pilots to fly shorter, more precise routes. They can even curve around mountains. When Canada's WestJet implemented RNP at Kelowna 40 MlLES Approaches to Kelowna are an average 40 miles shorter. Before RNP 116 arriving flights After RNP 128 flights follow fewer, more precise paths. Airport, some 170 miles east of Vancouver, a spaghetti-like tangle of flight paths (top) resolved into three optimized approaches—cutting time. fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and noise. RNP is already in use at more than 70 U. S. airports. maximizes ‘he Though funding remains a do WES gliding portion concern, the FAA plans to | ‘;’n"; ‘i': ;" expand the system by 2018 which héms to all 21 cities with the most save fuel. severe holdups. Let’s hope there's no delay. —JuIi Berwald -. -. fl——— NGM ART SOURCES: GE AVIATION AND NASA (ABOVE). WORLD WIDE WEE FOUNDATION (TOP) PHOTOS KRISTOFFER TRIPPLAAR Kelowna International Airport 20 MILES RNP (orange)
  • 41. impp and ‘um: '£j1_arn almost every slay. .. lies}: iii: -: deal; coming. " — C. Fitoul 5.urr. il‘/1.1.2/.1, CA Your Luxury Passw er a p _ _p (A by . For the next flags, we want to give you this $279 cultured pearl nee e. ..FREE ! fter years of wondering how the idle rich got even icher, we cracked the millionaire’s code. The secret is simple: Don't spend a penny if you don’t have to. Appar- ently, wealth has less to do with family history, fancy education and investment strategy than we thought. It has everything to do with "FREE. " You may be shocked to hear that we're giving away luxury. For the next 90 days, this stunning Aria Cultured Pearl Necklace (previously offered for $279) is FREE. The over-privileged get these kind of deals every day. Now it's your turn. We leveled the luxury playing field. Once you're loaded, you simply stop paying for stuff. Upgrades become automatic. And everything from cocktails to courtside seats arrive ”compliments of the house. ” That's what makes the good life so great. Why do wealthy CEOS and celebrities get showered with giveaways? Because people want to impress them. Not us. We'd rather impress YOU. Your star treatment begins now. Only Stauer can put you in the spotlight. You've heard of the luxury gifts ' . handed out on the red carpet? Well, Dram‘-{tic we've taken those ”goodie bags" and { 28" made them YOURS. Call today and Length! help yourself to the 28" Aria Cultured Pearl Necklace. .. absolutely FREE (you pay only the basic shipping and han- dling of $24.95). Why on Earth would we do this? Read on. .. lt’s okay to be skeptical. I know it sounds too good to be true. But the truth is that our success doesn't depend on selling you one neck- lace. Our goal is to build a relation- ship. Shop around. Browse the web. You can easily pay hundreds (even thousands) more for a similar strand of cultured pearls. E 2. me’ what are cultured pearls? In 1893. aJapanese entrepreneur pioneered a process to lumpslarf the formation of pearls. By implanting a nucleus inside the oyster, he could stimulate the natu- ral crealion of a pearl. Each pearl on your necklace was harvested. polished and strung by hand, But I promise you won't find any other jeweler in the country handing out pearl necklaces for nothing. This is beyond BIG. A timeless classic, always in style. Fashions come and go, but the simple elegance of a pearl necklace is forever. This continuous, 28" strand features extra large 7-8mm white cultured pearls. The 28" extra long length lets you slip it on and off with ease. Each Aria Necklace is hand-strung and hand-knotted to keep every precious pearl in place. No two pearls are exactly alike, so every necklace is unique. Please act quickly. You can understand that this exclusive FREE offer can't last forever. We are only able to make a limited number of necklaces available. To ensure that you are one of the fortunate callers to receive the Aria Cultured Pearl Necklace — for nothing more than $24.95 in shipping and handling — please call the number below within 90 days. This offer is strictly limited to one FREE necklace per shipping address. Offer‘ Limited to First 2500 Respondents 28"Ar1'a Cultured Peari Necklace -27? Your Cost- FREE — pay only $24.95 shipping 8: processing. For fastest service, call toll-free 24 hours a day 1—800—806— 1 525 Promotional Code FPNl98—03 Please mention this code when you call. , _, _ Stauer has a Better Business ' « Bureau Rating of A+ ® 14101 Southcross Drive W. , Dept. FPN198-03 WWW. sta U e I’. C 0 m Burnsville, Minnesota 55337
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  • 43. .. .""5rar. A food sentinel overt ‘ capital since 1884. its s 1 lng after last August's mag 5.8 earthquake and Hurrl ’: '- lrene—but closed to visitors. Stephen Lorenzetti of the National Park Service sayst stone obelisk has weathered ' , worse: a 5.9 quake In 1897. But no records of damage exist. This time? Interior chipping, exterior debris- mostly waterproofing mortar from a 1999 renovation—rain puddles in stairwells, and sluggish elevators. If a winter sealant works and repairs go well, the District's tallest building could reopen this year. For now. one high-perching hawk is the only guest in sight. —Jeremy Berlin The Washington Monument Is the world's tallest freestanding stone structure. —555n Rappelling on the pyramidion of the Washington Monument. engineers inspect the exterior after last year’s earthquake and hurricane. PHOTO’ WIN MCNAMEE. GETIV IMAGES. NGM ART
  • 44. IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF They were unlikely leaders. As the Bible tells it, most knew more about mending nets than winning converts when Iesus said he would make them “fishers of men. ” Yet 2,000 years later, all over the world, the apostles are still drawing people in. BY ANDREW TODH UNTER PHOTOGRAPHS BY LYNN JOHNSON Franciscan priest Fergus Clarke gazes at the Tomb of Christ in ]erusalem’5 Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The tomb’s emptiness echoes the Apostles’ message: Jesus rose from the dead.
  • 45. INDIA “REACH YOUR HAND HERE, AND PUT IT INTO MY SIDE. DO NOT BE UNBELIEVING, BUT BELIEVING. " IESUS. TO THOMAS (IOHN 20:27) India’s 27 million Christians credit the Apostle Thomas with bringing Iesus’ message there-—and dying for it. Adhering to a faith that challenges the Hindu caste system can still be risky: In 2008 extreme nationalists killed at least 60 Christians and displaced some 60,000 in Odisha state. Worshippers there still gather, but less openly, in a pastor’; home (right). 40
  • 46. SPAIN “THE PATH SYMBOLIZES OUR LIFE, WITH ITS TROUBLES AND SACRIFICES, BUT ALSO AMA’/ .ES YOU WITH ITS IOYS. ” GIOVANNI DICOSOLA, MODERN-DAY PILGRIM Wending across northern Spain, the Way of St. Iames has brought pilgrims to Iames the Greateris presumed tomb in Santiago de Compostela since medieval times. About 200,000 made the trek last year. Some collect stamps for church-issued “passports” as a record of how far they’ve walked. For others, progress is marked by spiritual transformation. 42
  • 47. 44 ISRAEL “BEHOLD. I SEND YOU OUT AS SHEEP IN THE MIDST OF WOLVES. ” II-ZSUS. To THE APOSTLI-ZS (MATTHEW 10:16) The Apostles suflered, often grue- somely, for spreading their radical views. Iames the Greater was beheaded at the behest of King Herod Agrippa I. Iames the Lesser was likely clubbed to death. They are remem- bered in the Armenian Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem, where a small shrine marks the purported burial place of James the Greater’s head.
  • 48. .. u1vJ.1.-L1 . .|I _ 1) III . .e. ..‘L. .n. .. .1.. . / : .! I~ v V? V . .., ya u r v . . 7 . . v it/ M / an; yrs . . K. /. .. .. 4 . . , . . . I . nu - . . , . . . . - . , . ... :§$§ . . . . v. I. .Il. .s~~». Wv. ‘. . . . . ~ . V. .huL. ._1sLlN. » . K . . . I . .. u as: . . .. . . Ir . .. . . . .H. cM.1., .w. u4u. .. ... ué. r.r. v.u. fiP1.4u «c ‘. .. ~49 . 1.. . 11.x . tr £««4.h). ... ..I. .c.5 . I. .. 1 . E . . I1 Kc . !. .l! !c. w.I! *§ah. ~1P‘M~ . 4 . . . ... ... .,hy . .. . x. . . . flull I rllla . .Ia If I. i . t«{, !!I1‘v. v w - v V ‘ . 4. if . u I 1" . I. . 1!. .. . ) . . _‘ p KI. . _ Se & A- , . ’ J. . .1 I . «. ... a I pt , u x u t‘
  • 49. Y’ The scar an 19-year-old Anil Kuldeep’s thigh recalls the eight-hour beating he endured for refusing to renounce his Christian faith when Hindu extremists attacked his village in 2008. Now at a makeshift camp in Odisha, he wants to return to school but can’t afiord the tuition.
  • 50. n the town of Parur, India, in the southern state of Kerala, the polished stone floor of the old church of Kottakkavu gleams so brightly that it mirrors the crimson, pine green, and gold-upon-gold altarpiece like a reflecting pool. Around the altarpiece, painted clouds hover in a blue sky. Small statues stand in niches back- lit with brilliant aqua. On a rug near the church wall a woman in a blue sari with a purple veil covering her hair kneels motionless, elbows at her sides, hands upraised. In a larger, newer church adjacent, a shard of pale bone no bigger than a thumbnail lies in a golden reliquary. A label in English identifies the relic as belong- ing to St. Thomas. On this site, tradition says, Thomas founded the first Christian church in India, in A. D. 52. In Parur and elsewhere in Kerala exotic ani- mals and vines and mythic figures are woven into church facades and interiors: Elephants, boars, peacocks, frogs, and lions that resemble dragons—or perhaps they are dragons that resemble lions—demonstrate the rich and de- cidedly non-Western flavor of these Christian places. Brightly painted icons are everywhere, of Thomas and the Virgin Mary and Iesus and St. George. Even Hindus pray to St. George, the dragon slayer, believing he may offer their children protection from cobras. At Diamper Church in Thripunithura a painted white statue of the pieta—the Virgin Mary holding the dead Iesus—is backed by a pink metal sun radiating rectangular blades of light. Kerala’s Thomas Christians—like Chris- tians elsewhere in Asia and in Africa and Latin America—have made the faith uniquely their own, incorporating traditional art, architecture, and natural symbolism. And so a statue depict- ing Mary flanked by two elephants shading her head with a bower seems at home among the palms of southern India. THOMAS, on DOUBTING THOMAS as he is com- monly known, was one of the Twelve Apostles, disciples sent out after Christ’s Crucifixion to spread the newborn faith. He was joined by Peter, Andrew, Iames the Greater, Iames the Lesser, Iohn, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thaddaeus, Simon—and Matthias, who re- placed the former disciple and alleged traitor, Judas Iscariot. In time the terms “apostle” and “apostolic” (derived from the Greek apostolos, or messenger) were applied to others who spread the word. In the case of Paul, he claimed the title of apostle for himself, believing he had seen the Lord and received a spiritual commission from him. Mary Magdalene is known as the apostle to the Apostles for her role of announcing the res- urrection to them. Although only two of the four Evangelists—Matthew and ]ohn—were among the original Apostles, Mark and Luke are consid- ered apostolic because of the importance of their work in writing the New Testament Gospels. In the first years after the Crucifixion, Chris- tianity was only the seed of a new religion, lacking a developed liturgy, a method of worship, and a name—the earliest followers called it simply “the way. ” It was not even a formal sect of ]uda- ism. Peter was the movements first champion; in the Acts of the Apostles we hear of his mass conversions and miraclemaking—healing the lame, raising the dead—and in an un—Christian flourish, calling down a supernatural death upon FOOTSTEPS OF THE APOSTLES 47
  • 51. one couple who held back a portion of their donation to the community. In its earliest days the movement was too insignificant to attract wide-scale persecution, and Christians, as they came to be called, had more friction with neighboring Jewish sects than with the Roman Empire. The faith’s first martyr, according to the Bible, was St. Stephen, a young Christian leader who enraged a Jewish commu- nity by suggesting that Christ would return and destroy the Temple of Jerusalem. After he was tried for blasphemy, around the year 35, his ac- cusers dragged him out of the city and stoned him to death while he prayed for them. The young Saul—who would soon become Paul in his celebrated conversion on the road to Damas- cus—observed Stephen’s execution, minding the cloaks of those who stoned him. In the year 44 King Herod Agrippa I impris- oned and beheaded James the Greater, the first of the Apostles to die. In 64, when a great fire in Rome destroyed 10 of the city's 14 quarters, Em- peror Nero, accused by detractors of setting the fire himself, pinned the catastrophe on the grow- ing Christian movement and committed scores of believers to death in his private arena. The Roman historian Tacitus wrote: “An immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against man- kind. .. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired. ” In the year 1 10 Ignatius, the bishop of Antioch, was arrested by the Romans under Trajan, shipped to Rome, and condemned to death ad bestias—by beasts—at the public games. Bloody episodes like this would recur sporadi- cally for the next two centuries. Tradition holds that 11 of the Twelve Apostles were martyred. Peter, Andrew, and Philip were crucified; James the Greater and Thaddaeus fell to the sword; James the Lesser was beaten Andrew Todhunter is at work on a book about St. Mark and early Venice. Frequent contributor Lynn Johnson traveled to six countries for this story. 48 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 MARCH 2012 to death while praying for his attackers; Bar- tholomew was flayed alive and then crucified; Thomas and Matthew were speared; Matthias was stoned to death; and Simon was either cru- cified or sawed in half. John—the last survivor of the Twelve—likely died peaceably, possibly in Ephesus, around the year 100. IN THE EARLY DAYS, Columba Stewart, a Bene- dictine monk and historian at Saint Johns Abbey in Minnesota, told me, “the organizational struc- ture, the great institution of the church—signified for Roman Catholics today by the Vatican and its complex hierarchy—simply wasn’t there. There was an apostolic band of followers. There were missionary efforts in major centers, first in Jeru- salem, then Antioch, then Rome, but certainly no sense of a headquarters. Instead you had this tiny, vulnerable, poor, often persecuted group of people who were on fire with something. ” The Apostles were the movement’s cutting edge, spreading the message across the vast trade network of the ancient world and leaving small Christian communities in their paths. “To study the lives of the Apostles, ” Stewart said, “is a bit like what we’ve been doing with the Hubble telescope—getting as close as we can to seeing these earliest galaxies. This was the big bang moment for Christianity, with the Apostles blasting out of Jerusalem and scattering across the known world. ” Thomas the Apostle went east, through what is now Syria and Iran and, historians believe, on down to southern India. He traveled farther than even the indefatigable Paul, whose journeys encompassed much of the Mediterranean. Of all the Apostles, Thomas represents most pro- foundly the missionary zeal associated with the rise of Christianity—the drive to travel to the ends of the known world to preach a new creed. Mark the Evangelist too spread the word, bringing Christs message to Egypt and founding the Coptic faith. But for some Catholics, Mark represents most emphatically the saint as political symbol, powerfully linked with the identity of Venice. Although a figure from the ancient past, he retains a stronger grip on the consciousness
  • 52. Each Friday, Roman Catholics remember Christ’s final hours with a procession between the stations of the cross along the Via Dolorosa (“way of grief ”) in Jerusalemis Old City. The route is noisy and bustling these days, so Franciscan friar René Peter Walke carries a loudspeaker.
  • 53. SPREADING THE GOSPEL The Bible says Jesus named a dozen of his most devoted disciples Apostles, or messen- gers, choosinga number that paid homage to the 12 tribes of Israel. The 12 Jews preached their new faith across thousands of miles in the first century A. D., changing history. Several early converts- including Matthias, Mary Magdalene, Mark, and Luke—also became apostles. A vision transformed Saul, a persecutor of the early Christians, into Paul (left). His missionary journeys helped spread Christianity through- out the Mediterranean. PETER Jesus gave some disciples a second name; Simon the fisherman was also Peter. the “rock. " He was the first to invite non—Jews to join the early church. ANDREW Persuaded by John the Baptist, Andrew and his brother Peter became Jesus’ first followers. Andrew later preached in Greece and perhaps Ukraine. JAMES THE GREATER He was a fisherman with his brother, John, and was beheaded in Jerusalem. Some believe that he preached in Spain and was buried there. JOHN John and his brother, James, ‘sons of Zebedae, " were in Jesus‘ inner circle. The fourth Gospel. three epistles. and the Book of Revelation are attributed to John. PHILIP Like nearly all of the Apostles. Philip hailed from Galilee, the region in northern Israel where Jesus’ ministry was centered. He may have been martyred in Hierapolis. BA RTH OLOM EW small-town origin: “Can Some believe he is Nathanael, who questioned the Messiah’s anything good come out of Nazareth? " He may have gone to Turkey, India, or Armenia. THOMAS Though doubting Thomas needed to touch Jesus’ wounds to be convinced of the resurrection, he became a fervent missionary who is said to have proselytized in India. MATTHEW Jesus shocked Jewish society by dining with Levi, whose job as a tax collector had made him an outcast. As an Apostle. Levi was called Matthew and wrote the first Gospel.
  • 54. .CoIogne Lisieux‘ _ __ ‘ H Paris ' I ’ 5 ti d , . . c2'. ‘n, .?§Z'ZeI. ° _ E * ‘ it‘ ‘ O V . OD‘SllA U ‘L ’ oA""a E Milan. Venioce WERALA ’ , ‘Chennai * _ Alx-en-Provence 053"“ Pamri‘ (Madras) ‘ V N Madrid Koch“, V, Saint: -Baum: Assisi * I‘ J ' " V "l ‘ Corsica ° ‘ _ _ Tangier . + Rome 7 (Tmgis). Sardinia Tl‘ 7“ ‘ ‘ ‘"7 l I A Alexandria Troas rs ‘ l u ThessalonikJAJ§‘ ‘ ‘Istanbul Bejala‘ " " - _ T 0 L I’ A ‘ A S ’ A Carthage - Sicily GREECE ’ 3” A N Kenya A F R I C A ii I " Hie olis ' flconlum, Sanlrurfa -— t -tarsus (Edessa) ‘ 5 _ . Hatay . . Ancient site (Amgchj EXTENT OF C D CHRISTIANITY Shahlut - maicus , (cyrene) 4 Bethsaida By end of first century AD. Aleflndm Jerusalegn *, N“13"“-‘h By end of second century AD. ‘ ' 91 Garden of Gethsemane PAUL'S MISSIONS ~ , ‘ '. 0 First (AD. 46 to 43) ~ 0 Second (AD. 49 to 52) 0 Third (A054 to 53) 0 Fourth, Joumey to Rome , I , ' 1 ‘ , , (AD. 59 to 60) I I VIRGINIA W MASON, NGM STAFF SOURCE‘ BARRY J BETZEL TRINITY EVANGELICAL DIVINIIY SCHOOL JAMES TI-IE LESSER The Bible reveals little about this James—only that he is a ‘son of Alphaeus. " Most THADDAEUS Several stories connect Thaddaeus, known also as Lebbaeus or Jude, to Persia SIMON The Bible calls him Simon the Zealot, perhaps a reference to his political affiliation. Later JUDAS ISCARIOT Famous for betrayal, Judas was paid 30 pieces of silver for leading Roman soldiers to scholars think a different According to Eastern tradi- accounts depict him as a Jesus in the Garden of Geth- James wrote the biblical tion, he converted the city of missionary to Persia. where semane. Judas later repented epistle of that name. Edessa after healing its king. he was martyred. and hanged himself. .. . , _ F , .~»: "£-'i‘, 'i/ l 5 ‘r 1- ' (3. 7-(9 ‘ ‘ , . I V ‘V, . 1‘ .4~—. .L _ MATT]-HAS MARY MAGDALENE MARK LUKE To replace Judas Iscariot. Mary. from Magdala. followed Also called John. he was A gentile physician from the Apostles chose Matthias, Jesus after he cured her of mentored by Peter—his likely Antioch who joined Paul's who was a disciple during “seven demons. " She stayed source for writing the second missions, Luke chronicled the Jesus’ ministry. Postbiblical near him during the Crucifix- Gospel—and traveled with development of the early lore says he preached in the ion and was the first to see Paul to Antioch. Mark founded church in the third Gospel “land of the cannibals. ” him after his resurrection. the Church of Alexandria and the Acts of the Apostles. CFIEDITS ON PAGE 53
  • 55. of modern-day Venetians than Washington or Lincoln holds on most Americans. If Thomas is the iconic missionary and Mark a political cornerstone, Mary Magdalene epito- mizes the mystical saint, closely associated with grace and divine intercession. Other saints, in- cluding Thérése of Lisieux and Teresa of Avila, play a similar role among Catholics, but none has exerted a stronger pull on the imagination, or created more controversy, than Mary Magda- lene. Once maligned as a reformed courtesan, venerated today by millions worldwide, she was a significant presence in Christ’s inner circle. Although one tradition holds that she died in Ephesus, others maintain that she traveled from the Middle East to southern France. But establishing with scientific certainty that Mary Magdalene came to the hills of Provence, or that Thomas died in India, is likely to remain outside our grasp. Scientific analysis of relics is invari- ably inadequate, often confirming only that the bones are of the right gender and period. Ad- vances in testing and archaeology, together with the discovery of yet unknown manuscripts, will continue to refine our historical knowledge of the saints. But much will remain inconclusive. How best, then, to understand these individuals if the reach of science is limited? As with most of the earliest Christians, we must rely largely on legend and historical accounts, acknowledging the power these mythic figures still exert today, some 2,000 years after their deaths. THE GREAT MISSIONARY any historians believe that Thomas I / | landed on the palm—lined coast of Kerala at a site now called Cranga— nore. He is reported to have established seven churches in Kerala and to have been martyred 20 years later on the other side of the country, in Mylapore, now a neighborhood in Chennai. At Palayur Church in Guruvayur, Thomas is said to have raised the first cross in India and performed one of his earliest miracles: When he encountered a group of Brahmans throwing water into the air as part of a ritual, he asked why 52 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - MARCH 2012 the water fell back to Earth if it was pleasing to their deity. My God, Thomas said, would accept such an offering. He then flung a great spray into the air, and the droplets hung there in the form of glistening white blossoms. Most onlookers converted on the spot; the rest fled. My guides in Kerala were Columba Stewart and Ignatius Payyappilly, a priest from Kochi in Kerala whose connection to Thomas is per- sonal. He and his mother nearly died during his birth, but his grandmother and mother, the lat- ter slipping in and out of consciousness, prayed fervently to St. Thomas. “And we were spared, ” Payyappilly told me. Stewart is the executive director of his abbey’s Hill Museum 8: Manuscript Library, which has been preserving religious manuscripts around the world since 1965. Payyappilly and his small staff spearhead the effort in Kerala, digitizing and preserving thousands of inscribed palm leaves and other manuscripts. Theirs is a race against a humid climate, which destroys manu- scripts if they're not properly cared for. Since 2006 the team has accumulated 12 terabytes of digitized data—one million images of manu- scripts. The oldest document in their possession, a collection of ecclesiastical laws, dates to 1291. These extraordinary documents are important to Thomas Christians, linking them to the founder of their faith. In India, Thomas is revered as a bold mis- sionary. In the West, he represents the believer who wrestles with uncertainty. “The classic por- trayal of Thomas, ” Stewart said, “is the doubting Thomas. That’s a little inaccurate, because it’s not so much that he doubted the resurrection but that he needed a personal encounter with Jesus to make the resurrection real. 50 you might think of him as the pragmatic Thomas or the forensic Thomas. The guy who’s so experiential that he said, ‘I need to put my finger in the wounds in his hands and in his side. ’ And this experience gave him the fuel he needed to do amazing things. ” Thomas’s moment of incredulity has proved a two-edged sword in the history of Christian thought. On the one hand, some theologians are quick to point out that his doubt is only natural,
  • 56. echoing the uncertainty, if not the deep skepti- cism, felt by millions in regard to metaphysical matters. How can we know? That Thomas chal- lenged the risen Christ, probed the wounds, and then believed, some say, lends deeper sig- nificance to his subsequent faith. On the other hand, his crisis of doubt, shared by none of the other Apostles, is seen by many as a spiritual failure, as a need to know something literally that one simply cannot know. In the Gospel of John, 20:29, Christ himself chastises Thomas, saying, “Thomas, because you have seen me, you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed. ” His skepticism notwithstanding, St. Thomas still stands as the direct link between his converts in Kerala and the founding Christian story on the shores of the Mediterranean, clear across the known world of the first century. Unlike later Christian groups in Asia who were converted by missionaries, Thomas Christians believe their church was founded by one of Christ’s closest followers, and this is central to their spiritual identity. “They are an apostolic church, ” Stewart said, “and that’s the ultimate seal of approval for a Christian group. ” THE SOUL OF VENICE ark the Evangelist is indelibly associ- I / | ated with pride in place: No historical figure is more clearly linked with Ven- ice than her patron saint. His square is the heart of Venice, his basilica the center of its ancient faith. Mark’s symbol—the winged lion, its paw upon the open Gospel—is as ubiquitous in Ven- ice as the gondola. For the Venetians of the ninth century and after, “Viva San Marco! ” was the battle cry, and legends of St. Mark are entwined with the earliest roots of the Venetian Republic. And yet, tradition tells us, Mark died a martyr in Alexandria, Egypt. How did he gain such im- portance in a Western city—state? In the delicate balance of political one- upmanship in ninth-century Italy, a young power bound for greatness required theistic no less than military legitimacy. As its patron, the city needed not the third-string dragon slayer it had, St. Theodore, but a titan among saints. And Yhomasflunga great spray into the air, and the droplets hung there in the form of glistening white blossoms. so was born a masterstroke of shadow politics unrivaled in medieval history: In 828, presum- ably on the orders of the doge, two Venetian mer- chants named Bono da Malamocco and Rustico da Torcello stole the remains of St. Mark from his tomb in Alexandria or, some say, conned it from the possession of local priests. Returning to their ship, the conspirators put the saints remains in a basket, covering them with pork to discourage official entanglements. When Muslim port au- thorities stopped the thieves and peered into the basket, they recoiled in disgust, crying “Kanzir! Kanzir! ”— “pig” in Arabic—and commanded the Venetians to hurry along. On the voyage home, legend tells us, a tempest blew up off the Greek coast. St. Mark, his remains lashed to the mast, quieted the storm, saving the vessel. However embroidered by legend, this brazen theft of the Evangelist’s relics gave the fledgling republic a spiritual cachet matched in all of Latin Chris- tendom only by that of St. Peter’s Rome. This extraordinary coup set in motion brilliant suc- cesses that brought forth a Venetian superpower. From the earliest days of the Republic, “St. Mark was the flag of Venice, ” Gherardo Ortalli, PAGE 50. CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: BY EL GRECO, ERICH IESSING, ART RESOURCE. NV; BY EL GRECO, SCALA/ ART RESOURCE. NY, BY GAROFALO, FINSIEIJALINARIIART RESOURCE. NV: BY VALENTIN DE BOULOGNE, REUNION DES MUSEES NATIONAUXJART RESOURCE, NV: BY POMFEO GIROLAMO BATONI. ILIFFE COLLECTION/ NATIONAL TRUST PHOTOGRAPHIC IJBRARVI JOHN HAMMONDIBRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY. EV REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. FRANCIS G MAYER, CORBIS‘, BY EL GRECO, UNIVERSAL IMAGES GROUPIART RESOURCE, NV. EV GUERCINO, HANS- FETER KLLIT. BPK. BERLINIGEMALDEGALERIE A| .TE MEISTER. STAATLICHE KUNSTSAMMLUNGEN DRESDEN/ ART RESOURCE. NY PAGE 5| CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT. BY GEORGES DE LA TOUR. PHILIPP BERNARD. REUNION DES MUSEES NATIONAUXIART RESOURCE. NY; BY ANTHONY VAN DYCK. FRANCIS G. MAVER. CORBIS: EV EL GRECO. ERICH IESSING. ART RESOURCE, NY: BV PHILIPPE DE CHAMPAIGNE, ERICH LESSING. ART RESOURCE. NV, EV ANTHONV VAN DYCK. ELKE ESTEL AND HANSPETEFI KLUT, EPK, BERLINISTAATLIOHE KUNSTSAMMLUNGEN DRESDENI ART RESOURCE. NV, BV DOMENICHINO, ARTE A IMMAGINI SRLIOORBIS; EV VALENTIN DE BOULOGNE, DANIEL ARNAUDET AND JEAN SCHORMANS. REUNION DES MUSEES NATIONAUX/ ART RESOURCE, NY: BV EDWARD MITCHELL BANNISTER. SMITHSONIAN AMERICAN ART MUSEUM, WASHINGTON. D C / ART RESOURCE, NY FOOTSTEPS OF THE APOSTLES 53
  • 57. A medieval legend says that Mary Magdalene spent her last years in France, praying in the cave of Sainte-Baume. Nuns at the nearby Dominican convent, who view Mary as a role model, bless their grounds with a procession that features a piece of bone said to be hers.
  • 58. Believing this to be the skull of Mary Magdalene when it was found in the 12005, French Catholics encased it in gold, evokinga luminous specter of the woman the Bible describes as one of Christ’: most loyal followers. It is displayed at a basilica in St. -Maximin-la-Ste. -Baume.
  • 59. A -. /I 3-‘. 3,3"
  • 60. FRANCE “WOMAN, WHY ARE YOU WEEPING? WHOM ARE YOU SEEKING? " IESUS. TO MARY MAGDALI-INF. AT HIS EMPTY TOMB IIOHN 20:15) A trip to Provence to bask in the sight of Mary Magdalene? skull was “a dream vacation” for Parvin Tavakol Olofsson. Born a Muslim in Iran, she learned about Christianity after moving to Sweden. She says she feels a deep connection to this female disciple, whose story is often neglected: “In my home country all women are invisible in the shadow of power. ” 57
  • 61. a medievalist at the University of Venice and a leading expert on St. Mark, told me. “I don’t think there are other examples of saints who were so important politically. Wherever Venice left her imprint, you find Mark’s Iion—in Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Alexandria. On the old Venetian gold coin, the ducato, St. Mark offers the flag of Venice to the doge. ” And what of the saints relics? Are the remains entombed in the sarcophagus in St. Mark’s Ba- silica in Venice really his? What of the skull in Alexandria that the Coptic Church claims be- longs to the saint? What of the relic, possibly a bone fragment, said to be Mark’s, given to Egypt by the Vatican in 1968, in effect as an apology for the ninth-century theft? Are any of these relics, including that tiny piece of bone in the church in Kerala attributed to Thomas, genuine? “It’s not important if they have the real bones or not, ” Ortalli said, “because in the Middle Ages they had a very different mentality. You could have 50 fingers of a saint. It wasn’t a problem. ” In 828 two Venetian merchants stole the remains of St. Mark from his tomb in Alexandria, Egypt. For scientists, nonbelievers, many believers, and perhaps for the forensic Thomas, 50 fingers of the same saint is a problem. Even the Catholic Church calls in pathologists to examine, date, and preserve relics in the church’s possession. Based in Genoa, Ezio Fulcheri is a devout Cath- olic and trained pathologist who has worked on church relics for decades. He has studied and preserved the remains of many saints, including John of the Cross and Clare of Assisi, a friend of St. Francis’s. “Whenever we can find a relic that is clearly not authentic, ” Fulcheri said, “we acknowledge that. The church does not want false relics to be venerated. ” But what of those relics, like St. Mark’s, that have yet to be tested? Scholars, scientists, and even clerics within the Catholic Church have called, without success, 58 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - MARCH 2012 for scientific testing of the remains in Mark’s sarcophagus. Clearly the church has little to gain, and quite a bit to lose, by testing bones of such critical importance. In the case of St. Mark, perhaps it’s safer not to know—at least for now. Not all scientists are eager to press too hard on holy relics. Giorgio Filippi, an archaeologist em- ployed by the Vatican, told me he had opposed the recent analysis and dating of Paul’s relics in Rome, announced by the pope in 2009. “Curios- ity does not justify the research. If the sarcopha- gus was empty or if you found two men or a woman, what would you hypothesize? Why do you want to open St. Paul’s tomb? I didn’t want to be present in this operation. ” The subsequent investigation, through a finger—size hole drilled in the sarcophagus, produced a bone fragment the size of a lentil, grains of red incense, a piece of purple linen with gold sequins, and threads of blue fabric. Independent laboratory analysis, the church claimed, revealed that they dated to the first or second century. Not conclusive, but better news for the faithful than if they had hailed from the fourth century. The first—century date would mean the bones could be those of St. Paul. Until science advances to the point that testing can reveal fine details such as that the person was short, bald, and from Tarsus—Paul’s presumed birthplace on the Turkish coast—we’re not likely to get much closer to the truth. Mark’s bones aside, I asked Ortalli if the pious of Venice pray to their patron saint. “It’s better to pray to the Virgin or to Christ, " he said. “St. Mark is more complicated. Apart from the basilica, it is difficult to find a place to light a candle to St. Mark. He is many things, but you don’t go to St. Mark with a candle. ” In Catholic and Orthodox churches believers often light candles to accompany prayers to the saints, mounting them before favored icons or statues. “St. Mark is part of [a Venetians] identity, ” Ortalli continued. “It’s something in your bones—you have two feet, and you have St. Mark. When older people are drunk on the street late at night, they often sing, ‘Viva Venezia, viva San Marco, viva le glorie del nostro leon. ’ Venice was constructed with a soul in which St. Mark is the center. ”

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